"gelwaz" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See gelwaz in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈɣel.wɑz/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós (“yellow”), from *ǵʰelh₃- (“to shine”) + *-wós. Cognate with Latin helvus (“light-yellow”). Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*ǵʰelh₃-}}, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*ǵʰelh₃wós||yellow}} Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós (“yellow”), {{cog|la|helvus||light-yellow}} Latin helvus (“light-yellow”) Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-adj-a|gelw}}, {{gem-decl-adj-table2|*gelwaz|*gelwanǭ|*gelwas, -is|*gelwammai|*gelwanō|*gelwai|*gelwanz|*gelwaizǫ̂|*gelwaimaz|*gelwaimiz|*gelwō|*gelwǭ|*gelwaizōz|*gelwaizōi|*gelwaizō|*gelwôz|*gelwōz|*gelwaizǫ̂|*gelwaimaz|*gelwaimiz|*gelwą, -atō|*gelwą, -atō|*gelwas, -is|*gelwammai|*gelwanō|*gelwō|*gelwō|*gelwaizǫ̂|*gelwaimaz|*gelwaimiz|*gelwô|*gelwanų|*gelwiniz|*gelwini|*gelwinē|*gelwaniz|*gelwanunz|*gelwanǫ̂|*gelwammaz|*gelwammiz|*gelwǭ|*gelwōnų|*gelwōniz|*gelwōni|*gelwōnē|*gelwōniz|*gelwōnunz|*gelwōnǫ̂|*gelwōmaz|*gelwōmiz|*gelwô|*gelwô|*gelwiniz|*gelwini|*gelwinē|*gelwōnō|*gelwōnō|*gelwanǫ̂|*gelwammaz|*gelwammiz|title=*gelwaz (a-stem)}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], gelwaz [masculine, nominative, singular, strong], gelwai [masculine, nominative, plural, strong], gelwō [feminine, nominative, singular, strong], gelwôz [feminine, nominative, plural, strong], gelwą [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], -atō [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], gelwō [neuter, nominative, plural, strong], gelwanǭ [accusative, masculine, singular, strong], gelwanz [accusative, masculine, plural, strong], gelwǭ [accusative, feminine, singular, strong], gelwōz [accusative, feminine, plural, strong], gelwą [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], -atō [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], gelwō [accusative, neuter, plural, strong], gelwas [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], -is [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], gelwaizǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, strong], gelwaizōz [feminine, genitive, singular, strong], gelwaizǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, strong], gelwas [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], -is [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], gelwaizǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, strong], gelwammai [dative, masculine, singular, strong], gelwaimaz [dative, masculine, plural, strong], gelwaizōi [dative, feminine, singular, strong], gelwaimaz [dative, feminine, plural, strong], gelwammai [dative, neuter, singular, strong], gelwaimaz [dative, neuter, plural, strong], gelwanō [instrumental, masculine, singular, strong], gelwaimiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, strong], gelwaizō [feminine, instrumental, singular, strong], gelwaimiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, strong], gelwanō [instrumental, neuter, singular, strong], gelwaimiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, strong], gelwô [masculine, nominative, singular, weak], gelwaniz [masculine, nominative, plural, weak], gelwǭ [feminine, nominative, singular, weak], gelwōniz [feminine, nominative, plural, weak], gelwô [neuter, nominative, singular, weak], gelwōnō [neuter, nominative, plural, weak], gelwanų [accusative, masculine, singular, weak], gelwanunz [accusative, masculine, plural, weak], gelwōnų [accusative, feminine, singular, weak], gelwōnunz [accusative, feminine, plural, weak], gelwô [accusative, neuter, singular, weak], gelwōnō [accusative, neuter, plural, weak], gelwiniz [genitive, masculine, singular, weak], gelwanǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, weak], gelwōniz [feminine, genitive, singular, weak], gelwōnǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, weak], gelwiniz [genitive, neuter, singular, weak], gelwanǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, weak], gelwini [dative, masculine, singular, weak], gelwammaz [dative, masculine, plural, weak], gelwōni [dative, feminine, singular, weak], gelwōmaz [dative, feminine, plural, weak], gelwini [dative, neuter, singular, weak], gelwammaz [dative, neuter, plural, weak], gelwinē [instrumental, masculine, singular, weak], gelwammiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, weak], gelwōnē [feminine, instrumental, singular, weak], gelwōmiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, weak], gelwinē [instrumental, neuter, singular, weak], gelwammiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, weak]
  1. (West Germanic) yellow Tags: Germanic, West, reconstruction Synonyms: gulaz [Germanic, North]

Download JSON data for gelwaz meaning in Proto-Germanic (11.4kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*gelu"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *gelu\nOld English: ġeolu\nMiddle English: ȝelwe, ȝalow, yelow\nEnglish: yellow; yeller, yallow, yaller, yullow (dialectal)\nScots: yella, yelly, yallow\nOld Frisian: *jele\nSaterland Frisian: jeel\nWest Frisian: giel\nOld Saxon: gelo, gelu\nMiddle Low German: gēl\nLow German:\nGerman Low German:\nHamburgisch: geel\nWestphalian:\nRavensbergisch-Lippisch: gial\nSauerländisch: giäl, geal, gail, gēäl\nWestmünsterländisch: gääl, geel, gell\nPlautdietsch: jäl\nOld Dutch: *gelo\nMiddle Dutch: gēle\nDutch: geel\nOld High German: gelo\nMiddle High German: gël (inflected gëlwe)\nAlemannic German:\nAlsatian: gahl, gäl\nSwabian: geal\nCentral Franconian: gäl, jäl, jell\nCimbrian: gel, ghéel\nGerman: gelb; gehl (regional)\n→ Hunsrik: gelleb\nLuxembourgish: giel\nPennsylvania German: gehl\nVilamovian: gaoł\nYiddish: געל (gel), געלב (gelb)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *gelu\nOld English: ġeolu\nMiddle English: ȝelwe, ȝalow, yelow\nEnglish: yellow; yeller, yallow, yaller, yullow (dialectal)\nScots: yella, yelly, yallow\nOld Frisian: *jele\nSaterland Frisian: jeel\nWest Frisian: giel\nOld Saxon: gelo, gelu\nMiddle Low German: gēl\nLow German:\nGerman Low German:\nHamburgisch: geel\nWestphalian:\nRavensbergisch-Lippisch: gial\nSauerländisch: giäl, geal, gail, gēäl\nWestmünsterländisch: gääl, geel, gell\nPlautdietsch: jäl\nOld Dutch: *gelo\nMiddle Dutch: gēle\nDutch: geel\nOld High German: gelo\nMiddle High German: gël (inflected gëlwe)\nAlemannic German:\nAlsatian: gahl, gäl\nSwabian: geal\nCentral Franconian: gäl, jäl, jell\nCimbrian: gel, ghéel\nGerman: gelb; gehl (regional)\n→ Hunsrik: gelleb\nLuxembourgish: giel\nPennsylvania German: gehl\nVilamovian: gaoł\nYiddish: געל (gel), געלב (gelb)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ǵʰelh₃-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ǵʰelh₃wós",
        "4": "",
        "5": "yellow"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós (“yellow”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "helvus",
        "3": "",
        "4": "light-yellow"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin helvus (“light-yellow”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós (“yellow”), from *ǵʰelh₃- (“to shine”) + *-wós. Cognate with Latin helvus (“light-yellow”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gelw"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*gelwaz",
        "10": "*gelwaimiz",
        "11": "*gelwō",
        "12": "*gelwǭ",
        "13": "*gelwaizōz",
        "14": "*gelwaizōi",
        "15": "*gelwaizō",
        "16": "*gelwôz",
        "17": "*gelwōz",
        "18": "*gelwaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*gelwaimaz",
        "2": "*gelwanǭ",
        "20": "*gelwaimiz",
        "21": "*gelwą, -atō",
        "22": "*gelwą, -atō",
        "23": "*gelwas, -is",
        "24": "*gelwammai",
        "25": "*gelwanō",
        "26": "*gelwō",
        "27": "*gelwō",
        "28": "*gelwaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*gelwaimaz",
        "3": "*gelwas, -is",
        "30": "*gelwaimiz",
        "31": "*gelwô",
        "32": "*gelwanų",
        "33": "*gelwiniz",
        "34": "*gelwini",
        "35": "*gelwinē",
        "36": "*gelwaniz",
        "37": "*gelwanunz",
        "38": "*gelwanǫ̂",
        "39": "*gelwammaz",
        "4": "*gelwammai",
        "40": "*gelwammiz",
        "41": "*gelwǭ",
        "42": "*gelwōnų",
        "43": "*gelwōniz",
        "44": "*gelwōni",
        "45": "*gelwōnē",
        "46": "*gelwōniz",
        "47": "*gelwōnunz",
        "48": "*gelwōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*gelwōmaz",
        "5": "*gelwanō",
        "50": "*gelwōmiz",
        "51": "*gelwô",
        "52": "*gelwô",
        "53": "*gelwiniz",
        "54": "*gelwini",
        "55": "*gelwinē",
        "56": "*gelwōnō",
        "57": "*gelwōnō",
        "58": "*gelwanǫ̂",
        "59": "*gelwammaz",
        "6": "*gelwai",
        "60": "*gelwammiz",
        "7": "*gelwanz",
        "8": "*gelwaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*gelwaimaz",
        "title": "*gelwaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/gelwaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "West Proto-Germanic",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "yellow"
      ],
      "id": "en-gelwaz-gem-pro-adj-xoWiybqy",
      "links": [
        [
          "yellow",
          "yellow"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(West Germanic) yellow"
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "blaikaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blankaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hwītaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blasaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "falwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grēwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "haswaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grīsaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hairaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blakaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "swartaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "raudaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "brūnaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "erpaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "dusnaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "gelwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "gulaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grōniz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blēwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hēwijaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "baswaz"
        }
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "tags": [
            "Germanic",
            "North"
          ],
          "word": "gulaz"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Germanic",
        "West",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɣel.wɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "gelwaz"
}
{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*gelu"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *gelu\nOld English: ġeolu\nMiddle English: ȝelwe, ȝalow, yelow\nEnglish: yellow; yeller, yallow, yaller, yullow (dialectal)\nScots: yella, yelly, yallow\nOld Frisian: *jele\nSaterland Frisian: jeel\nWest Frisian: giel\nOld Saxon: gelo, gelu\nMiddle Low German: gēl\nLow German:\nGerman Low German:\nHamburgisch: geel\nWestphalian:\nRavensbergisch-Lippisch: gial\nSauerländisch: giäl, geal, gail, gēäl\nWestmünsterländisch: gääl, geel, gell\nPlautdietsch: jäl\nOld Dutch: *gelo\nMiddle Dutch: gēle\nDutch: geel\nOld High German: gelo\nMiddle High German: gël (inflected gëlwe)\nAlemannic German:\nAlsatian: gahl, gäl\nSwabian: geal\nCentral Franconian: gäl, jäl, jell\nCimbrian: gel, ghéel\nGerman: gelb; gehl (regional)\n→ Hunsrik: gelleb\nLuxembourgish: giel\nPennsylvania German: gehl\nVilamovian: gaoł\nYiddish: געל (gel), געלב (gelb)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *gelu\nOld English: ġeolu\nMiddle English: ȝelwe, ȝalow, yelow\nEnglish: yellow; yeller, yallow, yaller, yullow (dialectal)\nScots: yella, yelly, yallow\nOld Frisian: *jele\nSaterland Frisian: jeel\nWest Frisian: giel\nOld Saxon: gelo, gelu\nMiddle Low German: gēl\nLow German:\nGerman Low German:\nHamburgisch: geel\nWestphalian:\nRavensbergisch-Lippisch: gial\nSauerländisch: giäl, geal, gail, gēäl\nWestmünsterländisch: gääl, geel, gell\nPlautdietsch: jäl\nOld Dutch: *gelo\nMiddle Dutch: gēle\nDutch: geel\nOld High German: gelo\nMiddle High German: gël (inflected gëlwe)\nAlemannic German:\nAlsatian: gahl, gäl\nSwabian: geal\nCentral Franconian: gäl, jäl, jell\nCimbrian: gel, ghéel\nGerman: gelb; gehl (regional)\n→ Hunsrik: gelleb\nLuxembourgish: giel\nPennsylvania German: gehl\nVilamovian: gaoł\nYiddish: געל (gel), געלב (gelb)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ǵʰelh₃-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ǵʰelh₃wós",
        "4": "",
        "5": "yellow"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós (“yellow”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "helvus",
        "3": "",
        "4": "light-yellow"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin helvus (“light-yellow”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃wós (“yellow”), from *ǵʰelh₃- (“to shine”) + *-wós. Cognate with Latin helvus (“light-yellow”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gelwammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gelw"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*gelwaz",
        "10": "*gelwaimiz",
        "11": "*gelwō",
        "12": "*gelwǭ",
        "13": "*gelwaizōz",
        "14": "*gelwaizōi",
        "15": "*gelwaizō",
        "16": "*gelwôz",
        "17": "*gelwōz",
        "18": "*gelwaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*gelwaimaz",
        "2": "*gelwanǭ",
        "20": "*gelwaimiz",
        "21": "*gelwą, -atō",
        "22": "*gelwą, -atō",
        "23": "*gelwas, -is",
        "24": "*gelwammai",
        "25": "*gelwanō",
        "26": "*gelwō",
        "27": "*gelwō",
        "28": "*gelwaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*gelwaimaz",
        "3": "*gelwas, -is",
        "30": "*gelwaimiz",
        "31": "*gelwô",
        "32": "*gelwanų",
        "33": "*gelwiniz",
        "34": "*gelwini",
        "35": "*gelwinē",
        "36": "*gelwaniz",
        "37": "*gelwanunz",
        "38": "*gelwanǫ̂",
        "39": "*gelwammaz",
        "4": "*gelwammai",
        "40": "*gelwammiz",
        "41": "*gelwǭ",
        "42": "*gelwōnų",
        "43": "*gelwōniz",
        "44": "*gelwōni",
        "45": "*gelwōnē",
        "46": "*gelwōniz",
        "47": "*gelwōnunz",
        "48": "*gelwōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*gelwōmaz",
        "5": "*gelwanō",
        "50": "*gelwōmiz",
        "51": "*gelwô",
        "52": "*gelwô",
        "53": "*gelwiniz",
        "54": "*gelwini",
        "55": "*gelwinē",
        "56": "*gelwōnō",
        "57": "*gelwōnō",
        "58": "*gelwanǫ̂",
        "59": "*gelwammaz",
        "6": "*gelwai",
        "60": "*gelwammiz",
        "7": "*gelwanz",
        "8": "*gelwaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*gelwaimaz",
        "title": "*gelwaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/gelwaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "blaikaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blankaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwītaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blasaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "falwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "haswaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grīsaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hairaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blakaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "swartaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "raudaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "brūnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "erpaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "dusnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gelwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gulaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grōniz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hēwijaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "baswaz"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic a-stem adjectives",
        "Proto-Germanic adjectives",
        "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *ǵʰelh₃-",
        "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "West Proto-Germanic",
        "gem-pro:Colors"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "yellow"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "yellow",
          "yellow"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(West Germanic) yellow"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Germanic",
        "West",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɣel.wɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "tags": [
        "Germanic",
        "North"
      ],
      "word": "gulaz"
    }
  ],
  "word": "gelwaz"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.