"-es" meaning in All languages combined

See -es on Wiktionary

Suffix [Dutch]

IPA: /ɛs/
Etymology: From Middle Dutch -esse, borrowed from Northern Old French -esse, from Late Latin -issa (as in abbātissa (“abbess”)). Etymology templates: {{inh|nl|dum|-esse}} Middle Dutch -esse, {{der|nl|fro|-esse}} Old French -esse, {{der|nl|LL.|-issa}} Late Latin -issa Head templates: {{head|nl|suffix|cat2=noun-forming suffixes}} -es
  1. Creates the female form of persons or occupations, as English -ess. Tags: morpheme Related terms: -in
    Sense id: en--es-nl-suffix-h6YYZ8uL Categories (other): Dutch entries with incorrect language header

Suffix [English]

IPA: /əz/ (note: after sibilant), /ɪz/ (note: after sibilant), /z/ (note: after vowel sound)
Etymology: From Middle English -es, from Old English -as. More at -s. Etymology templates: {{inh|en|enm|-es}} Middle English -es, {{inh|en|ang|-as}} Old English -as Head templates: {{head|en|suffix|cat2=|cat3=|head=|id=}} -es, {{en-suffix|inflectional}} -es
  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:
    (t)ch, when pronounced as /tʃ/: glitch→glitches (but psych→psychs)
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-W7CtYZdG
  2. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:
    (j)j: hajj→hajjes (j is only final in loan words raj, hajj)
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-9dyfNVX8
  3. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:
    (s)s: bus→buses, rendezvous→rendezvouses
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-lOdllKvj
  4. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:
    x: box→boxes
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-p1oyopHf
  5. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:
    (z)z: waltz→waltzes
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-GHP-pXVh
  6. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:
    sh: ash→ashes
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-3skqYHJR
  7. Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y: Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-6EWCrRkH
  8. Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o: Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-6UF1WMdR
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [English]

IPA: /əz/ (note: after sibilant), /ɪz/ (note: after sibilant), /z/ (note: after vowel sound)
Etymology: From Middle English -es, -is, from Old English -es, -as, Northern variants of -est, -ast (second person singular indicative ending). Replaced Middle English -eth, from Old English -eþ, -aþ. The falling together of the second and third person singular verb forms in Old English is believed to be due to Scandinavian influence, where the employment of the same verbal endings for both 2nd and 3rd singular indicative follows a similar pattern to that seen in Old Norse (e.g. þú masar, hann masar; þú þekkir, hann þekkir; etc.). Etymology templates: {{inh|en|enm|-es}} Middle English -es, {{der|en|ang|-es}} Old English -es, {{inh|en|ang|-eþ}} Old English -eþ Head templates: {{head|en|suffix}} -es
  1. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in (t)ch pronounced as /tʃ/: impeach→impeaches (but psych→psychs)
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-G8ezJ-S3 Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 7 10 6 7 6 0
  2. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in (s)s: miss→misses
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-Do5yIchJ Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 7 10 6 7 6 0
  3. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in x: tax→taxes
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-y08fSK0P
  4. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in (z)z: fizz→fizzes
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-xZ5YSeiu Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 7 10 6 7 6 0
  5. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in consonant + o in some cases: go→goes (but piano→pianos)
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-PUr3Glym
  6. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in sh: wish→wishes
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-vcX70gPr
  7. Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:
    that end in consonant (or qu) + y: cry→cries (but buy→buys)
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-r8G~esKV
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [English]

IPA: /əz/ (note: after sibilant), /ɪz/ (note: after sibilant), /z/ (note: after vowel sound)
Etymology: See -s, -'s. Head templates: {{head|en|suffix|cat2=|cat3=|head=|id=}} -es, {{en-suffix}} -es
  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) Possessive marker; see -s, -'s. Tags: idiomatic, morpheme, obsolete
    Sense id: en--es-en-suffix-j7p9hUkO
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix [Esperanto]

Audio: LL-Q143 (epo)-Lepticed7--es.wav
Head templates: {{head|eo|suffix|cat2=endings|sort=es}} -es
  1. belonging to. (Ending for genitive correlatives.) Tags: morpheme Derived forms: ĉies (english: belonging to everyone, everyone's), ies (english: belonging to someone, someone's), kies (english: belonging to whom, whose), nenies (english: belonging to nobody, nobody's), ties (english: belonging to that one, that one's) Derived forms (nonce): alies (english: belonging to someone else, someone else's)

Suffix [French]

Etymology: From Latin -ās. Etymology templates: {{inh|fr|la|-ās}} Latin -ās Head templates: {{head|fr|suffix|||||g=|g2=|head=|sort=}} -es, {{fr-suffix}} -es
  1. forms the second-person singular present indicative form of a verb Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-fr-suffix-5g-cMKxO Categories (other): French entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of French entries with incorrect language header: 50 50
  2. forms the second-person singular present subjunctive form of a verb Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-fr-suffix-DfF3T~~S Categories (other): French entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of French entries with incorrect language header: 50 50

Suffix [German]

IPA: /əs/
Head templates: {{head|de|inflectional suffixes}} -es
  1. Alternative form of -s (genitive ending) Tags: alt-of, alternative, morpheme Alternative form of: -s (extra: genitive ending) Related terms: -es-
    Sense id: en--es-de-suffix-5ZT3BGTk
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [German]

IPA: /ɛs/
Head templates: {{head|de|suffix|invariable}} -es (invariable)
  1. (music) flat, ♭ Tags: invariable, morpheme Categories (topical): Music Derived forms: -eses (english: double flat)
    Sense id: en--es-de-suffix-o8UNrUwy Categories (other): German entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of German entries with incorrect language header: 32 68 Topics: entertainment, lifestyle, music
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Hungarian]

IPA: [ɛʃ]
Rhymes: -ɛʃ Head templates: {{head|hu|suffix|cat2=adjective-forming suffixes|cat3=noun-forming suffixes}} -es
  1. (adjective-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning "having something, a quality"; sometimes referred to as ornative. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-hu-suffix-hu:adjective Categories (other): Hungarian entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Hungarian entries with incorrect language header: 37 29 35
  2. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-hu-suffix-hu:noun Categories (other): Hungarian entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Hungarian entries with incorrect language header: 37 29 35
  3. (number-forming suffix) Added to a cardinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-hu-suffix-hu:numeral Categories (other): Hungarian entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Hungarian entries with incorrect language header: 37 29 35

Suffix [Latin]

IPA: /eːs/ [Classical], [eːs̠] [Classical], /es/ (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical), [es] (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical)
Inflection templates: {{la-ndecl|-ēs<3.I>}} Forms: -ēs [canonical, feminine], -is [genitive], no-table-tags [table-tags], -ēs [nominative, singular], -ēs [nominative, plural], -is [genitive, singular], -ium [genitive, plural], [dative, singular], -ibus [dative, plural], -em [accusative, singular], -ēs [accusative, plural], -īs [accusative, plural], -e [ablative, singular], -ibus [ablative, plural], -ēs [singular, vocative], -ēs [plural, vocative]
  1. used to form a third-declension feminine abstract noun designating the result of an action from a verb root or conceived root form Tags: declension-3, morpheme Synonyms: -or, -us
    Sense id: en--es-la-suffix-la:abstract_noun Categories (other): Latin entries with incorrect language header, Latin feminine suffixes in the third declension Disambiguation of Latin entries with incorrect language header: 61 10 22 7
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [Latin]

IPA: /eːs/ [Classical], [eːs̠] [Classical], /es/ (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical), [es] (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical)
Etymology: From *-h₁i-t-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-, the root of eō, īre (“to go”). Because the nominative singular would regularly have developed to *-is, the attested ending *-es has to be explained as an analogical replacement based on the alternation between -ĕ- in the closed final syllable of the nominative singular and -ĭ- in the open medial syllable of oblique forms that developed regularly in other nouns as a result of the sound change of vowel reduction. Etymology templates: {{inh|la|ine-pro|*h₁ey-}} Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey- Inflection templates: {{la-ndecl|-es/-it<3>}} Forms: -itis [genitive], no-table-tags [table-tags], -es [nominative, singular], -itēs [nominative, plural], -itis [genitive, singular], -itum [genitive, plural], -itī [dative, singular], -itibus [dative, plural], -item [accusative, singular], -itēs [accusative, plural], -ite [ablative, singular], -itibus [ablative, plural], -es [singular, vocative], -itēs [plural, vocative]
  1. used to form third-declension nouns, most of which have senses along the lines of 'one who goes (by)' Tags: declension-3, masculine, morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-la-suffix-la:t_stem Categories (other): Latin masculine suffixes in the third declension
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Latin]

IPA: /eːs/ [Classical], [eːs̠] [Classical], /es/ (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical), [es] (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical) Forms: -ēs [canonical]
Etymology: See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form. Etymology templates: {{nonlemma}} See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form. Head templates: {{head|la|suffix form|head=-ēs}} -ēs
  1. second-person singular present active subjunctive of -ō (first conjugation) Tags: active, form-of, morpheme, present, second-person, singular, subjunctive Form of: (extra: first conjugation)
    Sense id: en--es-la-suffix-JG86~pCZ
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix [Latin]

IPA: /eːs/ [Classical], [eːs̠] [Classical], /es/ (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical), [es] (note: modern Italianate Ecclesiastical)
Etymology: See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form. Etymology templates: {{nonlemma}} See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form. Head templates: {{head|la|suffix form|head=-es}} -es
  1. nominative/accusative/vocative masculine/feminine plural of -s Tags: accusative, feminine, form-of, masculine, morpheme, nominative, plural, vocative Form of: -s
    Sense id: en--es-la-suffix-jvVN9Nvl
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 4

Suffix [Middle English]

Head templates: {{head|enm|suffix}} -es
  1. Alternative form of -yssh Tags: alt-of, alternative, morpheme Alternative form of: -yssh
    Sense id: en--es-enm-suffix-S9WSJVeh
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [Middle English]

Head templates: {{head|enm|suffix}} -es
  1. Alternative form of -esse (-ess) Tags: alt-of, alternative, morpheme Alternative form of: -esse (extra: -ess)
    Sense id: en--es-enm-suffix-lKByXcg4 Categories (other): Middle English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Middle English entries with incorrect language header: 7 93
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Mohawk]

Head templates: {{head|moh|suffix}} -es
  1. long Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-moh-suffix-~GbwIcZ9
  2. with tsi ni-: during Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-moh-suffix-9qsMpn0z Categories (other): Mohawk entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Mohawk entries with incorrect language header: 0 100

Suffix [Old English]

IPA: /es/
Etymology: From Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Etymology templates: {{inh|ang|gem-pro|*-as}} Proto-Germanic *-as, {{inh|ang|ine-pro|*-es}} Proto-Indo-European *-es Head templates: {{head|ang|suffix|cat2=|head=|head2=|sort=}} -es, {{ang-suffix}} -es
  1. possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the noun Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-ang-suffix-cw~lcXia Categories (other): Old English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Old English entries with incorrect language header: 52 48
  2. used in formation of adverbs, originally from the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns, but later added also to feminine nouns by analogy Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-ang-suffix-in1vLTIm Categories (other): Old English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Old English entries with incorrect language header: 52 48

Suffix [Old Saxon]

IPA: /ɛs/
Etymology: From Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Etymology templates: {{inh|osx|gem-pro|*-as}} Proto-Germanic *-as, {{inh|osx|ine-pro|*-es}} Proto-Indo-European *-es Head templates: {{head|osx|suffix}} -es
  1. possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the noun Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-osx-suffix-cw~lcXia Categories (other): Old Saxon entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Old Saxon entries with incorrect language header: 75 25
  2. used in formation of adverbs Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-osx-suffix-SYEcPHxl

Suffix [Portuguese]

Etymology: From Latin -ēs (2nd conj.), -is (3rd conj.), -īs (4th conj.). Etymology templates: {{inh|pt|la|-ēs|pos=2nd conj.}} Latin -ēs (2nd conj.) Head templates: {{head|pt|suffix|||||||g=|g2=|head=|sort=es}} -es, {{pt-suffix|verb|es}} -es
  1. forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular present indicative of 2ⁿᵈ and 3ʳᵈ conjugation verbs Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-pt-suffix-5EtufESb
  2. forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular present subjunctive of 1ˢᵗ conjugation verbs Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-pt-suffix-raD28Q0Z
  3. forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular negative imperative of 1ˢᵗ conjugation verbs Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-pt-suffix-f4zvWTz-
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [Portuguese]

Etymology: From Latin -ēs (accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns) Etymology templates: {{inh|pt|la|-ēs|pos=accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns}} Latin -ēs (accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns) Head templates: {{head|pt|suffix|||||||g=|g2=|head=|sort=es}} -es, {{pt-suffix|noun|es}} -es
  1. forms the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in -r, -z, stressed -s and of some ending in -n Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-pt-suffix-uz3z14EL
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Portuguese]

Etymology: From Old Galician-Portuguese -ez, further origins unknown. The preferred options are that it was either an internal innovation (from a reanalysis of the genitive in names ending with -ricus, ie. -rici, as naming suffix) or a borrowing from pre-Roman languages (given the various forms the suffix took in the Middle Ages). Compare Spanish -ez. Etymology templates: {{inh|pt|roa-opt|-ez}} Old Galician-Portuguese -ez, {{cog|es|-ez}} Spanish -ez Head templates: {{head|pt|suffix|||||||g=|g2=|head=|sort=es}} -es, {{pt-suffix|noun|es}} -es
  1. (no longer productive) -son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname) Tags: idiomatic, morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-pt-suffix-Nt4DjOK9 Categories (other): Portuguese links with redundant target parameters, Portuguese links with redundant wikilinks, Portuguese entries with incorrect language header, Portuguese terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys, Portuguese terms with redundant sortkeys Disambiguation of Portuguese entries with incorrect language header: 20 20 9 18 33 Disambiguation of Portuguese terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys: 20 20 9 18 32 Disambiguation of Portuguese terms with redundant sortkeys: 20 20 9 18 33
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix [Romani]

Etymology: Inherited from Sanskrit -अस्य (-asya). Etymology templates: {{inh|rom|sa|-अस्य}} Sanskrit -अस्य (-asya) Head templates: {{head|rom|suffix}} -es
  1. desinence used to form the singular accusative case of oikoclitic (pre-European) masculine animate nouns Tags: morpheme Derived forms: -es-
    Sense id: en--es-rom-suffix-0ZIAsCKw Categories (other): Romani entries with incorrect language header

Suffix [Spanish]

Etymology: From Latin -ēs, the accusative plural ending of most third declension nouns. Etymology templates: {{inh|es|la|-ēs}} Latin -ēs Head templates: {{head|es|suffix form}} -es
  1. suffix indicating the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in certain consonants (most often -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, -s, -x, -ch, with some exceptions). Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-es-suffix-1sz-WnI4 Categories (other): Spanish entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Spanish entries with incorrect language header: 32 34 33
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [Spanish]

Etymology: From Latin -ēs, Latin -is, and Latin -īs, the second-person singular present active indicative endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively. Etymology templates: {{inh|es|la|-ēs}} Latin -ēs, {{inh|es|la|-is}} Latin -is, {{inh|es|la|-īs}} Latin -īs Head templates: {{head|es|suffix form}} -es
  1. suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of -er and -ir verbs. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-es-suffix-YVco5TQh Categories (other): Spanish entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Spanish entries with incorrect language header: 32 34 33
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Spanish]

Etymology: From Latin -ēs, the second-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs. Etymology templates: {{inh|es|la|-ēs}} Latin -ēs Head templates: {{head|es|suffix form}} -es
  1. suffix indicating the second-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs Tags: morpheme Related terms: -s, -as
    Sense id: en--es-es-suffix-0Z46kYz8 Categories (other): Spanish entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Spanish entries with incorrect language header: 32 34 33
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix [Swedish]

IPA: /ˌɛs/
Etymology: Variant of -s (etymology 2) with a reduction of the preceding -a. Head templates: {{head|sv|suffix}} -es
  1. Marks the present tense passive of verbs of the second and fourth conjugations (weak and strong -er verbs respectively) that have stems ending in s. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-sv-suffix-~vcuU5Bh Categories (other): Swedish entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Swedish entries with incorrect language header: 91 9
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [Swedish]

IPA: /ˈeːs/
Etymology: Ultimately from Latin -ensis. Etymology templates: {{der|sv|la|-ensis}} Latin -ensis Head templates: {{head|sv|suffix}} -es
  1. -ese; forms a nationality from the name of a country. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-sv-suffix-UTlD2vEb
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Welsh]

IPA: /ɛs/ [North-Wales, colloquial, standard], /as/ [North-Wales, colloquial], /ɛs/ [South-Wales] Forms: -esau [plural]
Etymology: From the Proto-Brythonic -issā, ultimately borrowed from (or perhaps cognate to) Latin -issa, whence also English -ess. Cognate with Cornish -es. Etymology templates: {{inh|cy|cel-bry-pro||-issā}} Proto-Brythonic -issā, {{der|cy|la|-issa}} Latin -issa, {{cog|en|-ess}} English -ess, {{cog|kw|-es}} Cornish -es Head templates: {{head|cy|suffix|plural|-esau|g=f}} -es f (plural -esau)
  1. female suffix Tags: feminine, morpheme, suffix Synonyms: -wraig
    Sense id: en--es-cy-suffix-JXqFCxwW
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix [Welsh]

IPA: /ɛs/ [North-Wales, colloquial, standard], /as/ [North-Wales, colloquial], /ɛs/ [South-Wales]
Head templates: {{head|cy|suffix|g=f}} -es f
  1. collective noun Tags: collective, feminine, morpheme, noun
    Sense id: en--es-cy-suffix-RhBjem3o
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix [Welsh]

IPA: /ɛs/ [North-Wales], /ɛʃ/ [North-Wales], /ɪʃ/ [North-Wales], /ɛs/ [South-Wales], /ɛs/ [North-Wales, colloquial, standard], /as/ [North-Wales, colloquial], /ɛs/ [South-Wales]
Head templates: {{head|cy|suffix}} -es
  1. (colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular preterite Tags: colloquial, morpheme Synonyms: -ais
    Sense id: en--es-cy-suffix-~MhxilQ9 Categories (other): Welsh entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Welsh entries with incorrect language header: 41 6 53
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix [West Frisian]

IPA: /əs/
Head templates: {{head|fy|suffix}} -es
  1. Used to form possessive pronouns from possessive determiners Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-fy-suffix-885Z83Sz Categories (other): West Frisian entries with incorrect language header

Suffix [Yola]

Etymology: From Middle English -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *‑ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Cognate with English -s (plural noun ending). Etymology templates: {{inh|yol|enm|-es}} Middle English -es, {{inh|yol|ang|-as}} Old English -as, {{inh|yol|gem-pro|*-ōs}} Proto-Germanic *-ōs, {{inh|yol|ine-pro|*-es}} Proto-Indo-European *-es, {{cog|en|-s|pos=plural noun ending}} English -s (plural noun ending) Head templates: {{head|yol|suffix}} -es
  1. Used to form the regular plural of nouns. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--es-yol-suffix-mwkhjEmz Categories (other): Yola entries with incorrect language header

Inflected forms

Download JSON data for -es meaning in All languages combined (46.0kB)

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English -es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -as",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English -es, from Old English -as. More at -s.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "",
        "cat3": "",
        "head": "",
        "id": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "inflectional"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "en-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "ch, when pronounced as /tʃ/: glitch→glitches (but psych→psychs)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-W7CtYZdG",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "glitch",
          "glitch"
        ],
        [
          "glitches",
          "glitches"
        ],
        [
          "psych",
          "psych"
        ],
        [
          "psychs",
          "psychs"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(t)ch, when pronounced as /tʃ/: glitch→glitches (but psych→psychs)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "j: hajj→hajjes (j is only final in loan words raj, hajj)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-9dyfNVX8",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "hajj",
          "hajj"
        ],
        [
          "hajjes",
          "hajjes"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(j)j: hajj→hajjes (j is only final in loan words raj, hajj)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "s: bus→buses, rendezvous→rendezvouses"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-lOdllKvj",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "bus",
          "bus"
        ],
        [
          "buses",
          "buses"
        ],
        [
          "rendezvous",
          "rendezvous"
        ],
        [
          "rendezvouses",
          "rendezvouses"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(s)s: bus→buses, rendezvous→rendezvouses"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "x: box→boxes"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-p1oyopHf",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "box",
          "box"
        ],
        [
          "boxes",
          "boxes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "z: waltz→waltzes"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-GHP-pXVh",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "waltz",
          "waltz"
        ],
        [
          "waltzes",
          "waltzes"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(z)z: waltz→waltzes"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "sh: ash→ashes"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-3skqYHJR",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "ash",
          "ash"
        ],
        [
          "ashes",
          "ashes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "lady→ladies, soliloquy→soliloquies (but key→keys)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y:",
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-6EWCrRkH",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y:"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "tomato→tomatoes (but soprano→sopranos)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o:",
        "Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-6UF1WMdR",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o:"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/z/",
      "note": "after vowel sound"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English -es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -es",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-eþ"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -eþ",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English -es, -is, from Old English -es, -as, Northern variants of -est, -ast (second person singular indicative ending). Replaced Middle English -eth, from Old English -eþ, -aþ. The falling together of the second and third person singular verb forms in Old English is believed to be due to Scandinavian influence, where the employment of the same verbal endings for both 2nd and 3rd singular indicative follows a similar pattern to that seen in Old Norse (e.g. þú masar, hann masar; þú þekkir, hann þekkir; etc.).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 7 10 6 7 6 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in (t)ch pronounced as /tʃ/: impeach→impeaches (but psych→psychs)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-G8ezJ-S3",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "impeach",
          "impeach"
        ],
        [
          "impeaches",
          "impeaches"
        ],
        [
          "psych",
          "psych"
        ],
        [
          "psychs",
          "psychs"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 7 10 6 7 6 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in (s)s: miss→misses"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-Do5yIchJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "miss",
          "miss"
        ],
        [
          "misses",
          "misses"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in x: tax→taxes"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-y08fSK0P",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "tax",
          "tax"
        ],
        [
          "taxes",
          "taxes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 9 10 7 10 6 7 6 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in (z)z: fizz→fizzes"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-xZ5YSeiu",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "fizz",
          "fizz"
        ],
        [
          "fizzes",
          "fizzes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in consonant + o in some cases: go→goes (but piano→pianos)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-PUr3Glym",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "go",
          "go"
        ],
        [
          "goes",
          "goes"
        ],
        [
          "piano",
          "piano"
        ],
        [
          "pianos",
          "pianos"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in sh: wish→wishes"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-vcX70gPr",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "wish",
          "wish"
        ],
        [
          "wishes",
          "wishes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in consonant (or qu) + y: cry→cries (but buy→buys)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-r8G~esKV",
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "cry",
          "cry"
        ],
        [
          "cries",
          "cries"
        ],
        [
          "buy",
          "buy"
        ],
        [
          "buys",
          "buys"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/z/",
      "note": "after vowel sound"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_text": "See -s, -'s.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "",
        "cat3": "",
        "head": "",
        "id": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "en-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1573, An exposition of the kinges prerogative, collected out of the great Abridgement of Justice Fitzherbert and other olde writers of the lawes of England, page 38",
          "text": "... whereupon king Henry his sonne, as it may appeare by the later clause of this chapter, recouered diuers eschet[s] of lande within this Realme holden by Normans, whiche after they began to adhere to the French king, the kinges enimy[…]",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Possessive marker; see -s, -'s."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-en-suffix-j7p9hUkO",
      "links": [
        [
          "-s",
          "-s#English"
        ],
        [
          "-'s",
          "-'s#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(obsolete, no longer productive) Possessive marker; see -s, -'s."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "idiomatic",
        "morpheme",
        "obsolete"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/z/",
      "note": "after vowel sound"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "dum",
        "3": "-esse"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Dutch -esse",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "fro",
        "3": "-esse"
      },
      "expansion": "Old French -esse",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "LL.",
        "3": "-issa"
      },
      "expansion": "Late Latin -issa",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Dutch -esse, borrowed from Northern Old French -esse, from Late Latin -issa (as in abbātissa (“abbess”)).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "noun-forming suffixes"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Dutch",
  "lang_code": "nl",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Dutch entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "zanger (“singer, songster”) → zangeres (“female singer; songstress, singeress”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Creates the female form of persons or occupations, as English -ess."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-nl-suffix-h6YYZ8uL",
      "links": [
        [
          "-ess",
          "-ess#English"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "-in"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "eo",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "endings",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Esperanto",
  "lang_code": "eo",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Esperanto correlatives",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Esperanto endings",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Esperanto entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Esperanto terms with redundant sortkeys",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant sortkeys",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "english": "belonging to everyone, everyone's",
          "word": "ĉies"
        },
        {
          "english": "belonging to someone, someone's",
          "word": "ies"
        },
        {
          "english": "belonging to whom, whose",
          "word": "kies"
        },
        {
          "english": "belonging to nobody, nobody's",
          "word": "nenies"
        },
        {
          "english": "belonging to that one, that one's",
          "word": "ties"
        },
        {
          "english": "belonging to someone else, someone else's",
          "sense": "nonce",
          "word": "alies"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "belonging to. (Ending for genitive correlatives.)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-eo-suffix-wcX4IXk~",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q143 (epo)-Lepticed7--es.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/6/68/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/6/68/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav.ogg",
      "text": "Audio"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fr",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ās"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ās",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ās.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fr",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "fr-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "French",
  "lang_code": "fr",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "50 50",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "French entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "forms the second-person singular present indicative form of a verb"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-fr-suffix-5g-cMKxO",
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "indicative",
          "indicative#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "50 50",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "French entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "forms the second-person singular present subjunctive form of a verb"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-fr-suffix-DfF3T~~S",
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "subjunctive",
          "subjunctive#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "de",
        "2": "inflectional suffixes"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "German",
  "lang_code": "de",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "genitive ending",
          "word": "-s"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of -s (genitive ending)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-de-suffix-5ZT3BGTk",
      "links": [
        [
          "-s",
          "-s#German"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "-es-"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "de",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "invariable"
      },
      "expansion": "-es (invariable)",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "German",
  "lang_code": "de",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-is"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "de",
          "name": "Music",
          "orig": "de:Music",
          "parents": [
            "Art",
            "Sound",
            "Culture",
            "Energy",
            "Society",
            "Nature",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "32 68",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "German entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "english": "double flat",
          "word": "-eses"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "A + -es → As (“A flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "B + -es → Bes (“B double flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "C + -es → Ces (“C flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "D + -es → Des (“D flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "E + -es → Es (“E flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "F + -es → Fes (“F flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "G + -es → Ges (“G flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "flat, ♭"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-de-suffix-o8UNrUwy",
      "links": [
        [
          "music",
          "music"
        ],
        [
          "flat",
          "flat"
        ],
        [
          "♭",
          "♭#Translingual"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(music) flat, ♭"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "invariable",
        "morpheme"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "entertainment",
        "lifestyle",
        "music"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "hu",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "adjective-forming suffixes",
        "cat3": "noun-forming suffixes"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Hungarian",
  "lang_code": "hu",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "37 29 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Hungarian entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "kert (“garden”) + -es → kertes (“something with a garden, having a garden”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning \"having something, a quality\"; sometimes referred to as ornative."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-hu-suffix-hu:adjective",
      "links": [
        [
          "noun",
          "noun#English"
        ],
        [
          "adjective",
          "adjective#English"
        ],
        [
          "ornative",
          "ornative#English"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "adjective-forming suffix",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(adjective-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning \"having something, a quality\"; sometimes referred to as ornative."
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "hu:adjective"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "37 29 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Hungarian entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "perec (“pretzel”) + -es → pereces (“someone who sells pretzels”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "meggy (“morello, sour cherry”) + -es → meggyes (“cherry orchard”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-hu-suffix-hu:noun",
      "links": [
        [
          "noun",
          "noun#English"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "noun-forming suffix",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(noun-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun."
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "hu:noun"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "37 29 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Hungarian entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "egy (“one”) + -es → egyes (“the digit or figure 1”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Added to a cardinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-hu-suffix-hu:numeral",
      "links": [
        [
          "cardinal number",
          "cardinal number#English"
        ],
        [
          "the relevant template",
          "Template:U:hu:nominal numerals#English"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "number-forming suffix",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(number-forming suffix) Added to a cardinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template."
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "hu:numeral"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɛʃ]"
    },
    {
      "rhymes": "-ɛʃ"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "tags": [
        "canonical",
        "feminine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "la-ndecl",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ium",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ī",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-īs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-e",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-ēs<3.I>"
      },
      "name": "la-ndecl"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "61 10 22 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latin entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latin feminine suffixes in the third declension",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "caedō (“I kill or cut”) → caedēs (“slaughter”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "sedeō (“I sit”) → sēdēs (“seat”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used to form a third-declension feminine abstract noun designating the result of an action from a verb root or conceived root form"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-la-suffix-la:abstract_noun",
      "links": [
        [
          "third-declension",
          "Appendix:Latin third declension#English"
        ],
        [
          "feminine",
          "feminine#English"
        ],
        [
          "abstract noun",
          "abstract noun#English"
        ],
        [
          "result",
          "result#English"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "la:abstract noun"
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-or"
        },
        {
          "word": "-us"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "declension-3",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁ey-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From *-h₁i-t-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-, the root of eō, īre (“to go”). Because the nominative singular would regularly have developed to *-is, the attested ending *-es has to be explained as an analogical replacement based on the alternation between -ĕ- in the closed final syllable of the nominative singular and -ĭ- in the open medial syllable of oblique forms that developed regularly in other nouns as a result of the sound change of vowel reduction.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-itis",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "la-ndecl",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-es",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itis",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itum",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itī",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-item",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ite",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-es",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-es/-it<3>"
      },
      "name": "la-ndecl"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latin masculine suffixes in the third declension",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "equus (“horse”) → eques (“cavalryman; equestrian; knight”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used to form third-declension nouns, most of which have senses along the lines of 'one who goes (by)'"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-la-suffix-la:t_stem",
      "links": [
        [
          "third-declension",
          "Appendix:Latin third declension#English"
        ],
        [
          "nouns",
          "nouns#English"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "la:t-stem"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "declension-3",
        "masculine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
      "name": "nonlemma"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "suffix form",
        "head": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "-ēs",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "form_of": [
        {
          "extra": "first conjugation",
          "word": "-ō"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "second-person singular present active subjunctive of -ō (first conjugation)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-la-suffix-JG86~pCZ",
      "links": [
        [
          "-ō",
          "-o#Latin"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "form-of",
        "morpheme",
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
      "name": "nonlemma"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "suffix form",
        "head": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "form_of": [
        {
          "word": "-s"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "nominative/accusative/vocative masculine/feminine plural of -s"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-la-suffix-jvVN9Nvl",
      "links": [
        [
          "-s",
          "-s#Latin"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "form-of",
        "masculine",
        "morpheme",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "enm",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Middle English",
  "lang_code": "enm",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "word": "-yssh"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of -yssh"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-enm-suffix-S9WSJVeh",
      "links": [
        [
          "-yssh",
          "-yssh#Middle English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "enm",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Middle English",
  "lang_code": "enm",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "-ess",
          "word": "-esse"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "7 93",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Middle English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of -esse (-ess)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-enm-suffix-lKByXcg4",
      "links": [
        [
          "-esse",
          "-esse#Middle_English:_-ess"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "moh",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Mohawk",
  "lang_code": "moh",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "long"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-moh-suffix-~GbwIcZ9",
      "links": [
        [
          "long",
          "long"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "0 100",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Mohawk entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "with tsi ni-: during"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-moh-suffix-9qsMpn0z",
      "links": [
        [
          "tsi",
          "tsi#Mohawk"
        ],
        [
          "ni-",
          "ni-#Mohawk"
        ],
        [
          "during",
          "during"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "enm",
            "2": "-es",
            "3": "-s"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle English: -es, -s",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle English: -es, -s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "-'s",
            "3": "-s",
            "4": "-st",
            "pos2": "adverbial suffix",
            "pos3": "adverbial suffix"
          },
          "expansion": "English: -'s, -s (adverbial suffix), -st (adverbial suffix)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "English: -'s, -s (adverbial suffix), -st (adverbial suffix)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ang",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *-as",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ang",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-es",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ang",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "",
        "head": "",
        "head2": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "ang-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old English",
  "lang_code": "ang",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "52 48",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the noun"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-ang-suffix-cw~lcXia",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "52 48",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "days",
          "text": "dæġes (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "nights",
          "text": "nihtes (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used in formation of adverbs, originally from the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns, but later added also to feminine nouns by analogy"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-ang-suffix-in1vLTIm",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/es/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "-es",
            "3": "-s"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: -es, -s",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: -es, -s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "-s",
            "pos": "adverbial suffix"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: -s (adverbial suffix)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: -s (adverbial suffix)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "osx",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *-as",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "osx",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-es",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "osx",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Saxon",
  "lang_code": "osx",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "75 25",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Saxon entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the noun"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-osx-suffix-cw~lcXia",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "days",
          "text": "dages (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "nights",
          "text": "nahtes (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used in formation of adverbs"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-osx-suffix-SYEcPHxl",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs",
        "pos": "2nd conj."
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs (2nd conj.)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs (2nd conj.), -is (3rd conj.), -īs (4th conj.).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "verb",
        "2": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "pt-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Portuguese",
  "lang_code": "pt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular present indicative of 2ⁿᵈ and 3ʳᵈ conjugation verbs"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-pt-suffix-5EtufESb",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular present subjunctive of 1ˢᵗ conjugation verbs"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-pt-suffix-raD28Q0Z",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular negative imperative of 1ˢᵗ conjugation verbs"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-pt-suffix-f4zvWTz-",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs",
        "pos": "accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs (accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs (accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns)",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "noun",
        "2": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "pt-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Portuguese",
  "lang_code": "pt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in -r, -z, stressed -s and of some ending in -n"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-pt-suffix-uz3z14EL",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "roa-opt",
        "3": "-ez"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Galician-Portuguese -ez",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "-ez"
      },
      "expansion": "Spanish -ez",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Old Galician-Portuguese -ez, further origins unknown. The preferred options are that it was either an internal innovation (from a reanalysis of the genitive in names ending with -ricus, ie. -rici, as naming suffix) or a borrowing from pre-Roman languages (given the various forms the suffix took in the Middle Ages). Compare Spanish -ez.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "noun",
        "2": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "pt-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Portuguese",
  "lang_code": "pt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Portuguese links with redundant target parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant target parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Portuguese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "20 20 9 18 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Portuguese entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "20 20 9 18 32",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Portuguese terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "20 20 9 18 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Portuguese terms with redundant sortkeys",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant sortkeys",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Fernando + -es → Fernandes (“son of Fernando”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "Henrique + -es → Henriques (“son of Henrique”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "Martim + -es → Martins (“son of Martim”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "Rodrigo + -es → Rodrigues (“son of Rodrigo”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "-son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-pt-suffix-Nt4DjOK9",
      "links": [
        [
          "-son",
          "-son"
        ],
        [
          "suffix",
          "suffix#English"
        ],
        [
          "given name",
          "given name#English"
        ],
        [
          "patronymic",
          "patronymic#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(no longer productive) -son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "idiomatic",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "rom",
        "2": "sa",
        "3": "-अस्य"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit -अस्य (-asya)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Inherited from Sanskrit -अस्य (-asya).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "rom",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Romani",
  "lang_code": "rom",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Romani entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "-es-"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "desinence used to form the singular accusative case of oikoclitic (pre-European) masculine animate nouns"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-rom-suffix-0ZIAsCKw",
      "links": [
        [
          "accusative case",
          "accusative case#English"
        ],
        [
          "animate",
          "animate#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs, the accusative plural ending of most third declension nouns.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "suffix form"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Spanish",
  "lang_code": "es",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "32 34 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Spanish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "suffix indicating the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in certain consonants (most often -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, -s, -x, -ch, with some exceptions)."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-es-suffix-1sz-WnI4",
      "links": [
        [
          "suffix",
          "suffix#English"
        ],
        [
          "plural",
          "plural#English"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun#English"
        ],
        [
          "adjective",
          "adjective#English"
        ],
        [
          "consonant",
          "consonant#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-is"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -is",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-īs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -īs",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs, Latin -is, and Latin -īs, the second-person singular present active indicative endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "suffix form"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Spanish",
  "lang_code": "es",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "32 34 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Spanish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of -er and -ir verbs."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-es-suffix-YVco5TQh",
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "indicative",
          "indicative#English"
        ],
        [
          "-er",
          "-er#English"
        ],
        [
          "-ir",
          "-ir#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs, the second-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "suffix form"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Spanish",
  "lang_code": "es",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "32 34 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Spanish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "suffix indicating the second-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-es-suffix-0Z46kYz8",
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "subjunctive",
          "subjunctive#English"
        ],
        [
          "-ar",
          "-ar#English"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "-s"
        },
        {
          "word": "-as"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_text": "Variant of -s (etymology 2) with a reduction of the preceding -a.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sv",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Swedish",
  "lang_code": "sv",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "91 9",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Swedish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Marks the present tense passive of verbs of the second and fourth conjugations (weak and strong -er verbs respectively) that have stems ending in s."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-sv-suffix-~vcuU5Bh",
      "links": [
        [
          "-er",
          "-er#Swedish"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˌɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sv",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ensis"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ensis",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Ultimately from Latin -ensis.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sv",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Swedish",
  "lang_code": "sv",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Kina + -es → kines",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "Siam + -es → siames",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "-ese; forms a nationality from the name of a country."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-sv-suffix-UTlD2vEb",
      "links": [
        [
          "-ese",
          "-ese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈeːs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "cel-bry-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "-issā"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Brythonic -issā",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-issa"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -issa",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "-ess"
      },
      "expansion": "English -ess",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "kw",
        "2": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Cornish -es",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From the Proto-Brythonic -issā, ultimately borrowed from (or perhaps cognate to) Latin -issa, whence also English -ess. Cognate with Cornish -es.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-esau",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "plural",
        "4": "-esau",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "expansion": "-es f (plural -esau)",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Welsh",
  "lang_code": "cy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "athro (“male teacher”) + -es → athrawes (“female teacher”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "gweinydd (“waiter”) + -es → gweinyddes (“waitress”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "Norwy (“Norway”) + -es → Norwyes (“Norwegian woman”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "cadno (“fox”) + -es → cadnawes (“vixen”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "female suffix"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-cy-suffix-JXqFCxwW",
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-wraig"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "morpheme",
        "suffix"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial",
        "standard"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/as/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "suffix",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "expansion": "-es f",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Welsh",
  "lang_code": "cy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "brân (“crow”) + -es → branes (“flight of crows”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "llong (“ship”) + -es → llynges (“navy, fleet”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "collective noun"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-cy-suffix-RhBjem3o",
      "tags": [
        "collective",
        "feminine",
        "morpheme",
        "noun"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial",
        "standard"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/as/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Welsh",
  "lang_code": "cy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "41 6 53",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Welsh entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "verb suffix for the first-person singular preterite"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-cy-suffix-~MhxilQ9",
      "links": [
        [
          "first-person",
          "first person#English"
        ],
        [
          "singular",
          "singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "preterite",
          "preterite#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular preterite"
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-ais"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "colloquial",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛʃ/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪʃ/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial",
        "standard"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/as/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fy",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "West Frisian",
  "lang_code": "fy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "West Frisian entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "myn + -es → mines",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "jo + -es → jowes",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form possessive pronouns from possessive determiners"
      ],
      "id": "en--es-fy-suffix-885Z83Sz",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English -es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -as",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*-ōs"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *-ōs",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "-s",
        "pos": "plural noun ending"
      },
      "expansion": "English -s (plural noun ending)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *‑ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Cognate with English -s (plural noun ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Yola",
  "lang_code": "yol",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Yola entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns."
      ],
      "id": "en--es-yol-suffix-mwkhjEmz",
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural#English"
        ],
        [
          "nouns",
          "nouns#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}
{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "dum",
        "3": "-esse"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Dutch -esse",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "fro",
        "3": "-esse"
      },
      "expansion": "Old French -esse",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "LL.",
        "3": "-issa"
      },
      "expansion": "Late Latin -issa",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Dutch -esse, borrowed from Northern Old French -esse, from Late Latin -issa (as in abbātissa (“abbess”)).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "nl",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "noun-forming suffixes"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Dutch",
  "lang_code": "nl",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "-in"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Dutch entries with incorrect language header",
        "Dutch lemmas",
        "Dutch noun-forming suffixes",
        "Dutch suffixes",
        "Dutch terms derived from Late Latin",
        "Dutch terms derived from Middle Dutch",
        "Dutch terms derived from Old French",
        "Dutch terms inherited from Middle Dutch",
        "Dutch terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "zanger (“singer, songster”) → zangeres (“female singer; songstress, singeress”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Creates the female form of persons or occupations, as English -ess."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-ess",
          "-ess#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English 1-syllable words",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English lemmas",
    "English suffixes",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms derived from Old English",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms inherited from Old English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English -es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -as",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English -es, from Old English -as. More at -s.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "",
        "cat3": "",
        "head": "",
        "id": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "inflectional"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "en-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "ch, when pronounced as /tʃ/: glitch→glitches (but psych→psychs)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "glitch",
          "glitch"
        ],
        [
          "glitches",
          "glitches"
        ],
        [
          "psych",
          "psych"
        ],
        [
          "psychs",
          "psychs"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(t)ch, when pronounced as /tʃ/: glitch→glitches (but psych→psychs)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "j: hajj→hajjes (j is only final in loan words raj, hajj)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "hajj",
          "hajj"
        ],
        [
          "hajjes",
          "hajjes"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(j)j: hajj→hajjes (j is only final in loan words raj, hajj)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "s: bus→buses, rendezvous→rendezvouses"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "bus",
          "bus"
        ],
        [
          "buses",
          "buses"
        ],
        [
          "rendezvous",
          "rendezvous"
        ],
        [
          "rendezvouses",
          "rendezvouses"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(s)s: bus→buses, rendezvous→rendezvouses"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "x: box→boxes"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "box",
          "box"
        ],
        [
          "boxes",
          "boxes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "z: waltz→waltzes"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "waltz",
          "waltz"
        ],
        [
          "waltzes",
          "waltzes"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "(z)z: waltz→waltzes"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a sibilant (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /t͡s/, /d͡z/, /t͡ʃ/ or /d͡ʒ/), such as:",
        "sh: ash→ashes"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ],
        [
          "ash",
          "ash"
        ],
        [
          "ashes",
          "ashes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "lady→ladies, soliloquy→soliloquies (but key→keys)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y:",
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns that end in a consonant (or qu) + y:"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "tomato→tomatoes (but soprano→sopranos)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o:",
        "Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o"
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Used for form the plural of some nouns that end in a consonant + o:"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/z/",
      "note": "after vowel sound"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English 1-syllable words",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English lemmas",
    "English suffixes",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms derived from Old English",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms inherited from Old English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English -es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -es",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-eþ"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -eþ",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English -es, -is, from Old English -es, -as, Northern variants of -est, -ast (second person singular indicative ending). Replaced Middle English -eth, from Old English -eþ, -aþ. The falling together of the second and third person singular verb forms in Old English is believed to be due to Scandinavian influence, where the employment of the same verbal endings for both 2nd and 3rd singular indicative follows a similar pattern to that seen in Old Norse (e.g. þú masar, hann masar; þú þekkir, hann þekkir; etc.).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in (t)ch pronounced as /tʃ/: impeach→impeaches (but psych→psychs)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "impeach",
          "impeach"
        ],
        [
          "impeaches",
          "impeaches"
        ],
        [
          "psych",
          "psych"
        ],
        [
          "psychs",
          "psychs"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in (s)s: miss→misses"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "miss",
          "miss"
        ],
        [
          "misses",
          "misses"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in x: tax→taxes"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "tax",
          "tax"
        ],
        [
          "taxes",
          "taxes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in (z)z: fizz→fizzes"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "fizz",
          "fizz"
        ],
        [
          "fizzes",
          "fizzes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in consonant + o in some cases: go→goes (but piano→pianos)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "go",
          "go"
        ],
        [
          "goes",
          "goes"
        ],
        [
          "piano",
          "piano"
        ],
        [
          "pianos",
          "pianos"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in sh: wish→wishes"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "wish",
          "wish"
        ],
        [
          "wishes",
          "wishes"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the third person singular present indicative of regular verbs:",
        "that end in consonant (or qu) + y: cry→cries (but buy→buys)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "verb",
          "verb"
        ],
        [
          "cry",
          "cry"
        ],
        [
          "cries",
          "cries"
        ],
        [
          "buy",
          "buy"
        ],
        [
          "buys",
          "buys"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/z/",
      "note": "after vowel sound"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English 1-syllable words",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English lemmas",
    "English suffixes",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_text": "See -s, -'s.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "",
        "cat3": "",
        "head": "",
        "id": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "en-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with obsolete senses",
        "English terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1573, An exposition of the kinges prerogative, collected out of the great Abridgement of Justice Fitzherbert and other olde writers of the lawes of England, page 38",
          "text": "... whereupon king Henry his sonne, as it may appeare by the later clause of this chapter, recouered diuers eschet[s] of lande within this Realme holden by Normans, whiche after they began to adhere to the French king, the kinges enimy[…]",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Possessive marker; see -s, -'s."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-s",
          "-s#English"
        ],
        [
          "-'s",
          "-'s#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(obsolete, no longer productive) Possessive marker; see -s, -'s."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "idiomatic",
        "morpheme",
        "obsolete"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪz/",
      "note": "after sibilant"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/z/",
      "note": "after vowel sound"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "english": "belonging to everyone, everyone's",
      "word": "ĉies"
    },
    {
      "english": "belonging to someone, someone's",
      "word": "ies"
    },
    {
      "english": "belonging to whom, whose",
      "word": "kies"
    },
    {
      "english": "belonging to nobody, nobody's",
      "word": "nenies"
    },
    {
      "english": "belonging to someone else, someone else's",
      "sense": "nonce",
      "word": "alies"
    },
    {
      "english": "belonging to that one, that one's",
      "word": "ties"
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "eo",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "endings",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Esperanto",
  "lang_code": "eo",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Esperanto correlatives",
        "Esperanto endings",
        "Esperanto entries with incorrect language header",
        "Esperanto lemmas",
        "Esperanto suffixes",
        "Esperanto terms with audio links",
        "Esperanto terms with redundant sortkeys"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "belonging to. (Ending for genitive correlatives.)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q143 (epo)-Lepticed7--es.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/6/68/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/6/68/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav/LL-Q143_%28epo%29-Lepticed7--es.wav.ogg",
      "text": "Audio"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "French entries with incorrect language header",
    "French lemmas",
    "French suffixes",
    "French terms derived from Latin",
    "French terms inherited from Latin"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fr",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ās"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ās",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ās.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fr",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "fr-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "French",
  "lang_code": "fr",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the second-person singular present indicative form of a verb"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "indicative",
          "indicative#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the second-person singular present subjunctive form of a verb"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "subjunctive",
          "subjunctive#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "German 1-syllable words",
    "German entries with incorrect language header",
    "German inflectional suffixes",
    "German lemmas",
    "German suffixes",
    "German terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "de",
        "2": "inflectional suffixes"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "German",
  "lang_code": "de",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "-es-"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "genitive ending",
          "word": "-s"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of -s (genitive ending)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-s",
          "-s#German"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "German 1-syllable words",
    "German entries with incorrect language header",
    "German lemmas",
    "German suffixes",
    "German terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "english": "double flat",
      "word": "-eses"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "de",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "invariable"
      },
      "expansion": "-es (invariable)",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "German",
  "lang_code": "de",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-is"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "de:Music"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "A + -es → As (“A flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "B + -es → Bes (“B double flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "C + -es → Ces (“C flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "D + -es → Des (“D flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "E + -es → Es (“E flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "F + -es → Fes (“F flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "G + -es → Ges (“G flat”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "flat, ♭"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "music",
          "music"
        ],
        [
          "flat",
          "flat"
        ],
        [
          "♭",
          "♭#Translingual"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(music) flat, ♭"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "invariable",
        "morpheme"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "entertainment",
        "lifestyle",
        "music"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Hungarian adjective-forming suffixes",
    "Hungarian entries with incorrect language header",
    "Hungarian lemmas",
    "Hungarian noun-forming suffixes",
    "Hungarian suffixes",
    "Hungarian terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Rhymes:Hungarian/ɛʃ",
    "Rhymes:Hungarian/ɛʃ/1 syllable"
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "hu",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "adjective-forming suffixes",
        "cat3": "noun-forming suffixes"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Hungarian",
  "lang_code": "hu",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "kert (“garden”) + -es → kertes (“something with a garden, having a garden”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning \"having something, a quality\"; sometimes referred to as ornative."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "noun",
          "noun#English"
        ],
        [
          "adjective",
          "adjective#English"
        ],
        [
          "ornative",
          "ornative#English"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "adjective-forming suffix",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(adjective-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an adjective meaning \"having something, a quality\"; sometimes referred to as ornative."
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "hu:adjective"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "perec (“pretzel”) + -es → pereces (“someone who sells pretzels”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "meggy (“morello, sour cherry”) + -es → meggyes (“cherry orchard”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "noun",
          "noun#English"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "noun-forming suffix",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(noun-forming suffix) Added to a noun to form an occupation or a collective noun."
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "hu:noun"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "egy (“one”) + -es → egyes (“the digit or figure 1”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Added to a cardinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "cardinal number",
          "cardinal number#English"
        ],
        [
          "the relevant template",
          "Template:U:hu:nominal numerals#English"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "number-forming suffix",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(number-forming suffix) Added to a cardinal number to form a digit or figure, cf. the relevant template."
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "hu:numeral"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɛʃ]"
    },
    {
      "rhymes": "-ɛʃ"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Latin 1-syllable words",
    "Latin entries with incorrect language header",
    "Latin feminine suffixes",
    "Latin feminine suffixes in the third declension",
    "Latin lemmas",
    "Latin non-lemma forms",
    "Latin noun-forming suffixes",
    "Latin suffix forms",
    "Latin suffixes",
    "Latin terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Latin terms with redundant head parameter",
    "Latin third declension suffixes"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "tags": [
        "canonical",
        "feminine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "la-ndecl",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ium",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ī",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-īs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-e",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-ēs<3.I>"
      },
      "name": "la-ndecl"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "caedō (“I kill or cut”) → caedēs (“slaughter”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "sedeō (“I sit”) → sēdēs (“seat”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used to form a third-declension feminine abstract noun designating the result of an action from a verb root or conceived root form"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "third-declension",
          "Appendix:Latin third declension#English"
        ],
        [
          "feminine",
          "feminine#English"
        ],
        [
          "abstract noun",
          "abstract noun#English"
        ],
        [
          "result",
          "result#English"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "la:abstract noun"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "declension-3",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "-or"
    },
    {
      "word": "-us"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Latin 1-syllable words",
    "Latin entries with incorrect language header",
    "Latin lemmas",
    "Latin masculine suffixes",
    "Latin masculine suffixes in the third declension",
    "Latin non-lemma forms",
    "Latin noun-forming suffixes",
    "Latin suffix forms",
    "Latin suffixes",
    "Latin suffixes with red links in their inflection tables",
    "Latin terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Latin terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Latin terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Latin terms with redundant head parameter",
    "Latin third declension suffixes"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁ey-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From *-h₁i-t-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ey-, the root of eō, īre (“to go”). Because the nominative singular would regularly have developed to *-is, the attested ending *-es has to be explained as an analogical replacement based on the alternation between -ĕ- in the closed final syllable of the nominative singular and -ĭ- in the open medial syllable of oblique forms that developed regularly in other nouns as a result of the sound change of vowel reduction.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-itis",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "la-ndecl",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-es",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itis",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itum",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itī",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-item",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ite",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itibus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-es",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-itēs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-es/-it<3>"
      },
      "name": "la-ndecl"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "equus (“horse”) → eques (“cavalryman; equestrian; knight”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used to form third-declension nouns, most of which have senses along the lines of 'one who goes (by)'"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "third-declension",
          "Appendix:Latin third declension#English"
        ],
        [
          "nouns",
          "nouns#English"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "la:t-stem"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "declension-3",
        "masculine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Latin 1-syllable words",
    "Latin entries with incorrect language header",
    "Latin non-lemma forms",
    "Latin suffix forms",
    "Latin terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Latin terms with redundant head parameter"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
      "name": "nonlemma"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-ēs",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "suffix form",
        "head": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "-ēs",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "form_of": [
        {
          "extra": "first conjugation",
          "word": "-ō"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "second-person singular present active subjunctive of -ō (first conjugation)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-ō",
          "-o#Latin"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "form-of",
        "morpheme",
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Latin 1-syllable words",
    "Latin entries with incorrect language header",
    "Latin non-lemma forms",
    "Latin suffix forms",
    "Latin terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Latin terms with redundant head parameter"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
      "name": "nonlemma"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "suffix form",
        "head": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latin",
  "lang_code": "la",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "form_of": [
        {
          "word": "-s"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "nominative/accusative/vocative masculine/feminine plural of -s"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-s",
          "-s#Latin"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "form-of",
        "masculine",
        "morpheme",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/eːs/",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[eːs̠]",
      "tags": [
        "Classical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/es/",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[es]",
      "note": "modern Italianate Ecclesiastical"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Middle English entries with incorrect language header",
    "Middle English lemmas",
    "Middle English suffixes"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "enm",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Middle English",
  "lang_code": "enm",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "word": "-yssh"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of -yssh"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-yssh",
          "-yssh#Middle English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Middle English entries with incorrect language header",
    "Middle English lemmas",
    "Middle English suffixes"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "enm",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Middle English",
  "lang_code": "enm",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "-ess",
          "word": "-esse"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of -esse (-ess)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-esse",
          "-esse#Middle_English:_-ess"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Mohawk entries with incorrect language header",
    "Mohawk lemmas",
    "Mohawk suffixes"
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "moh",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Mohawk",
  "lang_code": "moh",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "long"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "long",
          "long"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "with tsi ni-: during"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "tsi",
          "tsi#Mohawk"
        ],
        [
          "ni-",
          "ni-#Mohawk"
        ],
        [
          "during",
          "during"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Old English entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old English lemmas",
    "Old English suffixes",
    "Old English terms derived from Proto-Germanic",
    "Old English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old English terms inherited from Proto-Germanic",
    "Old English terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old English terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "enm",
            "2": "-es",
            "3": "-s"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle English: -es, -s",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle English: -es, -s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "-'s",
            "3": "-s",
            "4": "-st",
            "pos2": "adverbial suffix",
            "pos3": "adverbial suffix"
          },
          "expansion": "English: -'s, -s (adverbial suffix), -st (adverbial suffix)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "English: -'s, -s (adverbial suffix), -st (adverbial suffix)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ang",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *-as",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ang",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-es",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ang",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "",
        "head": "",
        "head2": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "ang-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old English",
  "lang_code": "ang",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the noun"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Old English terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "days",
          "text": "dæġes (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "nights",
          "text": "nihtes (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used in formation of adverbs, originally from the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns, but later added also to feminine nouns by analogy"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/es/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Old Saxon entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old Saxon lemmas",
    "Old Saxon suffixes",
    "Old Saxon terms derived from Proto-Germanic",
    "Old Saxon terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old Saxon terms inherited from Proto-Germanic",
    "Old Saxon terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old Saxon terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "-es",
            "3": "-s"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: -es, -s",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: -es, -s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "-s",
            "pos": "adverbial suffix"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: -s (adverbial suffix)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: -s (adverbial suffix)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "osx",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *-as",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "osx",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-es",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Germanic *-as, *-is, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "osx",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Saxon",
  "lang_code": "osx",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "possessive marker, indicating that an object belongs to the noun"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Old Saxon terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "days",
          "text": "dages (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "nights",
          "text": "nahtes (adverb)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "used in formation of adverbs"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Portuguese entries with incorrect language header",
    "Portuguese lemmas",
    "Portuguese noun-forming suffixes",
    "Portuguese suffixes",
    "Portuguese terms derived from Latin",
    "Portuguese terms derived from Old Galician-Portuguese",
    "Portuguese terms inherited from Latin",
    "Portuguese terms inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese",
    "Portuguese terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys",
    "Portuguese terms with redundant sortkeys",
    "Portuguese verb-forming suffixes"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs",
        "pos": "2nd conj."
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs (2nd conj.)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs (2nd conj.), -is (3rd conj.), -īs (4th conj.).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "verb",
        "2": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "pt-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Portuguese",
  "lang_code": "pt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular present indicative of 2ⁿᵈ and 3ʳᵈ conjugation verbs"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular present subjunctive of 1ˢᵗ conjugation verbs"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the 2ⁿᵈ-person singular negative imperative of 1ˢᵗ conjugation verbs"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Portuguese entries with incorrect language header",
    "Portuguese lemmas",
    "Portuguese noun-forming suffixes",
    "Portuguese suffixes",
    "Portuguese terms derived from Latin",
    "Portuguese terms derived from Old Galician-Portuguese",
    "Portuguese terms inherited from Latin",
    "Portuguese terms inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese",
    "Portuguese terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys",
    "Portuguese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs",
        "pos": "accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs (accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs (accusative plural of masculine and feminine 3rd-declension nouns)",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "noun",
        "2": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "pt-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Portuguese",
  "lang_code": "pt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "forms the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in -r, -z, stressed -s and of some ending in -n"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Portuguese entries with incorrect language header",
    "Portuguese lemmas",
    "Portuguese noun-forming suffixes",
    "Portuguese suffixes",
    "Portuguese terms derived from Old Galician-Portuguese",
    "Portuguese terms inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese",
    "Portuguese terms with non-redundant non-automated sortkeys",
    "Portuguese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "roa-opt",
        "3": "-ez"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Galician-Portuguese -ez",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "-ez"
      },
      "expansion": "Spanish -ez",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Old Galician-Portuguese -ez, further origins unknown. The preferred options are that it was either an internal innovation (from a reanalysis of the genitive in names ending with -ricus, ie. -rici, as naming suffix) or a borrowing from pre-Roman languages (given the various forms the suffix took in the Middle Ages). Compare Spanish -ez.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "pt",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "noun",
        "2": "es"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "pt-suffix"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Portuguese",
  "lang_code": "pt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Portuguese links with redundant target parameters",
        "Portuguese links with redundant wikilinks"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Fernando + -es → Fernandes (“son of Fernando”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "Henrique + -es → Henriques (“son of Henrique”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "Martim + -es → Martins (“son of Martim”)"
        },
        {
          "text": "Rodrigo + -es → Rodrigues (“son of Rodrigo”)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "-son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-son",
          "-son"
        ],
        [
          "suffix",
          "suffix#English"
        ],
        [
          "given name",
          "given name#English"
        ],
        [
          "patronymic",
          "patronymic#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(no longer productive) -son (a suffix added to a given name to form a patronymic surname)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "idiomatic",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "-es-"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "rom",
        "2": "sa",
        "3": "-अस्य"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit -अस्य (-asya)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Inherited from Sanskrit -अस्य (-asya).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "rom",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Romani",
  "lang_code": "rom",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Romani entries with incorrect language header",
        "Romani inflectional suffixes",
        "Romani lemmas",
        "Romani suffixes",
        "Romani terms derived from Sanskrit",
        "Romani terms inherited from Sanskrit"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "desinence used to form the singular accusative case of oikoclitic (pre-European) masculine animate nouns"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "accusative case",
          "accusative case#English"
        ],
        [
          "animate",
          "animate#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Spanish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Spanish non-lemma forms",
    "Spanish suffix forms",
    "Spanish terms derived from Latin",
    "Spanish terms inherited from Latin"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs, the accusative plural ending of most third declension nouns.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "suffix form"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Spanish",
  "lang_code": "es",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "suffix indicating the plural of nouns and adjectives ending in certain consonants (most often -l, -r, -n, -d, -z, -j, -s, -x, -ch, with some exceptions)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "suffix",
          "suffix#English"
        ],
        [
          "plural",
          "plural#English"
        ],
        [
          "noun",
          "noun#English"
        ],
        [
          "adjective",
          "adjective#English"
        ],
        [
          "consonant",
          "consonant#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Spanish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Spanish non-lemma forms",
    "Spanish suffix forms",
    "Spanish terms derived from Latin",
    "Spanish terms inherited from Latin"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-is"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -is",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-īs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -īs",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs, Latin -is, and Latin -īs, the second-person singular present active indicative endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "suffix form"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Spanish",
  "lang_code": "es",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "suffix indicating the second-person singular present indicative of -er and -ir verbs."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "indicative",
          "indicative#English"
        ],
        [
          "-er",
          "-er#English"
        ],
        [
          "-ir",
          "-ir#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Spanish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Spanish non-lemma forms",
    "Spanish suffix forms",
    "Spanish terms derived from Latin",
    "Spanish terms inherited from Latin"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ēs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ēs",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Latin -ēs, the second-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "es",
        "2": "suffix form"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Spanish",
  "lang_code": "es",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "-s"
    },
    {
      "word": "-as"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "suffix indicating the second-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "second-person singular",
          "second-person singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "present",
          "present#English"
        ],
        [
          "subjunctive",
          "subjunctive#English"
        ],
        [
          "-ar",
          "-ar#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Swedish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Swedish lemmas",
    "Swedish suffixes",
    "Swedish terms derived from Latin",
    "Swedish terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_text": "Variant of -s (etymology 2) with a reduction of the preceding -a.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sv",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Swedish",
  "lang_code": "sv",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Marks the present tense passive of verbs of the second and fourth conjugations (weak and strong -er verbs respectively) that have stems ending in s."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-er",
          "-er#Swedish"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˌɛs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Swedish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Swedish lemmas",
    "Swedish suffixes",
    "Swedish terms derived from Latin",
    "Swedish terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sv",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-ensis"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -ensis",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Ultimately from Latin -ensis.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sv",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Swedish",
  "lang_code": "sv",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Kina + -es → kines",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "Siam + -es → siames",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "-ese; forms a nationality from the name of a country."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-ese",
          "-ese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈeːs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Welsh entries with incorrect language header",
    "Welsh feminine suffixes",
    "Welsh lemmas",
    "Welsh suffixes",
    "Welsh terms derived from Latin",
    "Welsh terms derived from Proto-Brythonic",
    "Welsh terms inherited from Proto-Brythonic",
    "Welsh terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "cel-bry-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "-issā"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Brythonic -issā",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "-issa"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -issa",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "-ess"
      },
      "expansion": "English -ess",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "kw",
        "2": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Cornish -es",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From the Proto-Brythonic -issā, ultimately borrowed from (or perhaps cognate to) Latin -issa, whence also English -ess. Cognate with Cornish -es.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-esau",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "plural",
        "4": "-esau",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "expansion": "-es f (plural -esau)",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Welsh",
  "lang_code": "cy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "athro (“male teacher”) + -es → athrawes (“female teacher”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "gweinydd (“waiter”) + -es → gweinyddes (“waitress”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "Norwy (“Norway”) + -es → Norwyes (“Norwegian woman”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "cadno (“fox”) + -es → cadnawes (“vixen”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "female suffix"
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-wraig"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "morpheme",
        "suffix"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial",
        "standard"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/as/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Welsh entries with incorrect language header",
    "Welsh feminine suffixes",
    "Welsh lemmas",
    "Welsh suffixes",
    "Welsh terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "suffix",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "expansion": "-es f",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Welsh",
  "lang_code": "cy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "brân (“crow”) + -es → branes (“flight of crows”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "llong (“ship”) + -es → llynges (“navy, fleet”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "collective noun"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "collective",
        "feminine",
        "morpheme",
        "noun"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial",
        "standard"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/as/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Welsh entries with incorrect language header",
    "Welsh lemmas",
    "Welsh suffixes",
    "Welsh terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Welsh",
  "lang_code": "cy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Welsh colloquialisms"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "verb suffix for the first-person singular preterite"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "first-person",
          "first person#English"
        ],
        [
          "singular",
          "singular#English"
        ],
        [
          "preterite",
          "preterite#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular preterite"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "colloquial",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛʃ/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɪʃ/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial",
        "standard"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/as/",
      "tags": [
        "North-Wales",
        "colloquial"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ɛs/",
      "tags": [
        "South-Wales"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "-ais"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fy",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "West Frisian",
  "lang_code": "fy",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "West Frisian entries with incorrect language header",
        "West Frisian lemmas",
        "West Frisian suffixes",
        "West Frisian terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "myn + -es → mines",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "jo + -es → jowes",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form possessive pronouns from possessive determiners"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/əs/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "enm",
        "3": "-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English -es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "ang",
        "3": "-as"
      },
      "expansion": "Old English -as",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*-ōs"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *-ōs",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-es"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-es",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "-s",
        "pos": "plural noun ending"
      },
      "expansion": "English -s (plural noun ending)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle English -es, from Old English -as, nominative-accusative plural ending of masculine a-stem (i.e. strong) declension nouns, from Proto-Germanic *-ōs, *‑ōz, from Proto-Indo-European *-es, *-oes (plural ending). Cognate with English -s (plural noun ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "yol",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-es",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Yola",
  "lang_code": "yol",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Yola entries with incorrect language header",
        "Yola lemmas",
        "Yola suffixes",
        "Yola terms derived from Middle English",
        "Yola terms derived from Old English",
        "Yola terms derived from Proto-Germanic",
        "Yola terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Yola terms inherited from Middle English",
        "Yola terms inherited from Old English",
        "Yola terms inherited from Proto-Germanic",
        "Yola terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form the regular plural of nouns."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plural",
          "plural#English"
        ],
        [
          "nouns",
          "nouns#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-es"
}
{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: t",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: t",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: j",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: j",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: s",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: s",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: z",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: z",
  "path": [
    "-es"
  ],
  "section": "English",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-es",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable All languages combined dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.