"grīsaz" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See grīsaz in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈɣriː.sɑz/
Etymology: Unknown. Often related to *grēwaz, which would require a pre-form *greh₁-is-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow; to become green”). This is highly speculative, however. Etymology templates: {{unk|gem-pro}} Unknown, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*gʰreh₁-|t=to grow; to become green}} Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow; to become green”) Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-adj-a|grīs}}, {{gem-decl-adj-table2|*grīsaz|*grīsanǭ|*grīsas, -is|*grīsammai|*grīsanō|*grīsai|*grīsanz|*grīsaizǫ̂|*grīsaimaz|*grīsaimiz|*grīsō|*grīsǭ|*grīsaizōz|*grīsaizōi|*grīsaizō|*grīsôz|*grīsōz|*grīsaizǫ̂|*grīsaimaz|*grīsaimiz|*grīsą, -atō|*grīsą, -atō|*grīsas, -is|*grīsammai|*grīsanō|*grīsō|*grīsō|*grīsaizǫ̂|*grīsaimaz|*grīsaimiz|*grīsô|*grīsanų|*grīsiniz|*grīsini|*grīsinē|*grīsaniz|*grīsanunz|*grīsanǫ̂|*grīsammaz|*grīsammiz|*grīsǭ|*grīsōnų|*grīsōniz|*grīsōni|*grīsōnē|*grīsōniz|*grīsōnunz|*grīsōnǫ̂|*grīsōmaz|*grīsōmiz|*grīsô|*grīsô|*grīsiniz|*grīsini|*grīsinē|*grīsōnō|*grīsōnō|*grīsanǫ̂|*grīsammaz|*grīsammiz|title=*grīsaz (a-stem)}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], grīsaz [masculine, nominative, singular, strong], grīsai [masculine, nominative, plural, strong], grīsō [feminine, nominative, singular, strong], grīsôz [feminine, nominative, plural, strong], grīsą [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], -atō [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], grīsō [neuter, nominative, plural, strong], grīsanǭ [accusative, masculine, singular, strong], grīsanz [accusative, masculine, plural, strong], grīsǭ [accusative, feminine, singular, strong], grīsōz [accusative, feminine, plural, strong], grīsą [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], -atō [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], grīsō [accusative, neuter, plural, strong], grīsas [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], -is [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], grīsaizǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, strong], grīsaizōz [feminine, genitive, singular, strong], grīsaizǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, strong], grīsas [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], -is [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], grīsaizǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, strong], grīsammai [dative, masculine, singular, strong], grīsaimaz [dative, masculine, plural, strong], grīsaizōi [dative, feminine, singular, strong], grīsaimaz [dative, feminine, plural, strong], grīsammai [dative, neuter, singular, strong], grīsaimaz [dative, neuter, plural, strong], grīsanō [instrumental, masculine, singular, strong], grīsaimiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, strong], grīsaizō [feminine, instrumental, singular, strong], grīsaimiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, strong], grīsanō [instrumental, neuter, singular, strong], grīsaimiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, strong], grīsô [masculine, nominative, singular, weak], grīsaniz [masculine, nominative, plural, weak], grīsǭ [feminine, nominative, singular, weak], grīsōniz [feminine, nominative, plural, weak], grīsô [neuter, nominative, singular, weak], grīsōnō [neuter, nominative, plural, weak], grīsanų [accusative, masculine, singular, weak], grīsanunz [accusative, masculine, plural, weak], grīsōnų [accusative, feminine, singular, weak], grīsōnunz [accusative, feminine, plural, weak], grīsô [accusative, neuter, singular, weak], grīsōnō [accusative, neuter, plural, weak], grīsiniz [genitive, masculine, singular, weak], grīsanǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, weak], grīsōniz [feminine, genitive, singular, weak], grīsōnǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, weak], grīsiniz [genitive, neuter, singular, weak], grīsanǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, weak], grīsini [dative, masculine, singular, weak], grīsammaz [dative, masculine, plural, weak], grīsōni [dative, feminine, singular, weak], grīsōmaz [dative, feminine, plural, weak], grīsini [dative, neuter, singular, weak], grīsammaz [dative, neuter, plural, weak], grīsinē [instrumental, masculine, singular, weak], grīsammiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, weak], grīsōnē [feminine, instrumental, singular, weak], grīsōmiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, weak], grīsinē [instrumental, neuter, singular, weak], grīsammiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, weak]
  1. grey Tags: reconstruction Synonyms: *grēwaz
    Sense id: en-grīsaz-gem-pro-adj-Z~w2OFu0
  2. terrible; frightening Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: en-grīsaz-gem-pro-adj-M51uKz-E Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header: 17 83
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated

Download JSON data for grīsaz meaning in Proto-Germanic (12.0kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*grīs"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *grīs\nOld Frisian: grīs\nSaterland Frisian: gries\nWest Frisian: griis\nOld Saxon: grīs\nMiddle Low German: grîs\nGerman Low German: gries\n→ German: gries\nPlautdietsch: jriess\nOld Dutch: *grīs\nMiddle Dutch: grise, grijs\nDutch: grijs\nAfrikaans: grys\nOld High German: grīs\nMiddle High German: grīs\nCentral Franconian: greis, jries\nGerman: greis\nGallo-Romance:\n→ Catalan: gris\n→ Ligurian: grîxo\n→? Corsican: grisgiu\n→? Italian: grigio\n→ Lombard: gris\n→ Old Occitan: gris\nOccitan: gris\n→ Galician: gris\n→ Spanish: gris\n→ Old French: gris, grise\nMiddle French: gris\nFrench: gris\nNorman: gris\nWalloon: gris, grise\n→ Middle English: gris, grys (“gray; gray fur”)\n→ Medieval Latin: grīseus\nOld French: grisel\n→ Middle English: grisel, griselle, gresel (“gray; gray hair”)\nEnglish: grizzle\n→ Piedmontese: gris\n→ Venetian: grixo\n→ Greek: γκρίζος (gkrízos)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *grīs\nOld Frisian: grīs\nSaterland Frisian: gries\nWest Frisian: griis\nOld Saxon: grīs\nMiddle Low German: grîs\nGerman Low German: gries\n→ German: gries\nPlautdietsch: jriess\nOld Dutch: *grīs\nMiddle Dutch: grise, grijs\nDutch: grijs\nAfrikaans: grys\nOld High German: grīs\nMiddle High German: grīs\nCentral Franconian: greis, jries\nGerman: greis\nGallo-Romance:\n→ Catalan: gris\n→ Ligurian: grîxo\n→? Corsican: grisgiu\n→? Italian: grigio\n→ Lombard: gris\n→ Old Occitan: gris\nOccitan: gris\n→ Galician: gris\n→ Spanish: gris\n→ Old French: gris, grise\nMiddle French: gris\nFrench: gris\nNorman: gris\nWalloon: gris, grise\n→ Middle English: gris, grys (“gray; gray fur”)\n→ Medieval Latin: grīseus\nOld French: grisel\n→ Middle English: grisel, griselle, gresel (“gray; gray hair”)\nEnglish: grizzle\n→ Piedmontese: gris\n→ Venetian: grixo\n→ Greek: γκρίζος (gkrízos)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro"
      },
      "expansion": "Unknown",
      "name": "unk"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*gʰreh₁-",
        "t": "to grow; to become green"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow; to become green”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Unknown. Often related to *grēwaz, which would require a pre-form *greh₁-is-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow; to become green”). This is highly speculative, however.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grīs"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*grīsaz",
        "10": "*grīsaimiz",
        "11": "*grīsō",
        "12": "*grīsǭ",
        "13": "*grīsaizōz",
        "14": "*grīsaizōi",
        "15": "*grīsaizō",
        "16": "*grīsôz",
        "17": "*grīsōz",
        "18": "*grīsaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*grīsaimaz",
        "2": "*grīsanǭ",
        "20": "*grīsaimiz",
        "21": "*grīsą, -atō",
        "22": "*grīsą, -atō",
        "23": "*grīsas, -is",
        "24": "*grīsammai",
        "25": "*grīsanō",
        "26": "*grīsō",
        "27": "*grīsō",
        "28": "*grīsaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*grīsaimaz",
        "3": "*grīsas, -is",
        "30": "*grīsaimiz",
        "31": "*grīsô",
        "32": "*grīsanų",
        "33": "*grīsiniz",
        "34": "*grīsini",
        "35": "*grīsinē",
        "36": "*grīsaniz",
        "37": "*grīsanunz",
        "38": "*grīsanǫ̂",
        "39": "*grīsammaz",
        "4": "*grīsammai",
        "40": "*grīsammiz",
        "41": "*grīsǭ",
        "42": "*grīsōnų",
        "43": "*grīsōniz",
        "44": "*grīsōni",
        "45": "*grīsōnē",
        "46": "*grīsōniz",
        "47": "*grīsōnunz",
        "48": "*grīsōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*grīsōmaz",
        "5": "*grīsanō",
        "50": "*grīsōmiz",
        "51": "*grīsô",
        "52": "*grīsô",
        "53": "*grīsiniz",
        "54": "*grīsini",
        "55": "*grīsinē",
        "56": "*grīsōnō",
        "57": "*grīsōnō",
        "58": "*grīsanǫ̂",
        "59": "*grīsammaz",
        "6": "*grīsai",
        "60": "*grīsammiz",
        "7": "*grīsanz",
        "8": "*grīsaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*grīsaimaz",
        "title": "*grīsaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/grīsaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "blaikaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "blankaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "hwītaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "blasaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "falwaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "grēwaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "haswaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "grīsaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "hairaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "blakaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "swartaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "raudaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "brūnaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "erpaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "dusnaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "gelwaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "gulaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "grōniz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "blēwaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "hēwijaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "baswaz"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "grey"
      ],
      "id": "en-grīsaz-gem-pro-adj-Z~w2OFu0",
      "links": [
        [
          "grey",
          "grey"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*grēwaz"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "17 83",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "terrible; frightening"
      ],
      "id": "en-grīsaz-gem-pro-adj-M51uKz-E",
      "links": [
        [
          "terrible",
          "terrible"
        ],
        [
          "frightening",
          "frightening"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɣriː.sɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "grīsaz"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic a-stem adjectives",
    "Proto-Germanic adjectives",
    "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with unknown etymologies"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*grīs"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *grīs\nOld Frisian: grīs\nSaterland Frisian: gries\nWest Frisian: griis\nOld Saxon: grīs\nMiddle Low German: grîs\nGerman Low German: gries\n→ German: gries\nPlautdietsch: jriess\nOld Dutch: *grīs\nMiddle Dutch: grise, grijs\nDutch: grijs\nAfrikaans: grys\nOld High German: grīs\nMiddle High German: grīs\nCentral Franconian: greis, jries\nGerman: greis\nGallo-Romance:\n→ Catalan: gris\n→ Ligurian: grîxo\n→? Corsican: grisgiu\n→? Italian: grigio\n→ Lombard: gris\n→ Old Occitan: gris\nOccitan: gris\n→ Galician: gris\n→ Spanish: gris\n→ Old French: gris, grise\nMiddle French: gris\nFrench: gris\nNorman: gris\nWalloon: gris, grise\n→ Middle English: gris, grys (“gray; gray fur”)\n→ Medieval Latin: grīseus\nOld French: grisel\n→ Middle English: grisel, griselle, gresel (“gray; gray hair”)\nEnglish: grizzle\n→ Piedmontese: gris\n→ Venetian: grixo\n→ Greek: γκρίζος (gkrízos)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *grīs\nOld Frisian: grīs\nSaterland Frisian: gries\nWest Frisian: griis\nOld Saxon: grīs\nMiddle Low German: grîs\nGerman Low German: gries\n→ German: gries\nPlautdietsch: jriess\nOld Dutch: *grīs\nMiddle Dutch: grise, grijs\nDutch: grijs\nAfrikaans: grys\nOld High German: grīs\nMiddle High German: grīs\nCentral Franconian: greis, jries\nGerman: greis\nGallo-Romance:\n→ Catalan: gris\n→ Ligurian: grîxo\n→? Corsican: grisgiu\n→? Italian: grigio\n→ Lombard: gris\n→ Old Occitan: gris\nOccitan: gris\n→ Galician: gris\n→ Spanish: gris\n→ Old French: gris, grise\nMiddle French: gris\nFrench: gris\nNorman: gris\nWalloon: gris, grise\n→ Middle English: gris, grys (“gray; gray fur”)\n→ Medieval Latin: grīseus\nOld French: grisel\n→ Middle English: grisel, griselle, gresel (“gray; gray hair”)\nEnglish: grizzle\n→ Piedmontese: gris\n→ Venetian: grixo\n→ Greek: γκρίζος (gkrízos)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro"
      },
      "expansion": "Unknown",
      "name": "unk"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*gʰreh₁-",
        "t": "to grow; to become green"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow; to become green”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Unknown. Often related to *grēwaz, which would require a pre-form *greh₁-is-, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰreh₁- (“to grow; to become green”). This is highly speculative, however.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "grīsammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grīs"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*grīsaz",
        "10": "*grīsaimiz",
        "11": "*grīsō",
        "12": "*grīsǭ",
        "13": "*grīsaizōz",
        "14": "*grīsaizōi",
        "15": "*grīsaizō",
        "16": "*grīsôz",
        "17": "*grīsōz",
        "18": "*grīsaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*grīsaimaz",
        "2": "*grīsanǭ",
        "20": "*grīsaimiz",
        "21": "*grīsą, -atō",
        "22": "*grīsą, -atō",
        "23": "*grīsas, -is",
        "24": "*grīsammai",
        "25": "*grīsanō",
        "26": "*grīsō",
        "27": "*grīsō",
        "28": "*grīsaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*grīsaimaz",
        "3": "*grīsas, -is",
        "30": "*grīsaimiz",
        "31": "*grīsô",
        "32": "*grīsanų",
        "33": "*grīsiniz",
        "34": "*grīsini",
        "35": "*grīsinē",
        "36": "*grīsaniz",
        "37": "*grīsanunz",
        "38": "*grīsanǫ̂",
        "39": "*grīsammaz",
        "4": "*grīsammai",
        "40": "*grīsammiz",
        "41": "*grīsǭ",
        "42": "*grīsōnų",
        "43": "*grīsōniz",
        "44": "*grīsōni",
        "45": "*grīsōnē",
        "46": "*grīsōniz",
        "47": "*grīsōnunz",
        "48": "*grīsōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*grīsōmaz",
        "5": "*grīsanō",
        "50": "*grīsōmiz",
        "51": "*grīsô",
        "52": "*grīsô",
        "53": "*grīsiniz",
        "54": "*grīsini",
        "55": "*grīsinē",
        "56": "*grīsōnō",
        "57": "*grīsōnō",
        "58": "*grīsanǫ̂",
        "59": "*grīsammaz",
        "6": "*grīsai",
        "60": "*grīsammiz",
        "7": "*grīsanz",
        "8": "*grīsaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*grīsaimaz",
        "title": "*grīsaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/grīsaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "blaikaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blankaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwītaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blasaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "falwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "haswaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grīsaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hairaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blakaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "swartaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "raudaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "brūnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "erpaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "dusnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gelwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gulaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grōniz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hēwijaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "baswaz"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "gem-pro:Colors"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "grey"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grey",
          "grey"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*grēwaz"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "terrible; frightening"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "terrible",
          "terrible"
        ],
        [
          "frightening",
          "frightening"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɣriː.sɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "grīsaz"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.