"abstract" meaning in English

See abstract in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈæbˌstɹækt/ [UK], /ˌæbˈstɹækt/ [US], /əbˈstɹækt/ [US], /ˈæbˌstɹækt/ [US] Forms: more abstract [comparative], abstracter [comparative], most abstract [superlative], abstractest [superlative]
Etymology: From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542. Etymology templates: {{inh|en|enm|abstract}} Middle English abstract, {{der|en|la|abstractus}} Latin abstractus, {{m|la|abstrahō||draw away}} abstrahō (“draw away”), {{m|la|abs-||away}} abs- (“away”), {{m|la|trahō||to pull, draw}} trahō (“to pull, draw”) Head templates: {{en-adj|more|er}} abstract (comparative more abstract or abstracter, superlative most abstract or abstractest)
  1. (obsolete) Derived; extracted. Tags: obsolete Translations (extracted): onttrokken (Dutch), uutettu (Finnish), extraído (Spanish), abstracto (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-nUDT1d69 Categories (other): English heteronyms Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Disambiguation of 'extracted': 45 7 4 5 5 3 1 3 5 6 5 6 3 1
  2. (now rare) Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate. Tags: archaic Translations (separate): afgezonderd (Dutch), gescheiden (Dutch), erillinen (Finnish), abstrait (French), teorico (Italian), abstrakt (Norwegian Bokmål), separat (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrato (Portuguese), абстра́ктный (abstráktnyj) (Russian), abstracto (Spanish), abstrakt (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-fyDqdCBe Categories (other): English heteronyms Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Disambiguation of 'separate': 3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2
  3. Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.
    Insufficiently factual.
    Synonyms: conceptual, ideal, imaginary, incorporeal, intangible, nonempirical, theoretical, formal
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-UKZ3dnWj
  4. Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.
    Apart from practice or reality; vague; theoretical; impersonal; not applied.
    Synonyms: conceptual, ideal, imaginary, incorporeal, intangible, nonempirical, theoretical, conceptual, theoretical Translations (apart from practice or reality; not concrete): مَعْنَوِيّ (maʕnawiyy) (Arabic), تَجْرِيدِيّ (tajrīdiyy) (Arabic), مُجَرَّد (mujarrad) (Arabic), վերացական (veracʿakan) (Armenian), աբստրակտ (abstrakt) (Armenian), astrautu (Asturian), mücərrəd (Azerbaijani), abstraktu (Basque), абстра́ктны (abstráktny) (Belarusian), абстрактен (abstrakten) (Bulgarian), отвлечен (otvlečen) (Bulgarian), abstracte (Catalan), 抽象 (zh-min-nan) [Hokkien] (Chinese), 抽象 (cau¹ zoeng⁶) (Chinese Cantonese), 抽象 (chōuxiàng) (Chinese Mandarin), abstract (Dutch), theoretisch (Dutch), abstrakta (Esperanto), abstraktne (Estonian), teoreettinen (Finnish), abstrakti (Finnish), abstrait (French), abstracto (Galician), abstrakt (German), θεωρητικός (theoritikós) [masculine] (Greek), અમૂર્ત (amūrt) (Gujarati), भाववाचक (bhāvvācak) (Hindi), absztrakt (Hungarian), astratto (Italian), teorico (Italian), 抽象的 (chūshōteki) (alt: ちゅうしょうてき) (Japanese), дерексіз (dereksız) (Kazakh), абстрактылы (abstraktyly) (Kazakh), абстрактілі (abstraktılı) (Kazakh), 추상적 (chusangjeok) (Korean), abstrakts (Latvian), abstrak (Malay), niskala (Malay), അമൂർത്ത (amūṟtta) (Malayalam), tūrehurehu (Maori), abstrákta (Northern Sami), abstrakt (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakcyjny (Polish), abstrato (Portuguese), abstract (Romanian), абстра́ктный (abstráktnyj) (Russian), отвлечённый (otvlečónnyj) (Russian), विषयविविक्त (viṣayavivikta) (Sanskrit), abstrakten (Slovene), abstracto (Spanish), abstrakt (Swedish), teoretisk (Swedish), basal (Tagalog), นาม (naam) (Thai), soyut (Turkish), abstre (Turkish), абстра́ктний (abstráktnyj) (Ukrainian), trừu tượng (Vietnamese), אַבסטראַקט (abstrakt) (Yiddish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-SKNQgFMy Categories (other): English heteronyms Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Disambiguation of 'apart from practice or reality; not concrete': 1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1
  5. Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.
    (grammar) As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person.
    Categories (topical): Grammar Synonyms: conceptual, ideal, imaginary, incorporeal, intangible, nonempirical, theoretical
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-8lkin9eH Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences
  6. Not concrete: conceptual, ideal. Synonyms: conceptual, ideal, imaginary, incorporeal, intangible, nonempirical, theoretical
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-9FWfYTHX
  7. Difficult to understand; abstruse; hard to conceptualize. Synonyms: abstruse Translations (difficult to understand): неразбираем (nerazbiraem) (Bulgarian), abstracte (Catalan), abstract (Dutch), vaag (Dutch), algemeen (Dutch), vaikeaselkoinen (Finnish), abstrakti (Finnish), abstrait (French), δυσνόητος (dysnóitos) [masculine] (Greek), astruso (Italian), grūti saprotams (Latvian), uforståelig (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakt (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakcyjny (Polish), complicado (Portuguese), difícil (Portuguese), abstracto (Spanish), complicado (Spanish), djupsinnig (Swedish), svårfattlig (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-6yDUCp4z Disambiguation of 'difficult to understand': 2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1
  8. Separately expressing a property or attribute of an object that is considered to be inherent to that object: attributive, ascriptive. Synonyms: attributive, ascriptive
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-A5PDMIxy
  9. Pertaining comprehensively to, or representing, a class or group of objects, as opposed to any specific object; considered apart from any application to a particular object: general, generic, nonspecific; representational. Synonyms: general, generalized, generic, nonspecific, representational
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-0TCa~bUH
  10. (archaic) Absent-minded. Tags: archaic Translations (absent in mind): afwezig (Dutch), verstrooid (Dutch), poissaoleva (Finnish), abstrait [masculine] (French), αφηρημένος (afiriménos) [masculine] (Greek), distrahert (Norwegian Bokmål), انتزاعی (Persian), distraído (Portuguese), desatento (Portuguese), abstrato (Portuguese), distraído (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-xA60EuSx Categories (other): English entries with language name categories using raw markup, English heteronyms Disambiguation of English entries with language name categories using raw markup: 3 3 3 3 7 2 0 2 6 10 5 4 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 5 3 1 1 3 1 1 7 2 3 3 2 0 Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Disambiguation of 'absent in mind': 4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2
  11. (art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.
    (art, often capitalized) Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20ᵗʰ century.
    Tags: capitalized, often Categories (topical): Art Translations (art: free from representational qualities): abstracte (Catalan), abstract (Dutch), abstrakta (Esperanto), abstrakti (Finnish), abstrait [masculine] (French), abstrakt (German), αφηρημένος (afiriménos) [masculine] (Greek), abstrakt (Icelandic), 抽象的 (chūshōteki) (alt: ちゅうしょうてき) (Japanese), അമൂർത്ത (amūṟtta) (Malayalam), tūrehurehu (Maori), abstrakt (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakcyjny (Polish), abstrato (Portuguese), abstrakten (Slovene), abstracto (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-I7kaDC93 Topics: art, arts Disambiguation of 'art: free from representational qualities': 3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1
  12. (art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.
    (music) Absolute.
    Categories (topical): Art, Music
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-CGJbgDor Categories (other): English heteronyms Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Topics: art, arts, entertainment, lifestyle, music
  13. (art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.
    (dance) Lacking a story.
    Categories (topical): Art, Dance
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-sMenqeTw Topics: art, arts, dance, dancing, hobbies, lifestyle, sports
  14. (object-oriented programming, of a class) Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects. Tags: of a class Categories (topical): Object-oriented programming
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-adj-G9bfoT0E
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: reify Translations (general as opposed to particular): algemeen (Dutch), yleinen (Finnish), abstrait [masculine] (French), 抽象的 (chūshōteki) (alt: ちゅうしょうてき) (Japanese), generell (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakt (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrato (Portuguese)

Noun

IPA: /ˈæbˌstɹækt/ Forms: abstracts [plural]
Etymology: From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542. Etymology templates: {{inh|en|enm|abstract}} Middle English abstract, {{der|en|la|abstractus}} Latin abstractus, {{m|la|abstrahō||draw away}} abstrahō (“draw away”), {{m|la|abs-||away}} abs- (“away”), {{m|la|trahō||to pull, draw}} trahō (“to pull, draw”) Head templates: {{en-noun}} abstract (plural abstracts)
  1. An abridgement or summary of a longer publication. Translations (an abridgement or summary): مُلَخَّص (mulaḵḵaṣ) [masculine] (Arabic), абстра́кт (abstrákt) [masculine] (Bulgarian), резюме́ (rezjumé) [neuter] (Bulgarian), авторефера́т (avtoreferát) [masculine] (Bulgarian), resum [masculine] (Catalan), extracte [masculine] (Catalan), 摘要 (zhāiyào) (Chinese Mandarin), výtah [masculine] (Czech), shrnutí [neuter] (Czech), abstrakt (Danish), resume [neuter] (Danish), samenvatting [feminine] (Dutch), korte inhoud [masculine] (Dutch), resumé [neuter] (Dutch), kokkuvõte (Estonian), tiivistelmä (Finnish), résumé [masculine] (French), resumo [masculine] (Galician), Auszug [masculine] (German), Zusammenfassung [feminine] (German), περίληψη (perílipsi) [feminine] (Greek), επιτομή (epitomí) [feminine] (Greek), σύνοψη (sýnopsi) [feminine] (Greek), सारांश (sārāñś) [masculine] (Hindi), निचोड (nicoḍ) (Hindi), ikhtisar (Indonesian), abstrak (Indonesian), achomaireacht [feminine] (Irish), coimriú [masculine] (Irish), estratto [masculine] (Italian), sunto [masculine] (Italian), compendio [masculine] (Italian), riassunto [masculine] (Italian), 概要 (gaiyō) (alt: がいよう) (Japanese), 要約 (yōyaku) (alt: ようやく) (Japanese), реферат (referat) (Kazakh), ບົດຄັດຫຍໍ້ (bot khat nyǭ) (Lao), rezumējums [masculine] (Latvian), kopsavilkums [masculine] (Latvian), whakarāpopoto (Maori), सारांश (sārāuśa) (Marathi), गोषवारा (goṣvārā) (Marathi), abstrakt [neuter] (Norwegian Bokmål), oppsummering [masculine] (Norwegian Bokmål), referat [neuter] (Norwegian Bokmål), sammendrag [neuter] (Norwegian Bokmål), utdrag [neuter] (Norwegian Bokmål), resymé [neuter] (Norwegian Bokmål), ekstrakt [neuter] (Norwegian Bokmål), streszczenie [neuter] (Polish), podsumowanie [neuter] (Polish), abstrakt (note: in the sciences only) [masculine] (Polish), resumo [masculine] (Portuguese), sumário [masculine] (Portuguese), rezumat [neuter] (Romanian), conspect [neuter] (Romanian), extras [neuter] (Romanian), конспе́кт (konspékt) [masculine] (Russian), рефера́т (referát) [masculine] (Russian), сино́псис (sinópsis) [masculine] (Russian), саже́так [Cyrillic, masculine] (Serbo-Croatian), sažétak [Roman, masculine] (Serbo-Croatian), resumen [masculine] (Spanish), extracto [masculine] (Spanish), ikisiri (Swahili), referat [neuter] (Swedish), sammandrag [neuter] (Swedish), sammanfattning [common-gender] (Swedish), utdrag [neuter] (Swedish), abstrakt [common-gender, neuter] (Swedish), บทคัดย่อ (Thai)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-AOupnAvJ Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14 Disambiguation of 'an abridgement or summary': 60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27
  2. Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.
    Concentrated essence of a product.
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-66BfzwtV Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14
  3. Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.
    (medicine) A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose.
    Categories (topical): Medicine Translations (an extract of a vegetable substance): екстра́кт (ekstrákt) [masculine] (Bulgarian), výtažek [masculine] (Czech), uittreksel [neuter] (Dutch), uute (Finnish), εκχύλισμα (ekchýlisma) [neuter] (Greek), απόσταγμα (apóstagma) [neuter] (Greek), निचोड (nicoḍ) (Hindi), 抽出 (chūshutsu) (alt: ちゅうしゅつ) (Japanese), सत्त्व (sattva) (Marathi), ekstrakt [masculine] (Norwegian Bokmål), extrato [masculine] (Portuguese), extract [neuter] (Romanian), экстра́кт (ekstrákt) [masculine] (Russian), ѐкстракт [Cyrillic] (Serbo-Croatian), èkstrakt [Roman, masculine] (Serbo-Croatian), extracto [masculine] (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-ai2vAMTf Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14 Topics: medicine, sciences Disambiguation of 'an extract of a vegetable substance': 2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6
  4. Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-eR9z6rNl Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14
  5. An abstraction; an abstract term; that which is abstract. Translations (an abstraction): абстра́кция (abstrákcija) [feminine] (Bulgarian), отвлечено понятие (otvlečeno ponjatie) [neuter] (Bulgarian), abstracció [feminine] (Catalan), abstractie [feminine] (Dutch), abstracte term [masculine] (Dutch), abstract begrip [neuter] (Dutch), käsite (Finnish), abstraktio (Finnish), abstracción [feminine] (Galician), αφαίρεση (afaíresi) [feminine] (Greek), अमूर्त (amūrt) [feminine] (Hindi), astrazione [feminine] (Italian), 抽象 (chūshō) (alt: ちゅうしょう) (Japanese), abstrakcija [feminine] (Latvian), abstrakts jēdziens [masculine] (Latvian), अमूर्त (amūrta) (Marathi), abstraksjon [masculine] (Norwegian Bokmål), انتزاع (Persian), abstrakt [inanimate, masculine] (Polish), abstrakcja [feminine] (Polish), abstração [feminine] (Portuguese), abstracție [feminine] (Romanian), абстра́кция (abstrákcija) [feminine] (Russian), апстра̀кција [Cyrillic, feminine] (Serbo-Croatian), apstràkcija [Roman, feminine] (Serbo-Croatian), abstracción [feminine] (Spanish) Translations (that which is abstract): abstract iets [neuter] (Dutch), abstract begrip [neuter] (Dutch), abstraktaĵo (Esperanto), käsite (Finnish), अमूर्त (amūrt) [feminine] (Hindi), astratto [masculine] (Italian), 抽象的 (chūshōteki) (alt: ちゅうしょうてき) (Japanese), अमूर्त (amūrta) (Marathi), abstraksjon [masculine] (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakcja [feminine] (Polish), abstração [feminine] (Portuguese), abstrakt [neuter] (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-Fpnsmxq9 Disambiguation of 'an abstraction': 1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5 Disambiguation of 'that which is abstract': 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
  6. The theoretical way of looking at things; something that exists only in idealized form.
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-3Mxf45BE Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English heteronyms Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14 Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1
  7. (art) An abstract work of art. Categories (topical): Art Translations (an abstract work of art): абстра́кция (abstrákcija) [feminine] (Bulgarian), abstract kunstwerk [neuter] (Dutch), abstrakti teos (Finnish), obra abstracta [feminine] (Galician), αφηρημένη τέχνη (afiriméni téchni) [feminine] (Greek), अमूर्त (amūrt) [feminine] (Hindi), abstrak (Indonesian), 抽象派の (chūshōhano) (alt: ちゅうしょうはの) (Japanese), toi tūrehurehu (Maori), अमूर्त (amūrta) (Marathi), abstraksjon [masculine] (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrakcja [feminine] (Polish), abstração [feminine] (Portuguese), abstracție [feminine] (Romanian), arte abstracto [masculine] (Spanish), abstrakt [neuter] (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-fTT2jhsu Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English heteronyms Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14 Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Topics: art, arts Disambiguation of 'an abstract work of art': 0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1
  8. (real estate) A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title. Categories (topical): Real estate Synonyms (statement summarizing the important points of a text): abridgment, compendium, epitome, synopsis
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-noun-dQX07il9 Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English heteronyms Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14 Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Topics: business, real-estate Disambiguation of 'statement summarizing the important points of a text': 11 11 13 11 0 17 5 31
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms: abstract of title Translations (something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else): xifra [feminine] (Catalan), essentie [feminine] (Dutch), aineellistuma (Finnish), निचोड (nicoḍ) (Hindi), abstrak (Indonesian), sari (Indonesian), sammenfatning [masculine] (Norwegian Bokmål), concentrat [neuter] (Romanian), esență [feminine] (Romanian)
Disambiguation of 'something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else': 1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1

Verb

IPA: /ˌæbˈstɹækt/, /əbˈstɹækt/ Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-abstract (noun).wav [Southern-England], LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-abstract (verb).wav [Southern-England] Forms: abstracts [present, singular, third-person], abstracting [participle, present], abstracted [participle, past], abstracted [past], no-table-tags [table-tags], abstract [infinitive]
Rhymes: -ækt Etymology: From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542. Etymology templates: {{inh|en|enm|abstract}} Middle English abstract, {{der|en|la|abstractus}} Latin abstractus, {{m|la|abstrahō||draw away}} abstrahō (“draw away”), {{m|la|abs-||away}} abs- (“away”), {{m|la|trahō||to pull, draw}} trahō (“to pull, draw”) Head templates: {{en-verb}} abstract (third-person singular simple present abstracts, present participle abstracting, simple past and past participle abstracted) Inflection templates: {{en-conj|old=1}}
  1. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To remove; to take away; withdraw.
    Tags: transitive Translations (to remove; to take away; to withdraw): изваждам (izvaždam) (Bulgarian), terugtrekken (Dutch), vetää (Finnish), entziehen (German), αφαιρώ (afairó) (Greek), αποσύρω (aposýro) (Greek), पिछे आना (piche ānā) (Hindi), मागे येणे (māge yeṇe) (Marathi), fjerne (Norwegian Bokmål), utta (Norwegian Bokmål), odciągać [imperfective] (Polish), odciągnąć [perfective] (Polish), tirar (Portuguese), retirar (Portuguese), quitar (Spanish), retirar (Spanish), extraer (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-5IxNXUFz Disambiguation of 'to remove; to take away; to withdraw': 48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0
  2. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive, euphemistic) To steal; to take away; to remove without permission.
    Tags: euphemistic, transitive Synonyms (to filch, purloin, or steal): filch, purloin, steal Translations (to steal): отмъквам (otmǎkvam) (Bulgarian), ontvreemden (Dutch), poistaa (Finnish), puhaltaa (Finnish), κλέβω (klévo) (Greek), υπεξαιρώ (ypexairó) (Greek), sottrarre (Italian), nozagt (Latvian), nočiept (Latvian), stjele (Norwegian Bokmål), tjuve (Norwegian Bokmål), rane (Norwegian Bokmål), tæsje (Norwegian Bokmål), røve (Norwegian Bokmål), naske (Norwegian Bokmål), roubar (Portuguese), knycka (Swedish), stjäla (Swedish), nalla (Swedish), sno (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-IIqpGiCn Categories (other): English euphemisms Disambiguation of 'to filch, purloin, or steal': 13 35 5 9 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 Disambiguation of 'to steal': 2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
  3. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive, obsolete) To extract by means of distillation.
    Tags: obsolete, transitive Translations (to extract by means of distillation): onttrekken (Dutch), uuttaa (Finnish), distiller (French), αποστάζω (apostázo) (Greek), destillere (Norwegian Bokmål), odciągać [imperfective] (Polish), odciągnąć [perfective] (Polish), destilar (Portuguese), destilar (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-ay~hmfPw Disambiguation of 'to extract by means of distillation': 2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0
  4. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To draw off (interest or attention).
    Tags: transitive Translations (to draw off): отвличам (otvličam) (Bulgarian), afleiden (Dutch), viedä huomio (Finnish), αφαιρούμαι (afairoúmai) (Greek), odciągać [imperfective] (Polish), odciągnąć [perfective] (Polish), abstrair (Portuguese)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-Z1en8-gc Disambiguation of 'to draw off': 5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2
  5. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (intransitive, reflexive, literally, figuratively) To withdraw oneself; to retire.
    Tags: figuratively, intransitive, literally, reflexive, transitive Translations (to withdraw oneself): zich terugtrekken (Dutch), vetäytyä (Finnish), se retirer (French), fjerne seg (Norwegian Bokmål), abstraerse (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-uNlDn1h7 Disambiguation of 'to withdraw oneself': 21 5 2 3 60 2 2 2 2 2 1
  6. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.
    To conceptualize an ideal subgroup by means of the generalization of an attribute, as follows: by apprehending an attribute inherent to one individual, then separating that attribute and contemplating it by itself, then conceiving of that attribute as a general quality, then despecifying that conceived quality with respect to several or many individuals, and by then ideating a group composed of those individuals perceived to possess said quality.
    Tags: transitive
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-MbdRkSNV Categories (other): English heteronyms Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1
  7. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.
    (intransitive, rare) To perform the process of abstraction.
    Tags: intransitive, rare, transitive Translations (to perform the process of abstraction): abstraheren (Dutch), abstrahoida (Finnish), अमूर्तिकरन करना (amūrtikran karnā) (Hindi), mengabstrakkan (Indonesian), astrarre (Italian), अमूर्तिकरण करणे (amūrtikraṇ karṇe) (Marathi), abstrahere (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrahować [imperfective] (Polish), wyabstrahować [perfective] (Polish), abstrair (Portuguese), абстраги́ровать (abstragírovatʹ) [imperfective, perfective] (Russian), abstrahera (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-bJbbOSBI Disambiguation of 'to perform the process of abstraction': 3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0
  8. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.
    (intransitive, fine arts) To create abstractions.
    Tags: intransitive, transitive Translations (to create an artistic abstraction of): abstraheren (Dutch), abstrahoida (Finnish), अमूर्त कलाकृती करना (amūrt kalākŕtī karnā) (Hindi), अमूर्त कलाकृती करणे (amūrta kalākŕtī karṇe) (Marathi), abstrahere (Norwegian Bokmål), abstrair (Portuguese)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-OYhrPrDj Categories (other): English heteronyms Disambiguation of English heteronyms: 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1 Disambiguation of 'to create an artistic abstraction of': 4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1
  9. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.
    (intransitive, computing) To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with "out".
    Tags: intransitive, transitive Categories (topical): Computing
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-3nuHQLXn Topics: computing, engineering, mathematics, natural-sciences, physical-sciences, sciences
  10. (transitive) To separate; to disengage.
    (transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.
    Tags: transitive
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-qFCyAcY4
  11. (transitive) To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize. Tags: transitive Synonyms (to abridge, epitomize, or summarize): abridge, epitomize, summarize Translations (to abridge, epitomize, or summarize): samenvatten (Dutch), tiivistää (Finnish), abstraire (French), συνοψίζω (synopsízo) (Greek), सारांश करना (sārāñś karnā) (Hindi), mengabstrakkan (Indonesian), riassumere (Italian), सारांश करणे (sārāuśa karṇe) (Marathi), oppsummere (Norwegian Bokmål), resumir (Portuguese), sumariar (Portuguese), resumir (Spanish), göra sammandrag av (Swedish), sammanfatta (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-abstract-en-verb-wPmfFzTk Disambiguation of 'to abridge, epitomize, or summarize': 4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77 Disambiguation of 'to abridge, epitomize, or summarize': 4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms (to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw): remove, separate, take away, withdraw Derived forms: abstractable, abstracted, abstracter, abstractor Related terms: abstraction, abstractive, abstractum Translations (to consider abstractly): աբստրահել (abstrahel) (Armenian), abstraheren (Dutch), abstrakti (Esperanto), tuumia (Finnish), abstrahieren (German), अमूर्तरूपसे लेना (amūrtarūpse lenā) (Hindi), mengabstrakkan (Indonesian), अमूर्तपणे घेणे (amūrtapṇe gheṇe) (Marathi), fundere (Norwegian Bokmål), spekulere (Norwegian Bokmål), filosofere (Norwegian Bokmål), انتزاعیدن (Persian), abstrair (Portuguese), abstraer (Spanish), אַבסטראַהירן (abstrahirn) (Yiddish) Translations (to separate; to disengage): отделям (otdeljam) (Bulgarian), отнемам (otnemam) (Bulgarian), afzonderen (Dutch), eristää (Finnish), erottaa (Finnish), abstraire (French), trennen (German), αποσπώ (apospó) (Greek), διαχωρίζω (diachorízo) (Greek), अलग करना (alag karnā) (Hindi), निकाल देना (nikāl denā) (Hindi), mengabstrakkan (Indonesian), rimuovere (Italian), sottrarre (Italian), estrarre (Italian), 取る (toru) (Japanese), atšķirt (Latvian), nošķirt (Latvian), वेगळे करणे (vegḷe karṇe) (Marathi), काढून टाकणे (kāḍhūn ṭākṇe) (Marathi), separere (Norwegian Bokmål), odciągać [imperfective] (Polish), odciągnąć [perfective] (Polish), abstrair (Portuguese), retirar (Portuguese), llulmiy (Quechua), abstraer (Spanish), retirar (Spanish), extraer (Spanish), abstrahera (Swedish), skilja av (Swedish), skilja ut (Swedish), ta bort (Swedish)
Disambiguation of 'to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw': 24 20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 0 Disambiguation of 'to consider abstractly': 1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0 Disambiguation of 'to separate; to disengage': 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0

Inflected forms

Alternative forms

Download JSON data for abstract meaning in English (98.7kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract of title"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nb",
            "2": "abstrakt",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Norwegian Bokmål: abstrakt",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Norwegian Bokmål: abstrakt"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "abstract"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English abstract",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "abstractus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin abstractus",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abstrahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "draw away"
      },
      "expansion": "abstrahō (“draw away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abs-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "away"
      },
      "expansion": "abs- (“away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "trahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to pull, draw"
      },
      "expansion": "trahō (“to pull, draw”)",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "abstracts",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "abstract (plural abstracts)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "An abridgement or summary of a longer publication."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-AOupnAvJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "abridgement",
          "abridgement"
        ],
        [
          "summary",
          "summary"
        ]
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "mulaḵḵaṣ",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "مُلَخَّص"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "abstrákt",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "абстра́кт"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "rezjumé",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "резюме́"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "avtoreferát",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "авторефера́т"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "resum"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "extracte"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "zhāiyào",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "摘要"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "cs",
          "lang": "Czech",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "výtah"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "cs",
          "lang": "Czech",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "shrnutí"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "da",
          "lang": "Danish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "da",
          "lang": "Danish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "resume"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "samenvatting"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "korte inhoud"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "resumé"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "et",
          "lang": "Estonian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "kokkuvõte"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "tiivistelmä"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "résumé"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "gl",
          "lang": "Galician",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "resumo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "Auszug"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "Zusammenfassung"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "perílipsi",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "περίληψη"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "epitomí",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "επιτομή"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "sýnopsi",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "σύνοψη"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "sārāñś",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "सारांश"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "nicoḍ",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "निचोड"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "ikhtisar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "abstrak"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ga",
          "lang": "Irish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "achomaireacht"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ga",
          "lang": "Irish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "coimriú"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "estratto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "sunto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "compendio"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "riassunto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "alt": "がいよう",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "gaiyō",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "概要"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "alt": "ようやく",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "yōyaku",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "要約"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "kk",
          "lang": "Kazakh",
          "roman": "referat",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "реферат"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "lo",
          "lang": "Lao",
          "roman": "bot khat nyǭ",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "ບົດຄັດຫຍໍ້"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "rezumējums"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "kopsavilkums"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "mi",
          "lang": "Maori",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "whakarāpopoto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "sārāuśa",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "सारांश"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "goṣvārā",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "गोषवारा"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "oppsummering"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "referat"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "sammendrag"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "utdrag"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "resymé"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "ekstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "streszczenie"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "podsumowanie"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "note": "in the sciences only",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "resumo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "sumário"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "rezumat"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "conspect"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "extras"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "konspékt",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "конспе́кт"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "referát",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "рефера́т"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "sinópsis",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "сино́псис"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "Cyrillic",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "саже́так"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "Roman",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "sažétak"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "resumen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "extracto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sw",
          "lang": "Swahili",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "ikisiri"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "referat"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "sammandrag"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "common-gender"
          ],
          "word": "sammanfattning"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "utdrag"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "tags": [
            "common-gender",
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "60 3 3 2 1 2 2 27",
          "code": "th",
          "lang": "Thai",
          "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
          "word": "บทคัดย่อ"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.",
        "Concentrated essence of a product."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-66BfzwtV",
      "links": [
        [
          "concentrate",
          "concentrate"
        ],
        [
          "essence",
          "essence"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Medicine",
          "orig": "en:Medicine",
          "parents": [
            "Biology",
            "Sciences",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.",
        "A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-ai2vAMTf",
      "links": [
        [
          "concentrate",
          "concentrate"
        ],
        [
          "medicine",
          "medicine"
        ],
        [
          "powder",
          "powder"
        ],
        [
          "extract",
          "extract"
        ],
        [
          "lactose",
          "lactose"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.",
        "(medicine) A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "medicine",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "ekstrákt",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "екстра́кт"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "cs",
          "lang": "Czech",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "výtažek"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "uittreksel"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "word": "uute"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "ekchýlisma",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "εκχύλισμα"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "apóstagma",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "απόσταγμα"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "nicoḍ",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "word": "निचोड"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "alt": "ちゅうしゅつ",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "chūshutsu",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "word": "抽出"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "sattva",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "word": "सत्त्व"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "ekstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "extrato"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "extract"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "ekstrákt",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "экстра́кт"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "Cyrillic"
          ],
          "word": "ѐкстракт"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "Roman",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "èkstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 7 70 2 2 6 4 6",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "extracto"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1628, John Ford, The Lover's Melancholy",
          "text": "Man, the abstract Of all perfection, which the workmanship Of Heaven hath modeled.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-eR9z6rNl",
      "links": [
        [
          "concentrate",
          "concentrate"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "An abstraction; an abstract term; that which is abstract."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-Fpnsmxq9",
      "links": [
        [
          "abstraction",
          "abstraction"
        ],
        [
          "abstract",
          "#Adjective"
        ]
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "abstrákcija",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "абстра́кция"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "otvlečeno ponjatie",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "отвлечено понятие"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstracció"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstractie"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstracte term"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstract begrip"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "word": "käsite"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "word": "abstraktio"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "gl",
          "lang": "Galician",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstracción"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "afaíresi",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "αφαίρεση"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "amūrt",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "अमूर्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "astrazione"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "alt": "ちゅうしょう",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "chūshō",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "word": "抽象"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakcija"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakts jēdziens"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "amūrta",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "word": "अमूर्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstraksjon"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "fa",
          "lang": "Persian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "word": "انتزاع"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "inanimate",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakcja"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstração"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstracție"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "abstrákcija",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "абстра́кция"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "Cyrillic",
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "апстра̀кција"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "Roman",
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "apstràkcija"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 1 4 1 83 1 5 5",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "an abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstracción"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstract iets"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstract begrip"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "eo",
          "lang": "Esperanto",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "word": "abstraktaĵo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "word": "käsite"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "amūrt",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "अमूर्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "astratto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "chūshōteki",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "word": "抽象的"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "amūrta",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "word": "अमूर्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstraksjon"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakcja"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstração"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "that which is abstract",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakt"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
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            "Entries with incorrect language header",
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          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "The theoretical way of looking at things; something that exists only in idealized form."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-3Mxf45BE"
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Art",
          "orig": "en:Art",
          "parents": [
            "Culture",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
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        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "An abstract work of art."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-fTT2jhsu",
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) An abstract work of art."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "abstrákcija",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "абстра́кция"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstract kunstwerk"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "word": "abstrakti teos"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "gl",
          "lang": "Galician",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "obra abstracta"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "afiriméni téchni",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "αφηρημένη τέχνη"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "amūrt",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "अमूर्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "word": "abstrak"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "alt": "ちゅうしょうはの",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "chūshōhano",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "word": "抽象派の"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "mi",
          "lang": "Maori",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "word": "toi tūrehurehu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "amūrta",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "word": "अमूर्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstraksjon"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakcja"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstração"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "abstracție"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "arte abstracto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 3 0 95 1",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "an abstract work of art",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "abstrakt"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Real estate",
          "orig": "en:Real estate",
          "parents": [
            "Housing",
            "Industries",
            "Buildings",
            "Home",
            "Business",
            "Buildings and structures",
            "Society",
            "Economics",
            "Architecture",
            "All topics",
            "Social sciences",
            "Applied sciences",
            "Art",
            "Fundamental",
            "Sciences",
            "Culture"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "14 13 15 13 7 15 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-noun-dQX07il9",
      "links": [
        [
          "real estate",
          "real estate"
        ],
        [
          "abstract of title",
          "abstract of title"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(real estate) A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "_dis1": "11 11 13 11 0 17 5 31",
          "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
          "word": "abridgment"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "11 11 13 11 0 17 5 31",
          "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
          "word": "compendium"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "11 11 13 11 0 17 5 31",
          "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
          "word": "epitome"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "11 11 13 11 0 17 5 31",
          "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
          "word": "synopsis"
        }
      ],
      "topics": [
        "business",
        "real-estate"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈæbˌstɹækt/"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "xifra"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "essentie"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "aineellistuma"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "nicoḍ",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "निचोड"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "abstrak"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "sari"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "sammenfatning"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "concentrat"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 32 32 32 0 2 1 1",
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "esență"
    }
  ],
  "word": "abstract"
}

{
  "derived": [
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      "word": "abstract algebra"
    },
    {
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      "word": "abstract analytic number theory"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract art"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract class"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract data type"
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      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract expressionism"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract expressionist"
    },
    {
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      "word": "abstract factory class"
    },
    {
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      "word": "abstract factory pattern"
    },
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      "word": "abstract harmonic analysis"
    },
    {
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      "word": "abstract idea"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractification"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractify"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractization"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractize"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract language"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractly"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract method"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract model"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract music"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractness"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract nonsense"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract noun"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract number"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract numbers"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract publication"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract term"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract terms"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract type"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract universal"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstract verb"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "autoabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "in the abstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "microabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "nonabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "overabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "reabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "semiabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "superabstract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "typestract"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "unabstract"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "abstract"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English abstract",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "abstractus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin abstractus",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abstrahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "draw away"
      },
      "expansion": "abstrahō (“draw away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abs-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "away"
      },
      "expansion": "abs- (“away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "trahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to pull, draw"
      },
      "expansion": "trahō (“to pull, draw”)",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "more abstract",
      "tags": [
        "comparative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracter",
      "tags": [
        "comparative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "most abstract",
      "tags": [
        "superlative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstractest",
      "tags": [
        "superlative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "more",
        "2": "er"
      },
      "expansion": "abstract (comparative more abstract or abstracter, superlative most abstract or abstractest)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "reify"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Derived; extracted."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-nUDT1d69",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(obsolete) Derived; extracted."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "obsolete"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "45 7 4 5 5 3 1 3 5 6 5 6 3 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "extracted",
          "word": "onttrokken"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "45 7 4 5 5 3 1 3 5 6 5 6 3 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "extracted",
          "word": "uutettu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "45 7 4 5 5 3 1 3 5 6 5 6 3 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "extracted",
          "word": "extraído"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "45 7 4 5 5 3 1 3 5 6 5 6 3 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "extracted",
          "word": "abstracto"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "17th century, John Norris (philosopher), The Oxford Dictionary",
          "text": "The more abstract we are from the body ... the more fit we shall be to behold divine light."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-fyDqdCBe",
      "links": [
        [
          "remove",
          "remove"
        ],
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(now rare) Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "afgezonderd"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "gescheiden"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "erillinen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "abstrait"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "teorico"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "separat"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "abstrato"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "abstráktnyj",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "абстра́ктный"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "abstracto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 55 5 4 5 2 2 5 5 3 3 3 3 2",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "separate",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "Insufficiently factual."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-UKZ3dnWj",
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        },
        {
          "word": "formal"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "applied"
        },
        {
          "word": "practical"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1999, Nicholas Walker, “The Reorientation of Critical Theory: Habermas”, in Simon Glemdinning, editor, The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy, Routledge, page 489",
          "text": "During the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, this commitment brought him into frequent critical confrontation with entrenched forms of conservative thinking (in academic areas from history and social science to the more abstract domains of ethical and political philosophy),[…]",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "Apart from practice or reality; vague; theoretical; impersonal; not applied."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-SKNQgFMy",
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ],
        [
          "practice",
          "practice"
        ],
        [
          "reality",
          "reality"
        ],
        [
          "vague",
          "vague"
        ],
        [
          "theoretical",
          "theoretical"
        ],
        [
          "impersonal",
          "impersonal"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        },
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        }
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "maʕnawiyy",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "مَعْنَوِيّ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "tajrīdiyy",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "تَجْرِيدِيّ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "mujarrad",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "مُجَرَّد"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "hy",
          "lang": "Armenian",
          "roman": "veracʿakan",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "վերացական"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "hy",
          "lang": "Armenian",
          "roman": "abstrakt",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "աբստրակտ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ast",
          "lang": "Asturian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "astrautu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "az",
          "lang": "Azerbaijani",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "mücərrəd"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "eu",
          "lang": "Basque",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstraktu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "be",
          "lang": "Belarusian",
          "roman": "abstráktny",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "абстра́ктны"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "abstrakten",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "абстрактен"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "otvlečen",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "отвлечен"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstracte"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "yue",
          "lang": "Chinese Cantonese",
          "roman": "cau¹ zoeng⁶",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "抽象"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "nan-hbl",
          "lang": "Chinese",
          "roman": "zh-min-nan",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "tags": [
            "Hokkien"
          ],
          "word": "抽象"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "chōuxiàng",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "抽象"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstract"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "theoretisch"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "eo",
          "lang": "Esperanto",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakta"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "et",
          "lang": "Estonian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstraktne"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "teoreettinen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakti"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrait"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "gl",
          "lang": "Galician",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstracto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "theoritikós",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "θεωρητικός"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "gu",
          "lang": "Gujarati",
          "roman": "amūrt",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "અમૂર્ત"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "bhāvvācak",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "भाववाचक"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "hu",
          "lang": "Hungarian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "absztrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "astratto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "teorico"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "chūshōteki",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "抽象的"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "kk",
          "lang": "Kazakh",
          "roman": "dereksız",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "дерексіз"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "kk",
          "lang": "Kazakh",
          "roman": "abstraktyly",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "абстрактылы"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "kk",
          "lang": "Kazakh",
          "roman": "abstraktılı",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "абстрактілі"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ko",
          "lang": "Korean",
          "roman": "chusangjeok",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "추상적"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakts"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ms",
          "lang": "Malay",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrak"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ms",
          "lang": "Malay",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "niskala"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ml",
          "lang": "Malayalam",
          "roman": "amūṟtta",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "അമൂർത്ത"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "mi",
          "lang": "Maori",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "tūrehurehu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "se",
          "lang": "Northern Sami",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrákta"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakcyjny"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrato"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstract"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "abstráktnyj",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "абстра́ктный"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "otvlečónnyj",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "отвлечённый"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "sa",
          "lang": "Sanskrit",
          "roman": "viṣayavivikta",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "विषयविविक्त"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "sl",
          "lang": "Slovene",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakten"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstracto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "teoretisk"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "tl",
          "lang": "Tagalog",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "basal"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "th",
          "lang": "Thai",
          "roman": "naam",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "นาม"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "tr",
          "lang": "Turkish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "soyut"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "tr",
          "lang": "Turkish",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "abstre"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "uk",
          "lang": "Ukrainian",
          "roman": "abstráktnyj",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "абстра́ктний"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "vi",
          "lang": "Vietnamese",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "trừu tượng"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "1 24 5 36 5 5 0 2 14 2 4 1 1 1",
          "code": "yi",
          "lang": "Yiddish",
          "roman": "abstrakt",
          "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
          "word": "אַבסטראַקט"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammar",
          "orig": "en:Grammar",
          "parents": [
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-8lkin9eH",
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ],
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "(grammar) As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        }
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Her new film is an abstract piece, combining elements of magic realism, flashbacks, and animation but with very little in terms of plot construction.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-9FWfYTHX",
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "The politician gave a somewhat abstract answer when asked about their plans to cut spending.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1929, Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms",
          "text": "Abstract words such as glory, honour, courage, or hallow were obscene.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Difficult to understand; abstruse; hard to conceptualize."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-6yDUCp4z",
      "links": [
        [
          "abstruse",
          "abstruse"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "abstruse"
        }
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "nerazbiraem",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "неразбираем"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstracte"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstract"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "vaag"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "algemeen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "vaikeaselkoinen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstrakti"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstrait"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "dysnóitos",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "δυσνόητος"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "astruso"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "grūti saprotams"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "uforståelig"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstrakcyjny"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "complicado"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "difícil"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "abstracto"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "complicado"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "djupsinnig"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 3 1 2 4 1 75 2 2 3 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "difficult to understand",
          "word": "svårfattlig"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, volume 1, page 34",
          "text": "A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing...",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Separately expressing a property or attribute of an object that is considered to be inherent to that object: attributive, ascriptive."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-A5PDMIxy",
      "links": [
        [
          "Separately",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "property",
          "property"
        ],
        [
          "attribute",
          "attribute"
        ],
        [
          "inherent",
          "inherent"
        ],
        [
          "attributive",
          "attributive"
        ],
        [
          "ascriptive",
          "ascriptive"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "attributive"
        },
        {
          "word": "ascriptive"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "discrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "specific"
        },
        {
          "word": "particular"
        },
        {
          "word": "precise"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, volume 1, page 34",
          "text": "A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing.[…]A practice, however, has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression \"abstract name\" to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2012, Laurence, Stephen and Margolis, Eric, Abstraction and the Origin of General Ideas, Philosophers' Imprint volume 12, no. 19, December 2012",
          "text": "Given their opposition to innate ideas, philosophers in the empiricist tradition have sought to explain how the rich and multifarious representational capacities that human beings possess derive from experience. A key explanatory strategy in this tradition, tracing back at least as far as John Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, is to maintain that the acquisition of many of these capacities can be accounted for by a process of abstraction. In fact, Locke himself claims in the Essay that abstraction is the source of all general ideas (1690/1975, II, xii, §1). Although Berkeley and Hume were highly critical of Locke, abstraction as a source of generality has been a lasting theme in empiricist thought."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining comprehensively to, or representing, a class or group of objects, as opposed to any specific object; considered apart from any application to a particular object: general, generic, nonspecific; representational."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-0TCa~bUH",
      "links": [
        [
          "Pertaining",
          "pertain"
        ],
        [
          "comprehensively",
          "comprehensively"
        ],
        [
          "representing",
          "represent"
        ],
        [
          "object",
          "object"
        ],
        [
          "specific",
          "specific"
        ],
        [
          "particular",
          "particular"
        ],
        [
          "general",
          "general"
        ],
        [
          "generic",
          "generic"
        ],
        [
          "nonspecific",
          "nonspecific"
        ],
        [
          "representational",
          "representational"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "general"
        },
        {
          "word": "generalized"
        },
        {
          "word": "generic"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonspecific"
        },
        {
          "word": "representational"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "3 3 3 3 7 2 0 2 6 10 5 4 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 2 5 3 1 1 3 1 1 7 2 3 3 2 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1922, D. H. Lawrence, Aaron's Rod",
          "text": "White and abstract-looking, he sat and ate his dinner.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Absent-minded."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-xA60EuSx",
      "links": [
        [
          "Absent-minded",
          "absent-minded"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(archaic) Absent-minded."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "afwezig"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "verstrooid"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "poissaoleva"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrait"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "afiriménos",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "αφηρημένος"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "distrahert"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "fa",
          "lang": "Persian",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "انتزاعی"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "distraído"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "desatento"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "abstrato"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 6 1 3 4 1 5 2 3 52 6 2 9 2",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "absent in mind",
          "word": "distraído"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Art",
          "orig": "en:Art",
          "parents": [
            "Culture",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20ᵗʰ century."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-I7kaDC93",
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "capitalized",
          "capitalisation"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "(art, often capitalized) Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20ᵗʰ century."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "capitalized",
        "often"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstracte"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstract"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "eo",
          "lang": "Esperanto",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakta"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakti"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "abstrait"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "afiriménos",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "αφηρημένος"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "is",
          "lang": "Icelandic",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "chūshōteki",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "抽象的"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "ml",
          "lang": "Malayalam",
          "roman": "amūṟtta",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "അമൂർത്ത"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "mi",
          "lang": "Maori",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "tūrehurehu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakcyjny"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrato"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "sl",
          "lang": "Slovene",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstrakten"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 9 3 8 6 2 0 2 14 6 34 7 4 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
          "word": "abstracto"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Art",
          "orig": "en:Art",
          "parents": [
            "Culture",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Music",
          "orig": "en:Music",
          "parents": [
            "Art",
            "Sound",
            "Culture",
            "Energy",
            "Society",
            "Nature",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "Absolute."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-CGJbgDor",
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "music",
          "music"
        ],
        [
          "Absolute",
          "absolute"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "(music) Absolute."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts",
        "entertainment",
        "lifestyle",
        "music"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Art",
          "orig": "en:Art",
          "parents": [
            "Culture",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Dance",
          "orig": "en:Dance",
          "parents": [
            "Art",
            "Recreation",
            "Culture",
            "Human activity",
            "Society",
            "Human behaviour",
            "All topics",
            "Human",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "Lacking a story."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-sMenqeTw",
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "dance",
          "dance#Noun"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "(dance) Lacking a story."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts",
        "dance",
        "dancing",
        "hobbies",
        "lifestyle",
        "sports"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Object-oriented programming",
          "orig": "en:Object-oriented programming",
          "parents": [
            "Programming",
            "Computing",
            "Software engineering",
            "Technology",
            "Computer science",
            "Engineering",
            "Software",
            "All topics",
            "Sciences",
            "Applied sciences",
            "Media",
            "Fundamental",
            "Communication"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-adj-G9bfoT0E",
      "links": [
        [
          "object-oriented programming",
          "object-oriented programming"
        ],
        [
          "class",
          "class"
        ],
        [
          "subclass",
          "subclass"
        ],
        [
          "object",
          "object"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "object-oriented programming",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(object-oriented programming, of a class) Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "of a class"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈæbˌstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "UK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˌæbˈstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/əbˈstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈæbˌstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "algemeen"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "yleinen"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshōteki",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "抽象的"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "generell"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "2 7 3 6 25 2 1 2 29 10 9 2 1 1",
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "abstrato"
    }
  ],
  "word": "abstract"
}

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractable"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstracted"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstracter"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractor"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "abstract"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English abstract",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "abstractus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin abstractus",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abstrahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "draw away"
      },
      "expansion": "abstrahō (“draw away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abs-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "away"
      },
      "expansion": "abs- (“away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "trahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to pull, draw"
      },
      "expansion": "trahō (“to pull, draw”)",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "abstracts",
      "tags": [
        "present",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracting",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "present"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracted",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracted",
      "tags": [
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "en-conj",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstract",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "infinitive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "abstract (third-person singular simple present abstracts, present participle abstracting, simple past and past participle abstracted)",
      "name": "en-verb"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "old": "1"
      },
      "name": "en-conj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "verb",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstraction"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractive"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "abstractum"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1834, Harriet Martineau, Illustration of Political Economy, volume IX",
          "text": "The lightning of the public burdens, which at present abstract a large proportion of profits and wages.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To remove; to take away; withdraw."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-5IxNXUFz",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "remove",
          "remove"
        ],
        [
          "take away",
          "take away"
        ],
        [
          "withdraw",
          "withdraw"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To remove; to take away; withdraw."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "izvaždam",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "изваждам"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "terugtrekken"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "vetää"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "entziehen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "afairó",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "αφαιρώ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "aposýro",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "αποσύρω"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "piche ānā",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "पिछे आना"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "māge yeṇe",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "मागे येणे"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "fjerne"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "utta"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "tags": [
            "imperfective"
          ],
          "word": "odciągać"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "tags": [
            "perfective"
          ],
          "word": "odciągnąć"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "tirar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "retirar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "quitar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "retirar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "48 36 1 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 0",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
          "word": "extraer"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English euphemisms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1872, William Black, The Strange Adventures of a Phaeton",
          "text": "Von Rosen had quietly abstracted the bearing-reins from the harness.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1869, Bholanauth Chunder, The Travels of a Hindoo to Various Parts of Bengal and Upper India",
          "text": "The inlaid characters in diamond, and other precious stones, have been all abstracted away by the pelf-loving Jaut and Mahratta—leaving the walls defaced with the hollow marks of the chisel.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2014, A P Simester, J R Spencer, G R Sullivan, Simester and Sullivan's Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine",
          "text": "Section 13 of the 1968 Act enacts a separate offence of dishonestly abstracting electricity. The separate offence is needed because electricity, like other forms of energy such as heat, is not property.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To steal; to take away; to remove without permission."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-IIqpGiCn",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "steal",
          "steal"
        ],
        [
          "remove",
          "remove"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive, euphemistic) To steal; to take away; to remove without permission."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "_dis1": "13 35 5 9 6 6 6 6 6 6 3",
          "sense": "to filch, purloin, or steal",
          "word": "filch"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "13 35 5 9 6 6 6 6 6 6 3",
          "sense": "to filch, purloin, or steal",
          "word": "purloin"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "13 35 5 9 6 6 6 6 6 6 3",
          "sense": "to filch, purloin, or steal",
          "word": "steal"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "euphemistic",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "otmǎkvam",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "отмъквам"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "ontvreemden"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "poistaa"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "puhaltaa"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "klévo",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "κλέβω"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "ypexairó",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "υπεξαιρώ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "sottrarre"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "nozagt"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "lv",
          "lang": "Latvian",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "nočiept"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "stjele"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "tjuve"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "rane"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "tæsje"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "røve"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "naske"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "roubar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "knycka"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "stjäla"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "nalla"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 95 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to steal",
          "word": "sno"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1601, John Marston, Antonio's Revenge, act II, scene I",
          "text": "Poison from roses who could e'er abstract?",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To extract by means of distillation."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-ay~hmfPw",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "extract",
          "extract"
        ],
        [
          "distillation",
          "distillation"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive, obsolete) To extract by means of distillation."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "obsolete",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "onttrekken"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "uuttaa"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "distiller"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "apostázo",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "αποστάζω"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "destillere"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "tags": [
            "imperfective"
          ],
          "word": "odciągać"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "tags": [
            "perfective"
          ],
          "word": "odciągnąć"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "destilar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "2 2 64 1 1 21 2 2 3 2 0",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
          "word": "destilar"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "June 1869, William Blackwood, Late for the Train (published in Blackwood's Magazine)",
          "text": "The young stranger had been abstracted and silent."
        },
        {
          "text": "He was wholly abstracted by other objects."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To draw off (interest or attention)."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-Z1en8-gc",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To draw off (interest or attention)."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "otvličam",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "word": "отвличам"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "word": "afleiden"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "word": "viedä huomio"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "afairoúmai",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "word": "αφαιρούμαι"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "tags": [
            "imperfective"
          ],
          "word": "odciągać"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "tags": [
            "perfective"
          ],
          "word": "odciągnąć"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "5 5 2 71 5 2 2 2 2 2 2",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to draw off",
          "word": "abstrair"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To withdraw oneself; to retire."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-uNlDn1h7",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "withdraw",
          "withdraw"
        ],
        [
          "retire",
          "retire"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(intransitive, reflexive, literally, figuratively) To withdraw oneself; to retire."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "figuratively",
        "intransitive",
        "literally",
        "reflexive",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "21 5 2 3 60 2 2 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
          "word": "zich terugtrekken"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "21 5 2 3 60 2 2 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
          "word": "vetäytyä"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "21 5 2 3 60 2 2 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
          "word": "se retirer"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "21 5 2 3 60 2 2 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
          "word": "fjerne seg"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "21 5 2 3 60 2 2 2 2 2 1",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
          "word": "abstraerse"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To conceptualize an ideal subgroup by means of the generalization of an attribute, as follows: by apprehending an attribute inherent to one individual, then separating that attribute and contemplating it by itself, then conceiving of that attribute as a general quality, then despecifying that conceived quality with respect to several or many individuals, and by then ideating a group composed of those individuals perceived to possess said quality."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-MbdRkSNV",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ],
        [
          "conceptualize",
          "conceptualize"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ],
        [
          "subgroup",
          "subgroup"
        ],
        [
          "generalization",
          "generalize"
        ],
        [
          "attribute",
          "attribute"
        ],
        [
          "apprehending",
          "apprehend"
        ],
        [
          "inherent",
          "inherent"
        ],
        [
          "separating",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "conceiving",
          "conceive"
        ],
        [
          "despecifying",
          "despecification"
        ],
        [
          "ideating",
          "ideate"
        ],
        [
          "perceived",
          "perceive"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To conceptualize an ideal subgroup by means of the generalization of an attribute, as follows: by apprehending an attribute inherent to one individual, then separating that attribute and contemplating it by itself, then conceiving of that attribute as a general quality, then despecifying that conceived quality with respect to several or many individuals, and by then ideating a group composed of those individuals perceived to possess said quality."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1710, George Berkeley, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge",
          "text": "I own myself able to abstract in one sense.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To perform the process of abstraction."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-bJbbOSBI",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ],
        [
          "abstraction",
          "abstraction"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "(intransitive, rare) To perform the process of abstraction."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "intransitive",
        "rare",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "abstraheren"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "abstrahoida"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "amūrtikran karnā",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "अमूर्तिकरन करना"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "mengabstrakkan"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "astrarre"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "amūrtikraṇ karṇe",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "अमूर्तिकरण करणे"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "abstrahere"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "imperfective"
          ],
          "word": "abstrahować"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "perfective"
          ],
          "word": "wyabstrahować"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "abstrair"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "abstragírovatʹ",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "tags": [
            "imperfective",
            "perfective"
          ],
          "word": "абстраги́ровать"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 4 3 3 3 4 66 4 9 3 0",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
          "word": "abstrahera"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 1",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English heteronyms",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To create abstractions."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-OYhrPrDj",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "fine arts",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "(intransitive, fine arts) To create abstractions."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "intransitive",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
          "word": "abstraheren"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
          "word": "abstrahoida"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "amūrt kalākŕtī karnā",
          "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
          "word": "अमूर्त कलाकृती करना"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "amūrta kalākŕtī karṇe",
          "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
          "word": "अमूर्त कलाकृती करणे"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
          "word": "abstrahere"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 7 5 4 4 9 12 30 19 5 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
          "word": "abstrair"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Computing",
          "orig": "en:Computing",
          "parents": [
            "Technology",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "He abstracted out the square root function."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with \"out\"."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-3nuHQLXn",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ],
        [
          "computing",
          "computing#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "abstraction",
          "abstraction"
        ],
        [
          "refactoring",
          "refactoring"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "(intransitive, computing) To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with \"out\"."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "intransitive",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "computing",
        "engineering",
        "mathematics",
        "natural-sciences",
        "physical-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1781, Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, volume II",
          "text": "To abstract the notions of time, of space, and of matter.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-qFCyAcY4",
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize."
      ],
      "id": "en-abstract-en-verb-wPmfFzTk",
      "links": [
        [
          "summarize",
          "summarize"
        ],
        [
          "abridge",
          "abridge"
        ],
        [
          "epitomize",
          "epitomize"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "abridge"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "epitomize"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "summarize"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "samenvatten"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "tiivistää"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "abstraire"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "synopsízo",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "συνοψίζω"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "sārāñś karnā",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "सारांश करना"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "mengabstrakkan"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "riassumere"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "mr",
          "lang": "Marathi",
          "roman": "sārāuśa karṇe",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "सारांश करणे"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "oppsummere"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "resumir"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "sumariar"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "resumir"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "göra sammandrag av"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "4 3 1 4 1 2 2 2 2 2 77",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
          "word": "sammanfatta"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˌæbˈstɹækt/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/əbˈstɹækt/"
    },
    {
      "rhymes": "-ækt"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-abstract (noun).wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/9/98/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/9/98/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Southern-England"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Southern England)"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-abstract (verb).wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Southern-England"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Southern England)"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "24 20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 0",
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "remove"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "24 20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 0",
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "separate"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "24 20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 0",
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "take away"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "24 20 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 0",
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "withdraw"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otdeljam",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "отделям"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otnemam",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "отнемам"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "afzonderen"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "eristää"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "erottaa"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstraire"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "trennen"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "apospó",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "αποσπώ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "diachorízo",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "διαχωρίζω"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "alag karnā",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "अलग करना"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "nikāl denā",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "निकाल देना"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "mengabstrakkan"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "rimuovere"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "sottrarre"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "estrarre"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "toru",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "取る"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "atšķirt"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "nošķirt"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "vegḷe karṇe",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "वेगळे करणे"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "kāḍhūn ṭākṇe",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "काढून टाकणे"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "separere"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągać"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "tags": [
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągnąć"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "retirar"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "qu",
      "lang": "Quechua",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "llulmiy"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstraer"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "retirar"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "extraer"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstrahera"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "skilja av"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "skilja ut"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 0",
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "ta bort"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "hy",
      "lang": "Armenian",
      "roman": "abstrahel",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "աբստրահել"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstraheren"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstrakti"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "tuumia"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstrahieren"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrtarūpse lenā",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "अमूर्तरूपसे लेना"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "mengabstrakkan"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrtapṇe gheṇe",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "अमूर्तपणे घेणे"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "fundere"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "spekulere"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "filosofere"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "fa",
      "lang": "Persian",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "انتزاعیدن"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstraer"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "1 1 0 1 0 19 19 19 19 19 0",
      "code": "yi",
      "lang": "Yiddish",
      "roman": "abstrahirn",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "אַבסטראַהירן"
    }
  ],
  "word": "abstract"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "English 2-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English heteronyms",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English verbs",
    "Requests for gender in Danish entries",
    "Requests for gender in Hindi entries",
    "Requests for gender in Marathi entries",
    "Requests for review of Indonesian translations",
    "Requests for review of Interlingua translations",
    "Requests for review of Korean translations",
    "Requests for review of Spanish translations",
    "Requests for review of Turkish translations",
    "Requests for review of Yiddish translations",
    "Rhymes:English/ækt",
    "Rhymes:English/ækt/2 syllables"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "abstract of title"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nb",
            "2": "abstrakt",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Norwegian Bokmål: abstrakt",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Norwegian Bokmål: abstrakt"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "abstract"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English abstract",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "abstractus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin abstractus",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abstrahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "draw away"
      },
      "expansion": "abstrahō (“draw away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abs-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "away"
      },
      "expansion": "abs- (“away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "trahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to pull, draw"
      },
      "expansion": "trahō (“to pull, draw”)",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "abstracts",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "abstract (plural abstracts)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "An abridgement or summary of a longer publication."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "abridgement",
          "abridgement"
        ],
        [
          "summary",
          "summary"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "Quotation templates to be cleaned"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.",
        "Concentrated essence of a product."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concentrate",
          "concentrate"
        ],
        [
          "essence",
          "essence"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "Quotation templates to be cleaned",
        "en:Medicine"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.",
        "A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concentrate",
          "concentrate"
        ],
        [
          "medicine",
          "medicine"
        ],
        [
          "powder",
          "powder"
        ],
        [
          "extract",
          "extract"
        ],
        [
          "lactose",
          "lactose"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items.",
        "(medicine) A powdered solid extract of a medicinal substance mixed with lactose."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "medicine",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "Quotation templates to be cleaned"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1628, John Ford, The Lover's Melancholy",
          "text": "Man, the abstract Of all perfection, which the workmanship Of Heaven hath modeled.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something that concentrates in itself the qualities of a larger item, or multiple items."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concentrate",
          "concentrate"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "An abstraction; an abstract term; that which is abstract."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "abstraction",
          "abstraction"
        ],
        [
          "abstract",
          "#Adjective"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "The theoretical way of looking at things; something that exists only in idealized form."
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Art"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "An abstract work of art."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) An abstract work of art."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Real estate"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "real estate",
          "real estate"
        ],
        [
          "abstract of title",
          "abstract of title"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(real estate) A summary title of the key points detailing a tract of land, for ownership; abstract of title."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "business",
        "real-estate"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈæbˌstɹækt/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
      "word": "abridgment"
    },
    {
      "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
      "word": "compendium"
    },
    {
      "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
      "word": "epitome"
    },
    {
      "sense": "statement summarizing the important points of a text",
      "word": "synopsis"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "mulaḵḵaṣ",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "مُلَخَّص"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "abstrákt",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "абстра́кт"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "rezjumé",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "резюме́"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "avtoreferát",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "авторефера́т"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "resum"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "extracte"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "zhāiyào",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "摘要"
    },
    {
      "code": "cs",
      "lang": "Czech",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "výtah"
    },
    {
      "code": "cs",
      "lang": "Czech",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "shrnutí"
    },
    {
      "code": "da",
      "lang": "Danish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "da",
      "lang": "Danish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "resume"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "samenvatting"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "korte inhoud"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "resumé"
    },
    {
      "code": "et",
      "lang": "Estonian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "kokkuvõte"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "tiivistelmä"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "résumé"
    },
    {
      "code": "gl",
      "lang": "Galician",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "resumo"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "Auszug"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "Zusammenfassung"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "perílipsi",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "περίληψη"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "epitomí",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "επιτομή"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "sýnopsi",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "σύνοψη"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "sārāñś",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "सारांश"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "nicoḍ",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "निचोड"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "ikhtisar"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "abstrak"
    },
    {
      "code": "ga",
      "lang": "Irish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "achomaireacht"
    },
    {
      "code": "ga",
      "lang": "Irish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "coimriú"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "estratto"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "sunto"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "compendio"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "riassunto"
    },
    {
      "alt": "がいよう",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "gaiyō",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "概要"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ようやく",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "yōyaku",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "要約"
    },
    {
      "code": "kk",
      "lang": "Kazakh",
      "roman": "referat",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "реферат"
    },
    {
      "code": "lo",
      "lang": "Lao",
      "roman": "bot khat nyǭ",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "ບົດຄັດຫຍໍ້"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "rezumējums"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "kopsavilkums"
    },
    {
      "code": "mi",
      "lang": "Maori",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "whakarāpopoto"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "sārāuśa",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "सारांश"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "goṣvārā",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "गोषवारा"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "oppsummering"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "referat"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "sammendrag"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "utdrag"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "resymé"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "ekstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "streszczenie"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "podsumowanie"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "note": "in the sciences only",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "resumo"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "sumário"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "rezumat"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "conspect"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "extras"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "konspékt",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "конспе́кт"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "referát",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "рефера́т"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "sinópsis",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "сино́псис"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "Cyrillic",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "саже́так"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "Roman",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "sažétak"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "resumen"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "extracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "sw",
      "lang": "Swahili",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "ikisiri"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "referat"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "sammandrag"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "common-gender"
      ],
      "word": "sammanfattning"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "utdrag"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "tags": [
        "common-gender",
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "th",
      "lang": "Thai",
      "sense": "an abridgement or summary",
      "word": "บทคัดย่อ"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "xifra"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "essentie"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "aineellistuma"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "nicoḍ",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "निचोड"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "abstrak"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "word": "sari"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "sammenfatning"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "concentrat"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "something that concentrates in itself the qualities of something else",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "esență"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "abstrákcija",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "абстра́кция"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otvlečeno ponjatie",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "отвлечено понятие"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstracció"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstractie"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstracte term"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstract begrip"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "word": "käsite"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "word": "abstraktio"
    },
    {
      "code": "gl",
      "lang": "Galician",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstracción"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "afaíresi",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "αφαίρεση"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrt",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "अमूर्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "astrazione"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしょう",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshō",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "word": "抽象"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakcija"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakts jēdziens"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrta",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "word": "अमूर्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstraksjon"
    },
    {
      "code": "fa",
      "lang": "Persian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "word": "انتزاع"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "inanimate",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakcja"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstração"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstracție"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "abstrákcija",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "абстра́кция"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "Cyrillic",
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "апстра̀кција"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "Roman",
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "apstràkcija"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "an abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstracción"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "abstrákcija",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "абстра́кция"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstract kunstwerk"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "word": "abstrakti teos"
    },
    {
      "code": "gl",
      "lang": "Galician",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "obra abstracta"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "afiriméni téchni",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "αφηρημένη τέχνη"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrt",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "अमूर्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "word": "abstrak"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしょうはの",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshōhano",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "word": "抽象派の"
    },
    {
      "code": "mi",
      "lang": "Maori",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "word": "toi tūrehurehu"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrta",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "word": "अमूर्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstraksjon"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakcja"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstração"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstracție"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "arte abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "an abstract work of art",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstract iets"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstract begrip"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "word": "abstraktaĵo"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "word": "käsite"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrt",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "अमूर्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "astratto"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshōteki",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "word": "抽象的"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrta",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "word": "अमूर्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstraksjon"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakcja"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "abstração"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "that which is abstract",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "ekstrákt",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "екстра́кт"
    },
    {
      "code": "cs",
      "lang": "Czech",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "výtažek"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "uittreksel"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "word": "uute"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "ekchýlisma",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "εκχύλισμα"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "apóstagma",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "απόσταγμα"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "nicoḍ",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "word": "निचोड"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしゅつ",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshutsu",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "word": "抽出"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "sattva",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "word": "सत्त्व"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "ekstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "extrato"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "extract"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "ekstrákt",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "экстра́кт"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "Cyrillic"
      ],
      "word": "ѐкстракт"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "Roman",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "èkstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "an extract of a vegetable substance",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "extracto"
    }
  ],
  "word": "abstract"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English 2-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English heteronyms",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English verbs",
    "Requests for gender in Danish entries",
    "Requests for gender in Hindi entries",
    "Requests for gender in Marathi entries",
    "Requests for review of Indonesian translations",
    "Requests for review of Interlingua translations",
    "Requests for review of Korean translations",
    "Requests for review of Spanish translations",
    "Requests for review of Turkish translations",
    "Requests for review of Yiddish translations",
    "Rhymes:English/ækt",
    "Rhymes:English/ækt/2 syllables"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "abstract algebra"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract analytic number theory"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract art"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract class"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract data type"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract expressionism"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract expressionist"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract factory class"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract factory pattern"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract harmonic analysis"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract idea"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractification"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractify"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractization"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractize"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract language"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractly"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract method"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract model"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract music"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractness"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract nonsense"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract noun"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract number"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract numbers"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract publication"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract term"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract terms"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract type"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract universal"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstract verb"
    },
    {
      "word": "autoabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "in the abstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "microabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "nonabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "overabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "reabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "semiabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "superabstract"
    },
    {
      "word": "typestract"
    },
    {
      "word": "unabstract"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "abstract"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English abstract",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "abstractus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin abstractus",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abstrahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "draw away"
      },
      "expansion": "abstrahō (“draw away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abs-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "away"
      },
      "expansion": "abs- (“away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "trahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to pull, draw"
      },
      "expansion": "trahō (“to pull, draw”)",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "more abstract",
      "tags": [
        "comparative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracter",
      "tags": [
        "comparative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "most abstract",
      "tags": [
        "superlative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstractest",
      "tags": [
        "superlative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "more",
        "2": "er"
      },
      "expansion": "abstract (comparative more abstract or abstracter, superlative most abstract or abstractest)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "reify"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with obsolete senses"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Derived; extracted."
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(obsolete) Derived; extracted."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "obsolete"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with rare senses"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "17th century, John Norris (philosopher), The Oxford Dictionary",
          "text": "The more abstract we are from the body ... the more fit we shall be to behold divine light."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "remove",
          "remove"
        ],
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(now rare) Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic"
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "Insufficiently factual."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        },
        {
          "word": "formal"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "applied"
        },
        {
          "word": "practical"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1999, Nicholas Walker, “The Reorientation of Critical Theory: Habermas”, in Simon Glemdinning, editor, The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy, Routledge, page 489",
          "text": "During the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, this commitment brought him into frequent critical confrontation with entrenched forms of conservative thinking (in academic areas from history and social science to the more abstract domains of ethical and political philosophy),[…]",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "Apart from practice or reality; vague; theoretical; impersonal; not applied."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ],
        [
          "practice",
          "practice"
        ],
        [
          "reality",
          "reality"
        ],
        [
          "vague",
          "vague"
        ],
        [
          "theoretical",
          "theoretical"
        ],
        [
          "impersonal",
          "impersonal"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        },
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ],
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.",
        "(grammar) As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        }
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "actual"
        },
        {
          "word": "concrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "corporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "empirical"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "English terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Her new film is an abstract piece, combining elements of magic realism, flashbacks, and animation but with very little in terms of plot construction.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Not concrete: conceptual, ideal."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "concrete",
          "concrete"
        ],
        [
          "conceptual",
          "conceptual"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "conceptual"
        },
        {
          "word": "ideal"
        },
        {
          "word": "imaginary"
        },
        {
          "word": "incorporeal"
        },
        {
          "word": "intangible"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonempirical"
        },
        {
          "word": "theoretical"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "The politician gave a somewhat abstract answer when asked about their plans to cut spending.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1929, Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms",
          "text": "Abstract words such as glory, honour, courage, or hallow were obscene.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Difficult to understand; abstruse; hard to conceptualize."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "abstruse",
          "abstruse"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "abstruse"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, volume 1, page 34",
          "text": "A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing...",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Separately expressing a property or attribute of an object that is considered to be inherent to that object: attributive, ascriptive."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "Separately",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "property",
          "property"
        ],
        [
          "attribute",
          "attribute"
        ],
        [
          "inherent",
          "inherent"
        ],
        [
          "attributive",
          "attributive"
        ],
        [
          "ascriptive",
          "ascriptive"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "attributive"
        },
        {
          "word": "ascriptive"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "discrete"
        },
        {
          "word": "specific"
        },
        {
          "word": "particular"
        },
        {
          "word": "precise"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, volume 1, page 34",
          "text": "A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing.[…]A practice, however, has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression \"abstract name\" to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2012, Laurence, Stephen and Margolis, Eric, Abstraction and the Origin of General Ideas, Philosophers' Imprint volume 12, no. 19, December 2012",
          "text": "Given their opposition to innate ideas, philosophers in the empiricist tradition have sought to explain how the rich and multifarious representational capacities that human beings possess derive from experience. A key explanatory strategy in this tradition, tracing back at least as far as John Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, is to maintain that the acquisition of many of these capacities can be accounted for by a process of abstraction. In fact, Locke himself claims in the Essay that abstraction is the source of all general ideas (1690/1975, II, xii, §1). Although Berkeley and Hume were highly critical of Locke, abstraction as a source of generality has been a lasting theme in empiricist thought."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining comprehensively to, or representing, a class or group of objects, as opposed to any specific object; considered apart from any application to a particular object: general, generic, nonspecific; representational."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "Pertaining",
          "pertain"
        ],
        [
          "comprehensively",
          "comprehensively"
        ],
        [
          "representing",
          "represent"
        ],
        [
          "object",
          "object"
        ],
        [
          "specific",
          "specific"
        ],
        [
          "particular",
          "particular"
        ],
        [
          "general",
          "general"
        ],
        [
          "generic",
          "generic"
        ],
        [
          "nonspecific",
          "nonspecific"
        ],
        [
          "representational",
          "representational"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "general"
        },
        {
          "word": "generalized"
        },
        {
          "word": "generic"
        },
        {
          "word": "nonspecific"
        },
        {
          "word": "representational"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with archaic senses",
        "English terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1922, D. H. Lawrence, Aaron's Rod",
          "text": "White and abstract-looking, he sat and ate his dinner.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Absent-minded."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "Absent-minded",
          "absent-minded"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(archaic) Absent-minded."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Art"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20ᵗʰ century."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "capitalized",
          "capitalisation"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "(art, often capitalized) Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20ᵗʰ century."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "capitalized",
        "often"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Art",
        "en:Music"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "Absolute."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "music",
          "music"
        ],
        [
          "Absolute",
          "absolute"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "(music) Absolute."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts",
        "entertainment",
        "lifestyle",
        "music"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Art",
        "en:Dance"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "Lacking a story."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "art",
          "art#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "dance",
          "dance#Noun"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.",
        "(dance) Lacking a story."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "art",
        "arts",
        "dance",
        "dancing",
        "hobbies",
        "lifestyle",
        "sports"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Object-oriented programming"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "object-oriented programming",
          "object-oriented programming"
        ],
        [
          "class",
          "class"
        ],
        [
          "subclass",
          "subclass"
        ],
        [
          "object",
          "object"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "object-oriented programming",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(object-oriented programming, of a class) Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "of a class"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈæbˌstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "UK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˌæbˈstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/əbˈstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈæbˌstɹækt/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "extracted",
      "word": "onttrokken"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "extracted",
      "word": "uutettu"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "extracted",
      "word": "extraído"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "extracted",
      "word": "abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "afgezonderd"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "gescheiden"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "erillinen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "teorico"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "separat"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "abstrato"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "abstráktnyj",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "абстра́ктный"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "separate",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "afwezig"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "verstrooid"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "poissaoleva"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "afiriménos",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "αφηρημένος"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "distrahert"
    },
    {
      "code": "fa",
      "lang": "Persian",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "انتزاعی"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "distraído"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "desatento"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "abstrato"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "absent in mind",
      "word": "distraído"
    },
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "maʕnawiyy",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "مَعْنَوِيّ"
    },
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "tajrīdiyy",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "تَجْرِيدِيّ"
    },
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "mujarrad",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "مُجَرَّد"
    },
    {
      "code": "hy",
      "lang": "Armenian",
      "roman": "veracʿakan",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "վերացական"
    },
    {
      "code": "hy",
      "lang": "Armenian",
      "roman": "abstrakt",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "աբստրակտ"
    },
    {
      "code": "ast",
      "lang": "Asturian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "astrautu"
    },
    {
      "code": "az",
      "lang": "Azerbaijani",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "mücərrəd"
    },
    {
      "code": "eu",
      "lang": "Basque",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstraktu"
    },
    {
      "code": "be",
      "lang": "Belarusian",
      "roman": "abstráktny",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "абстра́ктны"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "abstrakten",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "абстрактен"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otvlečen",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "отвлечен"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstracte"
    },
    {
      "code": "yue",
      "lang": "Chinese Cantonese",
      "roman": "cau¹ zoeng⁶",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "抽象"
    },
    {
      "code": "nan-hbl",
      "lang": "Chinese",
      "roman": "zh-min-nan",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "tags": [
        "Hokkien"
      ],
      "word": "抽象"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "chōuxiàng",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "抽象"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstract"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "theoretisch"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakta"
    },
    {
      "code": "et",
      "lang": "Estonian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstraktne"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "teoreettinen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakti"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "code": "gl",
      "lang": "Galician",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "theoritikós",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "θεωρητικός"
    },
    {
      "code": "gu",
      "lang": "Gujarati",
      "roman": "amūrt",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "અમૂર્ત"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "bhāvvācak",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "भाववाचक"
    },
    {
      "code": "hu",
      "lang": "Hungarian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "absztrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "astratto"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "teorico"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshōteki",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "抽象的"
    },
    {
      "code": "kk",
      "lang": "Kazakh",
      "roman": "dereksız",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "дерексіз"
    },
    {
      "code": "kk",
      "lang": "Kazakh",
      "roman": "abstraktyly",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "абстрактылы"
    },
    {
      "code": "kk",
      "lang": "Kazakh",
      "roman": "abstraktılı",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "абстрактілі"
    },
    {
      "code": "ko",
      "lang": "Korean",
      "roman": "chusangjeok",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "추상적"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakts"
    },
    {
      "code": "ms",
      "lang": "Malay",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrak"
    },
    {
      "code": "ms",
      "lang": "Malay",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "niskala"
    },
    {
      "code": "ml",
      "lang": "Malayalam",
      "roman": "amūṟtta",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "അമൂർത്ത"
    },
    {
      "code": "mi",
      "lang": "Maori",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "tūrehurehu"
    },
    {
      "code": "se",
      "lang": "Northern Sami",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrákta"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakcyjny"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrato"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstract"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "abstráktnyj",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "абстра́ктный"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "otvlečónnyj",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "отвлечённый"
    },
    {
      "code": "sa",
      "lang": "Sanskrit",
      "roman": "viṣayavivikta",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "विषयविविक्त"
    },
    {
      "code": "sl",
      "lang": "Slovene",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakten"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "teoretisk"
    },
    {
      "code": "tl",
      "lang": "Tagalog",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "basal"
    },
    {
      "code": "th",
      "lang": "Thai",
      "roman": "naam",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "นาม"
    },
    {
      "code": "tr",
      "lang": "Turkish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "soyut"
    },
    {
      "code": "tr",
      "lang": "Turkish",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "abstre"
    },
    {
      "code": "uk",
      "lang": "Ukrainian",
      "roman": "abstráktnyj",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "абстра́ктний"
    },
    {
      "code": "vi",
      "lang": "Vietnamese",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "trừu tượng"
    },
    {
      "code": "yi",
      "lang": "Yiddish",
      "roman": "abstrakt",
      "sense": "apart from practice or reality; not concrete",
      "word": "אַבסטראַקט"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "nerazbiraem",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "неразбираем"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstracte"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstract"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "vaag"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "algemeen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "vaikeaselkoinen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstrakti"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "dysnóitos",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "δυσνόητος"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "astruso"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "grūti saprotams"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "uforståelig"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstrakcyjny"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "complicado"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "difícil"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "complicado"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "djupsinnig"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "difficult to understand",
      "word": "svårfattlig"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstracte"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstract"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakta"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakti"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "afiriménos",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "αφηρημένος"
    },
    {
      "code": "is",
      "lang": "Icelandic",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshōteki",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "抽象的"
    },
    {
      "code": "ml",
      "lang": "Malayalam",
      "roman": "amūṟtta",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "അമൂർത്ത"
    },
    {
      "code": "mi",
      "lang": "Maori",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "tūrehurehu"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakcyjny"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrato"
    },
    {
      "code": "sl",
      "lang": "Slovene",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstrakten"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "art: free from representational qualities",
      "word": "abstracto"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "algemeen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "yleinen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "abstrait"
    },
    {
      "alt": "ちゅうしょうてき",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "chūshōteki",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "抽象的"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "generell"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "abstrakt"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "general as opposed to particular",
      "word": "abstrato"
    }
  ],
  "word": "abstract"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English 2-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English heteronyms",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English verbs",
    "Requests for gender in Danish entries",
    "Requests for gender in Hindi entries",
    "Requests for gender in Marathi entries",
    "Requests for review of Indonesian translations",
    "Requests for review of Interlingua translations",
    "Requests for review of Korean translations",
    "Requests for review of Spanish translations",
    "Requests for review of Turkish translations",
    "Requests for review of Yiddish translations",
    "Rhymes:English/ækt",
    "Rhymes:English/ækt/2 syllables"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "abstractable"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstracted"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstracter"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractor"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "abstract"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English abstract",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "abstractus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin abstractus",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abstrahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "draw away"
      },
      "expansion": "abstrahō (“draw away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "abs-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "away"
      },
      "expansion": "abs- (“away”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "trahō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to pull, draw"
      },
      "expansion": "trahō (“to pull, draw”)",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrahō (“draw away”), formed from abs- (“away”) + trahō (“to pull, draw”). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "abstracts",
      "tags": [
        "present",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracting",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "present"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracted",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstracted",
      "tags": [
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "en-conj",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "abstract",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "infinitive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "abstract (third-person singular simple present abstracts, present participle abstracting, simple past and past participle abstracted)",
      "name": "en-verb"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "old": "1"
      },
      "name": "en-conj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "verb",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "abstraction"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractive"
    },
    {
      "word": "abstractum"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1834, Harriet Martineau, Illustration of Political Economy, volume IX",
          "text": "The lightning of the public burdens, which at present abstract a large proportion of profits and wages.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To remove; to take away; withdraw."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "remove",
          "remove"
        ],
        [
          "take away",
          "take away"
        ],
        [
          "withdraw",
          "withdraw"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To remove; to take away; withdraw."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English euphemisms",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs",
        "Quotation templates to be cleaned"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1872, William Black, The Strange Adventures of a Phaeton",
          "text": "Von Rosen had quietly abstracted the bearing-reins from the harness.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1869, Bholanauth Chunder, The Travels of a Hindoo to Various Parts of Bengal and Upper India",
          "text": "The inlaid characters in diamond, and other precious stones, have been all abstracted away by the pelf-loving Jaut and Mahratta—leaving the walls defaced with the hollow marks of the chisel.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2014, A P Simester, J R Spencer, G R Sullivan, Simester and Sullivan's Criminal Law: Theory and Doctrine",
          "text": "Section 13 of the 1968 Act enacts a separate offence of dishonestly abstracting electricity. The separate offence is needed because electricity, like other forms of energy such as heat, is not property.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To steal; to take away; to remove without permission."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "steal",
          "steal"
        ],
        [
          "remove",
          "remove"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive, euphemistic) To steal; to take away; to remove without permission."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "euphemistic",
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with obsolete senses",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1601, John Marston, Antonio's Revenge, act II, scene I",
          "text": "Poison from roses who could e'er abstract?",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To extract by means of distillation."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "extract",
          "extract"
        ],
        [
          "distillation",
          "distillation"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive, obsolete) To extract by means of distillation."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "obsolete",
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "June 1869, William Blackwood, Late for the Train (published in Blackwood's Magazine)",
          "text": "The young stranger had been abstracted and silent."
        },
        {
          "text": "He was wholly abstracted by other objects."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To draw off (interest or attention)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To draw off (interest or attention)."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English intransitive verbs",
        "English reflexive verbs",
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To withdraw oneself; to retire."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "withdraw",
          "withdraw"
        ],
        [
          "retire",
          "retire"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(intransitive, reflexive, literally, figuratively) To withdraw oneself; to retire."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "figuratively",
        "intransitive",
        "literally",
        "reflexive",
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To conceptualize an ideal subgroup by means of the generalization of an attribute, as follows: by apprehending an attribute inherent to one individual, then separating that attribute and contemplating it by itself, then conceiving of that attribute as a general quality, then despecifying that conceived quality with respect to several or many individuals, and by then ideating a group composed of those individuals perceived to possess said quality."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ],
        [
          "conceptualize",
          "conceptualize"
        ],
        [
          "ideal",
          "ideal"
        ],
        [
          "subgroup",
          "subgroup"
        ],
        [
          "generalization",
          "generalize"
        ],
        [
          "attribute",
          "attribute"
        ],
        [
          "apprehending",
          "apprehend"
        ],
        [
          "inherent",
          "inherent"
        ],
        [
          "separating",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "conceiving",
          "conceive"
        ],
        [
          "despecifying",
          "despecification"
        ],
        [
          "ideating",
          "ideate"
        ],
        [
          "perceived",
          "perceive"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To conceptualize an ideal subgroup by means of the generalization of an attribute, as follows: by apprehending an attribute inherent to one individual, then separating that attribute and contemplating it by itself, then conceiving of that attribute as a general quality, then despecifying that conceived quality with respect to several or many individuals, and by then ideating a group composed of those individuals perceived to possess said quality."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English intransitive verbs",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English terms with rare senses",
        "English transitive verbs",
        "Quotation templates to be cleaned"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1710, George Berkeley, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge",
          "text": "I own myself able to abstract in one sense.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To perform the process of abstraction."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ],
        [
          "abstraction",
          "abstraction"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "(intransitive, rare) To perform the process of abstraction."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "intransitive",
        "rare",
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English intransitive verbs",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To create abstractions."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "fine arts",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "(intransitive, fine arts) To create abstractions."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "intransitive",
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English intransitive verbs",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs",
        "en:Computing"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "He abstracted out the square root function."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with \"out\"."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ],
        [
          "computing",
          "computing#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "abstraction",
          "abstraction"
        ],
        [
          "refactoring",
          "refactoring"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality.",
        "(intransitive, computing) To produce an abstraction, usually by refactoring existing code. Generally used with \"out\"."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "intransitive",
        "transitive"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "computing",
        "engineering",
        "mathematics",
        "natural-sciences",
        "physical-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1781, Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, volume II",
          "text": "To abstract the notions of time, of space, and of matter.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To separate; to disengage.",
        "To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "separate",
          "separate"
        ],
        [
          "consider",
          "consider"
        ],
        [
          "contemplate",
          "contemplate"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To separate; to disengage.",
        "(transitive) To consider abstractly; to contemplate separately or by itself; to consider theoretically; to look at as a general quality."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English transitive verbs"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "summarize",
          "summarize"
        ],
        [
          "abridge",
          "abridge"
        ],
        [
          "epitomize",
          "epitomize"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) To summarize; to abridge; to epitomize."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˌæbˈstɹækt/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/əbˈstɹækt/"
    },
    {
      "rhymes": "-ækt"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-abstract (noun).wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/9/98/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/9/98/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28noun%29.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Southern-England"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Southern England)"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-abstract (verb).wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-abstract_%28verb%29.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Southern-England"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Southern England)"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "remove"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "separate"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "take away"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to remove, separate, take away, or withdraw",
      "word": "withdraw"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "abridge"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "epitomize"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "summarize"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to filch, purloin, or steal",
      "word": "filch"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to filch, purloin, or steal",
      "word": "purloin"
    },
    {
      "sense": "to filch, purloin, or steal",
      "word": "steal"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otdeljam",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "отделям"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otnemam",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "отнемам"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "afzonderen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "eristää"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "erottaa"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstraire"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "trennen"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "apospó",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "αποσπώ"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "diachorízo",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "διαχωρίζω"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "alag karnā",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "अलग करना"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "nikāl denā",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "निकाल देना"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "mengabstrakkan"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "rimuovere"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "sottrarre"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "estrarre"
    },
    {
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "toru",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "取る"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "atšķirt"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "nošķirt"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "vegḷe karṇe",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "वेगळे करणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "kāḍhūn ṭākṇe",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "काढून टाकणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "separere"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągać"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "tags": [
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągnąć"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "retirar"
    },
    {
      "code": "qu",
      "lang": "Quechua",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "llulmiy"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstraer"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "retirar"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "extraer"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "abstrahera"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "skilja av"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "skilja ut"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to separate; to disengage",
      "word": "ta bort"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "izvaždam",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "изваждам"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "terugtrekken"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "vetää"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "entziehen"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "afairó",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "αφαιρώ"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "aposýro",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "αποσύρω"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "piche ānā",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "पिछे आना"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "māge yeṇe",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "मागे येणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "fjerne"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "utta"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągać"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "tags": [
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągnąć"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "tirar"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "retirar"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "quitar"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "retirar"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to remove; to take away; to withdraw",
      "word": "extraer"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otmǎkvam",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "отмъквам"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "ontvreemden"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "poistaa"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "puhaltaa"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "klévo",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "κλέβω"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "ypexairó",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "υπεξαιρώ"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "sottrarre"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "nozagt"
    },
    {
      "code": "lv",
      "lang": "Latvian",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "nočiept"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "stjele"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "tjuve"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "rane"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "tæsje"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "røve"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "naske"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "roubar"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "knycka"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "stjäla"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "nalla"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to steal",
      "word": "sno"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
      "word": "abstraheren"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
      "word": "abstrahoida"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrt kalākŕtī karnā",
      "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
      "word": "अमूर्त कलाकृती करना"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrta kalākŕtī karṇe",
      "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
      "word": "अमूर्त कलाकृती करणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
      "word": "abstrahere"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to create an artistic abstraction of",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "samenvatten"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "tiivistää"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "abstraire"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "synopsízo",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "συνοψίζω"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "sārāñś karnā",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "सारांश करना"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "mengabstrakkan"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "riassumere"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "sārāuśa karṇe",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "सारांश करणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "oppsummere"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "resumir"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "sumariar"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "resumir"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "göra sammandrag av"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to abridge, epitomize, or summarize",
      "word": "sammanfatta"
    },
    {
      "code": "hy",
      "lang": "Armenian",
      "roman": "abstrahel",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "աբստրահել"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstraheren"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstrakti"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "tuumia"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstrahieren"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrtarūpse lenā",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "अमूर्तरूपसे लेना"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "mengabstrakkan"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrtapṇe gheṇe",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "अमूर्तपणे घेणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "fundere"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "spekulere"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "filosofere"
    },
    {
      "code": "fa",
      "lang": "Persian",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "انتزاعیدن"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "abstraer"
    },
    {
      "code": "yi",
      "lang": "Yiddish",
      "roman": "abstrahirn",
      "sense": "to consider abstractly",
      "word": "אַבסטראַהירן"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "otvličam",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "word": "отвличам"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "word": "afleiden"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "word": "viedä huomio"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "afairoúmai",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "word": "αφαιρούμαι"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągać"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "tags": [
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągnąć"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to draw off",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "onttrekken"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "uuttaa"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "distiller"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "apostázo",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "αποστάζω"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "destillere"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągać"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "tags": [
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "odciągnąć"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "destilar"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to extract by means of distillation",
      "word": "destilar"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
      "word": "zich terugtrekken"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
      "word": "vetäytyä"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
      "word": "se retirer"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
      "word": "fjerne seg"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "to withdraw oneself",
      "word": "abstraerse"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "abstraheren"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "abstrahoida"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "amūrtikran karnā",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "अमूर्तिकरन करना"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "mengabstrakkan"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "astrarre"
    },
    {
      "code": "mr",
      "lang": "Marathi",
      "roman": "amūrtikraṇ karṇe",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "अमूर्तिकरण करणे"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "abstrahere"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective"
      ],
      "word": "abstrahować"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "wyabstrahować"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "abstrair"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "abstragírovatʹ",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "tags": [
        "imperfective",
        "perfective"
      ],
      "word": "абстраги́ровать"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "to perform the process of abstraction",
      "word": "abstrahera"
    }
  ],
  "word": "abstract"
}
{
  "called_from": "page/1498/20230118",
  "msg": "''Something that concentrates in'[...]' gloss has examples we want to keep, but there are subglosses.",
  "path": [
    "abstract"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "noun",
  "title": "abstract",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "page/1498/20230118",
  "msg": "''Not concrete: conceptual, idea'[...]' gloss has examples we want to keep, but there are subglosses.",
  "path": [
    "abstract"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "adjective",
  "title": "abstract",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/2013",
  "msg": "more than one value in \"roman\": thiu-siōng vs. zh-min-nan",
  "path": [
    "abstract"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "adjective",
  "title": "abstract",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "page/1498/20230118",
  "msg": "''To consider abstractly; to con'[...]' gloss has examples we want to keep, but there are subglosses.",
  "path": [
    "abstract"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "verb",
  "title": "abstract",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/2028",
  "msg": "more than one value in \"alt\": (vnimanie) vs. внимание",
  "path": [
    "abstract"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "verb",
  "title": "abstract",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "XYZunsorted",
  "msg": "abstract/English/adj: invalid tag 'of a class' not in valid_tags (or uppercase_tags): {\"categories\": [\"English 2-syllable words\", \"English adjectives\", \"English countable nouns\", \"English entries with language name categories using raw markup\", \"English heteronyms\", \"English lemmas\", \"English nouns\", \"English terms derived from Latin\", \"English terms derived from Middle English\", \"English terms inherited from Middle English\", \"English terms with IPA pronunciation\", \"English terms with audio links\", \"English verbs\", \"Requests for gender in Danish entries\", \"Requests for gender in Hindi entries\", \"Requests for gender in Marathi entries\", \"Requests for review of Indonesian translations\", \"Requests for review of Interlingua translations\", \"Requests for review of Korean translations\", \"Requests for review of Spanish translations\", \"Requests for review of Turkish translations\", \"Requests for review of Yiddish translations\", \"Rhymes:English/\\u00e6kt\", \"Rhymes:English/\\u00e6kt/2 syllables\"], \"derived\": [{\"word\": \"abstract algebra\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract analytic number theory\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract art\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract class\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract data type\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract expressionism\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract expressionist\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract factory class\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract factory pattern\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract harmonic analysis\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract idea\"}, {\"word\": \"abstractification\"}, {\"word\": \"abstractify\"}, {\"word\": \"abstractization\"}, {\"word\": \"abstractize\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract language\"}, {\"word\": \"abstractly\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract method\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract model\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract music\"}, {\"word\": \"abstractness\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract nonsense\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract noun\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract number\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract numbers\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract publication\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract term\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract terms\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract type\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract universal\"}, {\"word\": \"abstract verb\"}, {\"word\": \"autoabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"in the abstract\"}, {\"word\": \"microabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"nonabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"overabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"reabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"semiabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"superabstract\"}, {\"word\": \"typestract\"}, {\"word\": \"unabstract\"}], \"etymology_templates\": [{\"args\": {\"1\": \"en\", \"2\": \"enm\", \"3\": \"abstract\"}, \"expansion\": \"Middle English abstract\", \"name\": \"inh\"}, {\"args\": {\"1\": \"en\", \"2\": \"la\", \"3\": \"abstractus\"}, \"expansion\": \"Latin abstractus\", \"name\": \"der\"}, {\"args\": {\"1\": \"la\", \"2\": \"abstrah\\u014d\", \"3\": \"\", \"4\": \"draw away\"}, \"expansion\": \"abstrah\\u014d (\\u201cdraw away\\u201d)\", \"name\": \"m\"}, {\"args\": {\"1\": \"la\", \"2\": \"abs-\", \"3\": \"\", \"4\": \"away\"}, \"expansion\": \"abs- (\\u201caway\\u201d)\", \"name\": \"m\"}, {\"args\": {\"1\": \"la\", \"2\": \"trah\\u014d\", \"3\": \"\", \"4\": \"to pull, draw\"}, \"expansion\": \"trah\\u014d (\\u201cto pull, draw\\u201d)\", \"name\": \"m\"}], \"etymology_text\": \"From Middle English abstract, borrowed from Latin abstractus, perfect passive participle of abstrah\\u014d (\\u201cdraw away\\u201d), formed from abs- (\\u201caway\\u201d) + trah\\u014d (\\u201cto pull, draw\\u201d). The verbal sense is first attested in 1542.\", \"forms\": [{\"form\": \"more abstract\", \"tags\": [\"comparative\"]}, {\"form\": \"abstracter\", \"tags\": [\"comparative\"]}, {\"form\": \"most abstract\", \"tags\": [\"superlative\"]}, {\"form\": \"abstractest\", \"tags\": [\"superlative\"]}], \"head_templates\": [{\"args\": {\"1\": \"more\", \"2\": \"er\"}, \"expansion\": \"abstract (comparative more abstract or abstracter, superlative most abstract or abstractest)\", \"name\": \"en-adj\"}], \"lang\": \"English\", \"lang_code\": \"en\", \"pos\": \"adj\", \"related\": [{\"word\": \"reify\"}], \"senses\": [{\"categories\": [\"English terms with obsolete senses\"], \"glosses\": [\"Derived; extracted.\"], \"raw_glosses\": [\"(obsolete) Derived; extracted.\"], \"tags\": [\"obsolete\"]}, {\"categories\": [\"English terms with rare senses\"], \"examples\": [{\"ref\": \"17th century, John Norris (philosopher), The Oxford Dictionary\", \"text\": \"The more abstract we are from the body ... the more fit we shall be to behold divine light.\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate.\"], \"links\": [[\"remove\", \"remove\"], [\"separate\", \"separate\"]], \"raw_glosses\": [\"(now rare) Drawn away; removed from; apart from; separate.\"], \"tags\": [\"archaic\"]}, {\"antonyms\": [{\"word\": \"actual\"}, {\"word\": \"concrete\"}, {\"word\": \"corporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"empirical\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.\", \"Insufficiently factual.\"], \"links\": [[\"concrete\", \"concrete\"], [\"conceptual\", \"conceptual\"], [\"ideal\", \"ideal\"]], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"conceptual\"}, {\"word\": \"ideal\"}, {\"word\": \"imaginary\"}, {\"word\": \"incorporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"intangible\"}, {\"word\": \"nonempirical\"}, {\"word\": \"theoretical\"}, {\"word\": \"formal\"}]}, {\"antonyms\": [{\"word\": \"actual\"}, {\"word\": \"concrete\"}, {\"word\": \"corporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"empirical\"}, {\"word\": \"applied\"}, {\"word\": \"practical\"}], \"categories\": [\"English terms with quotations\"], \"examples\": [{\"ref\": \"1999, Nicholas Walker, \\u201cThe Reorientation of Critical Theory: Habermas\\u201d, in Simon Glemdinning, editor, The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy, Routledge, page 489\", \"text\": \"During the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, this commitment brought him into frequent critical confrontation with entrenched forms of conservative thinking (in academic areas from history and social science to the more abstract domains of ethical and political philosophy),[\\u2026]\", \"type\": \"quotation\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.\", \"Apart from practice or reality; vague; theoretical; impersonal; not applied.\"], \"links\": [[\"concrete\", \"concrete\"], [\"conceptual\", \"conceptual\"], [\"ideal\", \"ideal\"], [\"practice\", \"practice\"], [\"reality\", \"reality\"], [\"vague\", \"vague\"], [\"theoretical\", \"theoretical\"], [\"impersonal\", \"impersonal\"]], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"conceptual\"}, {\"word\": \"ideal\"}, {\"word\": \"imaginary\"}, {\"word\": \"incorporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"intangible\"}, {\"word\": \"nonempirical\"}, {\"word\": \"theoretical\"}, {\"word\": \"conceptual\"}, {\"word\": \"theoretical\"}]}, {\"antonyms\": [{\"word\": \"actual\"}, {\"word\": \"concrete\"}, {\"word\": \"corporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"empirical\"}], \"categories\": [\"en:Grammar\"], \"glosses\": [\"Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.\", \"As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person.\"], \"links\": [[\"concrete\", \"concrete\"], [\"conceptual\", \"conceptual\"], [\"ideal\", \"ideal\"], [\"grammar\", \"grammar\"]], \"raw_glosses\": [\"Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.\", \"(grammar) As a noun, denoting a concept or intangible as opposed to an object, place, or person.\"], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"conceptual\"}, {\"word\": \"ideal\"}, {\"word\": \"imaginary\"}, {\"word\": \"incorporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"intangible\"}, {\"word\": \"nonempirical\"}, {\"word\": \"theoretical\"}], \"topics\": [\"grammar\", \"human-sciences\", \"linguistics\", \"sciences\"]}, {\"antonyms\": [{\"word\": \"actual\"}, {\"word\": \"concrete\"}, {\"word\": \"corporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"empirical\"}], \"categories\": [\"English terms with usage examples\"], \"examples\": [{\"text\": \"Her new film is an abstract piece, combining elements of magic realism, flashbacks, and animation but with very little in terms of plot construction.\", \"type\": \"example\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Not concrete: conceptual, ideal.\"], \"links\": [[\"concrete\", \"concrete\"], [\"conceptual\", \"conceptual\"], [\"ideal\", \"ideal\"]], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"conceptual\"}, {\"word\": \"ideal\"}, {\"word\": \"imaginary\"}, {\"word\": \"incorporeal\"}, {\"word\": \"intangible\"}, {\"word\": \"nonempirical\"}, {\"word\": \"theoretical\"}]}, {\"categories\": [\"English terms with quotations\", \"English terms with usage examples\"], \"examples\": [{\"text\": \"The politician gave a somewhat abstract answer when asked about their plans to cut spending.\", \"type\": \"example\"}, {\"ref\": \"1929, Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms\", \"text\": \"Abstract words such as glory, honour, courage, or hallow were obscene.\", \"type\": \"quotation\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Difficult to understand; abstruse; hard to conceptualize.\"], \"links\": [[\"abstruse\", \"abstruse\"]], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"abstruse\"}]}, {\"categories\": [\"English terms with quotations\"], \"examples\": [{\"ref\": \"1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, volume 1, page 34\", \"text\": \"A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing...\", \"type\": \"quotation\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Separately expressing a property or attribute of an object that is considered to be inherent to that object: attributive, ascriptive.\"], \"links\": [[\"Separately\", \"separate\"], [\"property\", \"property\"], [\"attribute\", \"attribute\"], [\"inherent\", \"inherent\"], [\"attributive\", \"attributive\"], [\"ascriptive\", \"ascriptive\"]], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"attributive\"}, {\"word\": \"ascriptive\"}]}, {\"antonyms\": [{\"word\": \"discrete\"}, {\"word\": \"specific\"}, {\"word\": \"particular\"}, {\"word\": \"precise\"}], \"categories\": [\"English terms with quotations\"], \"examples\": [{\"ref\": \"1843, John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, volume 1, page 34\", \"text\": \"A concrete name is a name which stands for a thing; an abstract name which stands for an attribute of a thing.[\\u2026]A practice, however, has grown up in more modern times, which, if not introduced by Locke, has gained currency from his example, of applying the expression \\\"abstract name\\\" to all names which are the result of abstraction and generalization, and consequently to all general names, instead of confining it to the names of attributes.\", \"type\": \"quotation\"}, {\"ref\": \"2012, Laurence, Stephen and Margolis, Eric, Abstraction and the Origin of General Ideas, Philosophers' Imprint volume 12, no. 19, December 2012\", \"text\": \"Given their opposition to innate ideas, philosophers in the empiricist tradition have sought to explain how the rich and multifarious representational capacities that human beings possess derive from experience. A key explanatory strategy in this tradition, tracing back at least as far as John Locke\\u2019s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, is to maintain that the acquisition of many of these capacities can be accounted for by a process of abstraction. In fact, Locke himself claims in the Essay that abstraction is the source of all general ideas (1690/1975, II, xii, \\u00a71). Although Berkeley and Hume were highly critical of Locke, abstraction as a source of generality has been a lasting theme in empiricist thought.\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Pertaining comprehensively to, or representing, a class or group of objects, as opposed to any specific object; considered apart from any application to a particular object: general, generic, nonspecific; representational.\"], \"links\": [[\"Pertaining\", \"pertain\"], [\"comprehensively\", \"comprehensively\"], [\"representing\", \"represent\"], [\"object\", \"object\"], [\"specific\", \"specific\"], [\"particular\", \"particular\"], [\"general\", \"general\"], [\"generic\", \"generic\"], [\"nonspecific\", \"nonspecific\"], [\"representational\", \"representational\"]], \"synonyms\": [{\"word\": \"general\"}, {\"word\": \"generalized\"}, {\"word\": \"generic\"}, {\"word\": \"nonspecific\"}, {\"word\": \"representational\"}]}, {\"categories\": [\"English terms with archaic senses\", \"English terms with quotations\"], \"examples\": [{\"ref\": \"1922, D. H. Lawrence, Aaron's Rod\", \"text\": \"White and abstract-looking, he sat and ate his dinner.\", \"type\": \"quotation\"}], \"glosses\": [\"Absent-minded.\"], \"links\": [[\"Absent-minded\", \"absent-minded\"]], \"raw_glosses\": [\"(archaic) Absent-minded.\"], \"tags\": [\"archaic\"]}, {\"categories\": [\"en:Art\"], \"glosses\": [\"Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.\", \"Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20\\u1d57\\u02b0 century.\"], \"links\": [[\"art\", \"art#Noun\"], [\"capitalized\", \"capitalisation\"]], \"raw_glosses\": [\"(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.\", \"(art, often capitalized) Free from representational qualities, in particular the non-representational styles of the 20\\u1d57\\u02b0 century.\"], \"tags\": [\"capitalized\", \"often\"], \"topics\": [\"art\", \"arts\"]}, {\"categories\": [\"en:Art\", \"en:Music\"], \"glosses\": [\"Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.\", \"Absolute.\"], \"links\": [[\"art\", \"art#Noun\"], [\"music\", \"music\"], [\"Absolute\", \"absolute\"]], \"raw_glosses\": [\"(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.\", \"(music) Absolute.\"], \"topics\": [\"art\", \"arts\", \"entertainment\", \"lifestyle\", \"music\"]}, {\"categories\": [\"en:Art\", \"en:Dance\"], \"glosses\": [\"Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.\", \"Lacking a story.\"], \"links\": [[\"art\", \"art#Noun\"], [\"dance\", \"dance#Noun\"]], \"raw_glosses\": [\"(art) Pertaining to the formal aspect of art, such as the lines, colors, shapes, and the relationships among them.\", \"(dance) Lacking a story.\"], \"topics\": [\"art\", \"arts\", \"dance\", \"dancing\", \"hobbies\", \"lifestyle\", \"sports\"]}, {\"categories\": [\"en:Object-oriented programming\"], \"glosses\": [\"Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects.\"], \"links\": [[\"object-oriented programming\", \"object-oriented programming\"], [\"class\", \"class\"], [\"subclass\", \"subclass\"], [\"object\", \"object\"]], \"qualifier\": \"object-oriented programming\", \"raw_glosses\": [\"(object-oriented programming, of a class) Being a partial basis for subclasses rather than a complete template for objects.\"], \"tags\": [\"of a class\"]}], \"sounds\": [{\"ipa\": \"/\\u02c8\\u00e6b\\u02ccst\\u0279\\u00e6kt/\", \"tags\": [\"UK\"]}, {\"ipa\": \"/\\u02cc\\u00e6b\\u02c8st\\u0279\\u00e6kt/\", \"tags\": [\"US\"]}, {\"ipa\": \"/\\u0259b\\u02c8st\\u0279\\u00e6kt/\", \"tags\": [\"US\"]}, {\"ipa\": \"/\\u02c8\\u00e6b\\u02ccst\\u0279\\u00e6kt/\", \"tags\": [\"US\"]}], \"translations\": [{\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"extracted\", \"word\": \"onttrokken\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"extracted\", \"word\": \"uutettu\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"extracted\", \"word\": \"extra\\u00eddo\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"extracted\", \"word\": \"abstracto\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"afgezonderd\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"gescheiden\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"erillinen\"}, {\"code\": \"fr\", \"lang\": \"French\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"abstrait\"}, {\"code\": \"it\", \"lang\": \"Italian\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"teorico\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"separat\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"abstrato\"}, {\"code\": \"ru\", \"lang\": \"Russian\", \"roman\": \"abstr\\u00e1ktnyj\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u0301\\u043a\\u0442\\u043d\\u044b\\u0439\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"abstracto\"}, {\"code\": \"sv\", \"lang\": \"Swedish\", \"sense\": \"separate\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"afwezig\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"verstrooid\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"poissaoleva\"}, {\"code\": \"fr\", \"lang\": \"French\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"abstrait\"}, {\"code\": \"el\", \"lang\": \"Greek\", \"roman\": \"afirim\\u00e9nos\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"\\u03b1\\u03c6\\u03b7\\u03c1\\u03b7\\u03bc\\u03ad\\u03bd\\u03bf\\u03c2\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"distrahert\"}, {\"code\": \"fa\", \"lang\": \"Persian\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"\\u0627\\u0646\\u062a\\u0632\\u0627\\u0639\\u06cc\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"distra\\u00eddo\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"desatento\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"abstrato\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"absent in mind\", \"word\": \"distra\\u00eddo\"}, {\"code\": \"ar\", \"lang\": \"Arabic\", \"roman\": \"ma\\u0295nawiyy\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0645\\u064e\\u0639\\u0652\\u0646\\u064e\\u0648\\u0650\\u064a\\u0651\"}, {\"code\": \"ar\", \"lang\": \"Arabic\", \"roman\": \"tajr\\u012bdiyy\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u062a\\u064e\\u062c\\u0652\\u0631\\u0650\\u064a\\u062f\\u0650\\u064a\\u0651\"}, {\"code\": \"ar\", \"lang\": \"Arabic\", \"roman\": \"mujarrad\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0645\\u064f\\u062c\\u064e\\u0631\\u064e\\u0651\\u062f\"}, {\"code\": \"hy\", \"lang\": \"Armenian\", \"roman\": \"verac\\u02bfakan\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u057e\\u0565\\u0580\\u0561\\u0581\\u0561\\u056f\\u0561\\u0576\"}, {\"code\": \"hy\", \"lang\": \"Armenian\", \"roman\": \"abstrakt\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0561\\u0562\\u057d\\u057f\\u0580\\u0561\\u056f\\u057f\"}, {\"code\": \"ast\", \"lang\": \"Asturian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"astrautu\"}, {\"code\": \"az\", \"lang\": \"Azerbaijani\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"m\\u00fcc\\u0259rr\\u0259d\"}, {\"code\": \"eu\", \"lang\": \"Basque\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstraktu\"}, {\"code\": \"be\", \"lang\": \"Belarusian\", \"roman\": \"abstr\\u00e1ktny\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u0301\\u043a\\u0442\\u043d\\u044b\"}, {\"code\": \"bg\", \"lang\": \"Bulgarian\", \"roman\": \"abstrakten\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u043a\\u0442\\u0435\\u043d\"}, {\"code\": \"bg\", \"lang\": \"Bulgarian\", \"roman\": \"otvle\\u010den\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u043e\\u0442\\u0432\\u043b\\u0435\\u0447\\u0435\\u043d\"}, {\"code\": \"ca\", \"lang\": \"Catalan\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstracte\"}, {\"code\": \"yue\", \"lang\": \"Chinese Cantonese\", \"roman\": \"cau\\u00b9 zoeng\\u2076\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u62bd\\u8c61\"}, {\"code\": \"nan-hbl\", \"lang\": \"Chinese\", \"roman\": \"zh-min-nan\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"tags\": [\"Hokkien\"], \"word\": \"\\u62bd\\u8c61\"}, {\"code\": \"cmn\", \"lang\": \"Chinese Mandarin\", \"roman\": \"ch\\u014duxi\\u00e0ng\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u62bd\\u8c61\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstract\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"theoretisch\"}, {\"code\": \"eo\", \"lang\": \"Esperanto\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakta\"}, {\"code\": \"et\", \"lang\": \"Estonian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstraktne\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"teoreettinen\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakti\"}, {\"code\": \"fr\", \"lang\": \"French\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrait\"}, {\"code\": \"gl\", \"lang\": \"Galician\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstracto\"}, {\"code\": \"de\", \"lang\": \"German\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"el\", \"lang\": \"Greek\", \"roman\": \"theoritik\\u00f3s\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"\\u03b8\\u03b5\\u03c9\\u03c1\\u03b7\\u03c4\\u03b9\\u03ba\\u03cc\\u03c2\"}, {\"code\": \"gu\", \"lang\": \"Gujarati\", \"roman\": \"am\\u016brt\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0a85\\u0aae\\u0ac2\\u0ab0\\u0acd\\u0aa4\"}, {\"code\": \"hi\", \"lang\": \"Hindi\", \"roman\": \"bh\\u0101vv\\u0101cak\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u092d\\u093e\\u0935\\u0935\\u093e\\u091a\\u0915\"}, {\"code\": \"hu\", \"lang\": \"Hungarian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"absztrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"it\", \"lang\": \"Italian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"astratto\"}, {\"code\": \"it\", \"lang\": \"Italian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"teorico\"}, {\"alt\": \"\\u3061\\u3085\\u3046\\u3057\\u3087\\u3046\\u3066\\u304d\", \"code\": \"ja\", \"lang\": \"Japanese\", \"roman\": \"ch\\u016bsh\\u014dteki\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u62bd\\u8c61\\u7684\"}, {\"code\": \"kk\", \"lang\": \"Kazakh\", \"roman\": \"dereks\\u0131z\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0434\\u0435\\u0440\\u0435\\u043a\\u0441\\u0456\\u0437\"}, {\"code\": \"kk\", \"lang\": \"Kazakh\", \"roman\": \"abstraktyly\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u043a\\u0442\\u044b\\u043b\\u044b\"}, {\"code\": \"kk\", \"lang\": \"Kazakh\", \"roman\": \"abstrakt\\u0131l\\u0131\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u043a\\u0442\\u0456\\u043b\\u0456\"}, {\"code\": \"ko\", \"lang\": \"Korean\", \"roman\": \"chusangjeok\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\ucd94\\uc0c1\\uc801\"}, {\"code\": \"lv\", \"lang\": \"Latvian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakts\"}, {\"code\": \"ms\", \"lang\": \"Malay\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrak\"}, {\"code\": \"ms\", \"lang\": \"Malay\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"niskala\"}, {\"code\": \"ml\", \"lang\": \"Malayalam\", \"roman\": \"am\\u016b\\u1e5ftta\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0d05\\u0d2e\\u0d42\\u0d7c\\u0d24\\u0d4d\\u0d24\"}, {\"code\": \"mi\", \"lang\": \"Maori\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"t\\u016brehurehu\"}, {\"code\": \"se\", \"lang\": \"Northern Sami\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstr\\u00e1kta\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"pl\", \"lang\": \"Polish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakcyjny\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrato\"}, {\"code\": \"ro\", \"lang\": \"Romanian\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstract\"}, {\"code\": \"ru\", \"lang\": \"Russian\", \"roman\": \"abstr\\u00e1ktnyj\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u0301\\u043a\\u0442\\u043d\\u044b\\u0439\"}, {\"code\": \"ru\", \"lang\": \"Russian\", \"roman\": \"otvle\\u010d\\u00f3nnyj\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u043e\\u0442\\u0432\\u043b\\u0435\\u0447\\u0451\\u043d\\u043d\\u044b\\u0439\"}, {\"code\": \"sa\", \"lang\": \"Sanskrit\", \"roman\": \"vi\\u1e63ayavivikta\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0935\\u093f\\u0937\\u092f\\u0935\\u093f\\u0935\\u093f\\u0915\\u094d\\u0924\"}, {\"code\": \"sl\", \"lang\": \"Slovene\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakten\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstracto\"}, {\"code\": \"sv\", \"lang\": \"Swedish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"sv\", \"lang\": \"Swedish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"teoretisk\"}, {\"code\": \"tl\", \"lang\": \"Tagalog\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"basal\"}, {\"code\": \"th\", \"lang\": \"Thai\", \"roman\": \"naam\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0e19\\u0e32\\u0e21\"}, {\"code\": \"tr\", \"lang\": \"Turkish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"soyut\"}, {\"code\": \"tr\", \"lang\": \"Turkish\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"abstre\"}, {\"code\": \"uk\", \"lang\": \"Ukrainian\", \"roman\": \"abstr\\u00e1ktnyj\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u0430\\u0431\\u0441\\u0442\\u0440\\u0430\\u0301\\u043a\\u0442\\u043d\\u0438\\u0439\"}, {\"code\": \"vi\", \"lang\": \"Vietnamese\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"tr\\u1eebu t\\u01b0\\u1ee3ng\"}, {\"code\": \"yi\", \"lang\": \"Yiddish\", \"roman\": \"abstrakt\", \"sense\": \"apart from practice or reality; not concrete\", \"word\": \"\\u05d0\\u05b7\\u05d1\\u05e1\\u05d8\\u05e8\\u05d0\\u05b7\\u05e7\\u05d8\"}, {\"code\": \"bg\", \"lang\": \"Bulgarian\", \"roman\": \"nerazbiraem\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"\\u043d\\u0435\\u0440\\u0430\\u0437\\u0431\\u0438\\u0440\\u0430\\u0435\\u043c\"}, {\"code\": \"ca\", \"lang\": \"Catalan\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstracte\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstract\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"vaag\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"algemeen\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"vaikeaselkoinen\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstrakti\"}, {\"code\": \"fr\", \"lang\": \"French\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstrait\"}, {\"code\": \"el\", \"lang\": \"Greek\", \"roman\": \"dysn\\u00f3itos\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"\\u03b4\\u03c5\\u03c3\\u03bd\\u03cc\\u03b7\\u03c4\\u03bf\\u03c2\"}, {\"code\": \"it\", \"lang\": \"Italian\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"astruso\"}, {\"code\": \"lv\", \"lang\": \"Latvian\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"gr\\u016bti saprotams\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"uforst\\u00e5elig\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"pl\", \"lang\": \"Polish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstrakcyjny\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"complicado\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"dif\\u00edcil\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"abstracto\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"complicado\"}, {\"code\": \"sv\", \"lang\": \"Swedish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"djupsinnig\"}, {\"code\": \"sv\", \"lang\": \"Swedish\", \"sense\": \"difficult to understand\", \"word\": \"sv\\u00e5rfattlig\"}, {\"code\": \"ca\", \"lang\": \"Catalan\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstracte\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstract\"}, {\"code\": \"eo\", \"lang\": \"Esperanto\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakta\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakti\"}, {\"code\": \"fr\", \"lang\": \"French\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"abstrait\"}, {\"code\": \"de\", \"lang\": \"German\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"el\", \"lang\": \"Greek\", \"roman\": \"afirim\\u00e9nos\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"\\u03b1\\u03c6\\u03b7\\u03c1\\u03b7\\u03bc\\u03ad\\u03bd\\u03bf\\u03c2\"}, {\"code\": \"is\", \"lang\": \"Icelandic\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"alt\": \"\\u3061\\u3085\\u3046\\u3057\\u3087\\u3046\\u3066\\u304d\", \"code\": \"ja\", \"lang\": \"Japanese\", \"roman\": \"ch\\u016bsh\\u014dteki\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"\\u62bd\\u8c61\\u7684\"}, {\"code\": \"ml\", \"lang\": \"Malayalam\", \"roman\": \"am\\u016b\\u1e5ftta\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"\\u0d05\\u0d2e\\u0d42\\u0d7c\\u0d24\\u0d4d\\u0d24\"}, {\"code\": \"mi\", \"lang\": \"Maori\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"t\\u016brehurehu\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"pl\", \"lang\": \"Polish\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakcyjny\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrato\"}, {\"code\": \"sl\", \"lang\": \"Slovene\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstrakten\"}, {\"code\": \"es\", \"lang\": \"Spanish\", \"sense\": \"art: free from representational qualities\", \"word\": \"abstracto\"}, {\"code\": \"nl\", \"lang\": \"Dutch\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"word\": \"algemeen\"}, {\"code\": \"fi\", \"lang\": \"Finnish\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"word\": \"yleinen\"}, {\"code\": \"fr\", \"lang\": \"French\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"tags\": [\"masculine\"], \"word\": \"abstrait\"}, {\"alt\": \"\\u3061\\u3085\\u3046\\u3057\\u3087\\u3046\\u3066\\u304d\", \"code\": \"ja\", \"lang\": \"Japanese\", \"roman\": \"ch\\u016bsh\\u014dteki\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"word\": \"\\u62bd\\u8c61\\u7684\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"word\": \"generell\"}, {\"code\": \"nb\", \"lang\": \"Norwegian Bokm\\u00e5l\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"word\": \"abstrakt\"}, {\"code\": \"pt\", \"lang\": \"Portuguese\", \"sense\": \"general as opposed to particular\", \"word\": \"abstrato\"}], \"word\": \"abstract\"}",
  "path": [],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "adj",
  "title": "abstract",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable English dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (ee658f9 and be4df6b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.