"brūnaz" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See brūnaz in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈbruː.nɑz/
Etymology: Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerH- (“grey, brown”). Etymology templates: {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*bʰerH-|t=grey, brown}} Proto-Indo-European *bʰerH- (“grey, brown”) Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-adj-a|brūn}}, {{gem-decl-adj-table2|*brūnaz|*brūnanǭ|*brūnas, -is|*brūnammai|*brūnanō|*brūnai|*brūnanz|*brūnaizǫ̂|*brūnaimaz|*brūnaimiz|*brūnō|*brūnǭ|*brūnaizōz|*brūnaizōi|*brūnaizō|*brūnôz|*brūnōz|*brūnaizǫ̂|*brūnaimaz|*brūnaimiz|*brūną, -atō|*brūną, -atō|*brūnas, -is|*brūnammai|*brūnanō|*brūnō|*brūnō|*brūnaizǫ̂|*brūnaimaz|*brūnaimiz|*brūnô|*brūnanų|*brūniniz|*brūnini|*brūninē|*brūnaniz|*brūnanunz|*brūnanǫ̂|*brūnammaz|*brūnammiz|*brūnǭ|*brūnōnų|*brūnōniz|*brūnōni|*brūnōnē|*brūnōniz|*brūnōnunz|*brūnōnǫ̂|*brūnōmaz|*brūnōmiz|*brūnô|*brūnô|*brūniniz|*brūnini|*brūninē|*brūnōnō|*brūnōnō|*brūnanǫ̂|*brūnammaz|*brūnammiz|title=*brūnaz (a-stem)}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], brūnaz [masculine, nominative, singular, strong], brūnai [masculine, nominative, plural, strong], brūnō [feminine, nominative, singular, strong], brūnôz [feminine, nominative, plural, strong], brūną [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], -atō [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], brūnō [neuter, nominative, plural, strong], brūnanǭ [accusative, masculine, singular, strong], brūnanz [accusative, masculine, plural, strong], brūnǭ [accusative, feminine, singular, strong], brūnōz [accusative, feminine, plural, strong], brūną [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], -atō [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], brūnō [accusative, neuter, plural, strong], brūnas [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], -is [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], brūnaizǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, strong], brūnaizōz [feminine, genitive, singular, strong], brūnaizǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, strong], brūnas [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], -is [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], brūnaizǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, strong], brūnammai [dative, masculine, singular, strong], brūnaimaz [dative, masculine, plural, strong], brūnaizōi [dative, feminine, singular, strong], brūnaimaz [dative, feminine, plural, strong], brūnammai [dative, neuter, singular, strong], brūnaimaz [dative, neuter, plural, strong], brūnanō [instrumental, masculine, singular, strong], brūnaimiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, strong], brūnaizō [feminine, instrumental, singular, strong], brūnaimiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, strong], brūnanō [instrumental, neuter, singular, strong], brūnaimiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, strong], brūnô [masculine, nominative, singular, weak], brūnaniz [masculine, nominative, plural, weak], brūnǭ [feminine, nominative, singular, weak], brūnōniz [feminine, nominative, plural, weak], brūnô [neuter, nominative, singular, weak], brūnōnō [neuter, nominative, plural, weak], brūnanų [accusative, masculine, singular, weak], brūnanunz [accusative, masculine, plural, weak], brūnōnų [accusative, feminine, singular, weak], brūnōnunz [accusative, feminine, plural, weak], brūnô [accusative, neuter, singular, weak], brūnōnō [accusative, neuter, plural, weak], brūniniz [genitive, masculine, singular, weak], brūnanǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, weak], brūnōniz [feminine, genitive, singular, weak], brūnōnǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, weak], brūniniz [genitive, neuter, singular, weak], brūnanǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, weak], brūnini [dative, masculine, singular, weak], brūnammaz [dative, masculine, plural, weak], brūnōni [dative, feminine, singular, weak], brūnōmaz [dative, feminine, plural, weak], brūnini [dative, neuter, singular, weak], brūnammaz [dative, neuter, plural, weak], brūninē [instrumental, masculine, singular, weak], brūnammiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, weak], brūnōnē [feminine, instrumental, singular, weak], brūnōmiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, weak], brūninē [instrumental, neuter, singular, weak], brūnammiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, weak]
  1. brown Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: en-brūnaz-gem-pro-adj-XrZ~n4QJ Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Related terms: blaikaz, blankaz, hwītaz, blasaz, falwaz, grēwaz, haswaz, grīsaz, hairaz, blakaz, swartaz, raudaz, brūnaz, erpaz, dusnaz, gelwaz, gulaz, grōniz, blēwaz, hēwijaz, baswaz

Download JSON data for brūnaz meaning in Proto-Germanic (13.3kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*brūn"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *brūn\nOld English: brūn\nMiddle English: broun, broyn, brown, brun, bruyn\nEnglish: brown\nBislama: braon\nTok Pisin: braun\n→ Welsh: brown\n→ Tongan: palauni\nGeordie English: broon\nScots: broon, broun\nOld Frisian: brūn\nEast Frisian:\nSaterland Frisian: bruun\n→ Latvian: brūns\nWest Frisian: brún\nOld Saxon: brūn\nMiddle Low German: brûn\nDutch Low Saxon: brun, broen, bruun\nGerman Low German: bruun, brun\nPlautdietsch: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\n→ Latgalian: bryuns\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld Dutch: *brūn\nMiddle Dutch: bruun\nDutch: bruin\nAfrikaans: bruin\nNegerhollands: bruun, brin, bryen\n→ Papiamentu: brùin, brein, bruin\n→ Sranan Tongo: broin\nLimburgish: broen\nWest Flemish: bruun\n→ English: bruin\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld High German: brūn\nMiddle High German: brūn\nAlemannic German: bruun\nSwabian:\nBavarian:\nCentral Franconian: brong, brung, broun\nHunsrik: braun\nLuxembourgish: brong\nEast Central German:\nVilamovian: braojn\nEast Franconian:\nGerman: braun\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: brau\nYiddish: ברוין (broyn)\n→ Late Latin: brūnus\n→ Dalmatian: broin\n→ Italian: bruno\n→ Old Galician-Portuguese:\nGalician: brun\nPortuguese: bruno\n→ Old Spanish:\nSpanish: bruno\n⇒ Medieval Latin: brunneus\n→ English: brunneous\n→ Old French: brun\nMiddle French: brun\nFrench: brun\n→ Breton: brun\nLouisiana Creole: brun\n→ Romanian: brun\nNorman: breun, brun\n→ Galician: brun (archaic)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *brūn\nOld English: brūn\nMiddle English: broun, broyn, brown, brun, bruyn\nEnglish: brown\nBislama: braon\nTok Pisin: braun\n→ Welsh: brown\n→ Tongan: palauni\nGeordie English: broon\nScots: broon, broun\nOld Frisian: brūn\nEast Frisian:\nSaterland Frisian: bruun\n→ Latvian: brūns\nWest Frisian: brún\nOld Saxon: brūn\nMiddle Low German: brûn\nDutch Low Saxon: brun, broen, bruun\nGerman Low German: bruun, brun\nPlautdietsch: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\n→ Latgalian: bryuns\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld Dutch: *brūn\nMiddle Dutch: bruun\nDutch: bruin\nAfrikaans: bruin\nNegerhollands: bruun, brin, bryen\n→ Papiamentu: brùin, brein, bruin\n→ Sranan Tongo: broin\nLimburgish: broen\nWest Flemish: bruun\n→ English: bruin\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld High German: brūn\nMiddle High German: brūn\nAlemannic German: bruun\nSwabian:\nBavarian:\nCentral Franconian: brong, brung, broun\nHunsrik: braun\nLuxembourgish: brong\nEast Central German:\nVilamovian: braojn\nEast Franconian:\nGerman: braun\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: brau\nYiddish: ברוין (broyn)\n→ Late Latin: brūnus\n→ Dalmatian: broin\n→ Italian: bruno\n→ Old Galician-Portuguese:\nGalician: brun\nPortuguese: bruno\n→ Old Spanish:\nSpanish: bruno\n⇒ Medieval Latin: brunneus\n→ English: brunneous\n→ Old French: brun\nMiddle French: brun\nFrench: brun\n→ Breton: brun\nLouisiana Creole: brun\n→ Romanian: brun\nNorman: breun, brun\n→ Galician: brun (archaic)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "brúnn"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: brúnn\nIcelandic: brúnn\nFaroese: brúnur\nNorn: brun\nNorwegian Nynorsk: brun, (dialectal) brun’u, brun’e, bron\nJamtish: brún\nElfdalian: braungen\nOld Swedish: brūn\nSwedish: brun\n→ Elfdalian: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\nOld Danish: brūn\nDanish: brun\nNorwegian Bokmål: brun\nGutnish: bräunar\nScanian: brúner",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: brúnn\nIcelandic: brúnn\nFaroese: brúnur\nNorn: brun\nNorwegian Nynorsk: brun, (dialectal) brun’u, brun’e, bron\nJamtish: brún\nElfdalian: braungen\nOld Swedish: brūn\nSwedish: brun\n→ Elfdalian: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\nOld Danish: brūn\nDanish: brun\nNorwegian Bokmål: brun\nGutnish: bräunar\nScanian: brúner"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "rm",
            "2": "brin",
            "3": "bregn",
            "4": "brün",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Romansch: brin, bregn, brün",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "from some Germanic language"
          },
          "expansion": "(from some Germanic language)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Romansch: brin, bregn, brün (from some Germanic language)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*bʰerH-",
        "t": "grey, brown"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *bʰerH- (“grey, brown”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerH- (“grey, brown”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūną",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūną",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūniniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūniniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūninē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūninē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "brūn"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*brūnaz",
        "10": "*brūnaimiz",
        "11": "*brūnō",
        "12": "*brūnǭ",
        "13": "*brūnaizōz",
        "14": "*brūnaizōi",
        "15": "*brūnaizō",
        "16": "*brūnôz",
        "17": "*brūnōz",
        "18": "*brūnaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*brūnaimaz",
        "2": "*brūnanǭ",
        "20": "*brūnaimiz",
        "21": "*brūną, -atō",
        "22": "*brūną, -atō",
        "23": "*brūnas, -is",
        "24": "*brūnammai",
        "25": "*brūnanō",
        "26": "*brūnō",
        "27": "*brūnō",
        "28": "*brūnaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*brūnaimaz",
        "3": "*brūnas, -is",
        "30": "*brūnaimiz",
        "31": "*brūnô",
        "32": "*brūnanų",
        "33": "*brūniniz",
        "34": "*brūnini",
        "35": "*brūninē",
        "36": "*brūnaniz",
        "37": "*brūnanunz",
        "38": "*brūnanǫ̂",
        "39": "*brūnammaz",
        "4": "*brūnammai",
        "40": "*brūnammiz",
        "41": "*brūnǭ",
        "42": "*brūnōnų",
        "43": "*brūnōniz",
        "44": "*brūnōni",
        "45": "*brūnōnē",
        "46": "*brūnōniz",
        "47": "*brūnōnunz",
        "48": "*brūnōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*brūnōmaz",
        "5": "*brūnanō",
        "50": "*brūnōmiz",
        "51": "*brūnô",
        "52": "*brūnô",
        "53": "*brūniniz",
        "54": "*brūnini",
        "55": "*brūninē",
        "56": "*brūnōnō",
        "57": "*brūnōnō",
        "58": "*brūnanǫ̂",
        "59": "*brūnammaz",
        "6": "*brūnai",
        "60": "*brūnammiz",
        "7": "*brūnanz",
        "8": "*brūnaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*brūnaimaz",
        "title": "*brūnaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/brūnaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "brown"
      ],
      "id": "en-brūnaz-gem-pro-adj-XrZ~n4QJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "brown",
          "brown"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "blaikaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blankaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hwītaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blasaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "falwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grēwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "haswaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grīsaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hairaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blakaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "swartaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "raudaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "brūnaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "erpaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "dusnaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "gelwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "gulaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grōniz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blēwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hēwijaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "baswaz"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈbruː.nɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "brūnaz"
}
{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*brūn"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *brūn\nOld English: brūn\nMiddle English: broun, broyn, brown, brun, bruyn\nEnglish: brown\nBislama: braon\nTok Pisin: braun\n→ Welsh: brown\n→ Tongan: palauni\nGeordie English: broon\nScots: broon, broun\nOld Frisian: brūn\nEast Frisian:\nSaterland Frisian: bruun\n→ Latvian: brūns\nWest Frisian: brún\nOld Saxon: brūn\nMiddle Low German: brûn\nDutch Low Saxon: brun, broen, bruun\nGerman Low German: bruun, brun\nPlautdietsch: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\n→ Latgalian: bryuns\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld Dutch: *brūn\nMiddle Dutch: bruun\nDutch: bruin\nAfrikaans: bruin\nNegerhollands: bruun, brin, bryen\n→ Papiamentu: brùin, brein, bruin\n→ Sranan Tongo: broin\nLimburgish: broen\nWest Flemish: bruun\n→ English: bruin\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld High German: brūn\nMiddle High German: brūn\nAlemannic German: bruun\nSwabian:\nBavarian:\nCentral Franconian: brong, brung, broun\nHunsrik: braun\nLuxembourgish: brong\nEast Central German:\nVilamovian: braojn\nEast Franconian:\nGerman: braun\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: brau\nYiddish: ברוין (broyn)\n→ Late Latin: brūnus\n→ Dalmatian: broin\n→ Italian: bruno\n→ Old Galician-Portuguese:\nGalician: brun\nPortuguese: bruno\n→ Old Spanish:\nSpanish: bruno\n⇒ Medieval Latin: brunneus\n→ English: brunneous\n→ Old French: brun\nMiddle French: brun\nFrench: brun\n→ Breton: brun\nLouisiana Creole: brun\n→ Romanian: brun\nNorman: breun, brun\n→ Galician: brun (archaic)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *brūn\nOld English: brūn\nMiddle English: broun, broyn, brown, brun, bruyn\nEnglish: brown\nBislama: braon\nTok Pisin: braun\n→ Welsh: brown\n→ Tongan: palauni\nGeordie English: broon\nScots: broon, broun\nOld Frisian: brūn\nEast Frisian:\nSaterland Frisian: bruun\n→ Latvian: brūns\nWest Frisian: brún\nOld Saxon: brūn\nMiddle Low German: brûn\nDutch Low Saxon: brun, broen, bruun\nGerman Low German: bruun, brun\nPlautdietsch: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\n→ Latgalian: bryuns\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld Dutch: *brūn\nMiddle Dutch: bruun\nDutch: bruin\nAfrikaans: bruin\nNegerhollands: bruun, brin, bryen\n→ Papiamentu: brùin, brein, bruin\n→ Sranan Tongo: broin\nLimburgish: broen\nWest Flemish: bruun\n→ English: bruin\n→ Latvian: brūns\nOld High German: brūn\nMiddle High German: brūn\nAlemannic German: bruun\nSwabian:\nBavarian:\nCentral Franconian: brong, brung, broun\nHunsrik: braun\nLuxembourgish: brong\nEast Central German:\nVilamovian: braojn\nEast Franconian:\nGerman: braun\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: brau\nYiddish: ברוין (broyn)\n→ Late Latin: brūnus\n→ Dalmatian: broin\n→ Italian: bruno\n→ Old Galician-Portuguese:\nGalician: brun\nPortuguese: bruno\n→ Old Spanish:\nSpanish: bruno\n⇒ Medieval Latin: brunneus\n→ English: brunneous\n→ Old French: brun\nMiddle French: brun\nFrench: brun\n→ Breton: brun\nLouisiana Creole: brun\n→ Romanian: brun\nNorman: breun, brun\n→ Galician: brun (archaic)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "brúnn"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: brúnn\nIcelandic: brúnn\nFaroese: brúnur\nNorn: brun\nNorwegian Nynorsk: brun, (dialectal) brun’u, brun’e, bron\nJamtish: brún\nElfdalian: braungen\nOld Swedish: brūn\nSwedish: brun\n→ Elfdalian: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\nOld Danish: brūn\nDanish: brun\nNorwegian Bokmål: brun\nGutnish: bräunar\nScanian: brúner",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: brúnn\nIcelandic: brúnn\nFaroese: brúnur\nNorn: brun\nNorwegian Nynorsk: brun, (dialectal) brun’u, brun’e, bron\nJamtish: brún\nElfdalian: braungen\nOld Swedish: brūn\nSwedish: brun\n→ Elfdalian: brun\n→ Estonian: pruun\nOld Danish: brūn\nDanish: brun\nNorwegian Bokmål: brun\nGutnish: bräunar\nScanian: brúner"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "rm",
            "2": "brin",
            "3": "bregn",
            "4": "brün",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Romansch: brin, bregn, brün",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "from some Germanic language"
          },
          "expansion": "(from some Germanic language)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Romansch: brin, bregn, brün (from some Germanic language)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*bʰerH-",
        "t": "grey, brown"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *bʰerH- (“grey, brown”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerH- (“grey, brown”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūną",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūną",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūniniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūniniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūninē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūninē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "brūnammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "brūn"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*brūnaz",
        "10": "*brūnaimiz",
        "11": "*brūnō",
        "12": "*brūnǭ",
        "13": "*brūnaizōz",
        "14": "*brūnaizōi",
        "15": "*brūnaizō",
        "16": "*brūnôz",
        "17": "*brūnōz",
        "18": "*brūnaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*brūnaimaz",
        "2": "*brūnanǭ",
        "20": "*brūnaimiz",
        "21": "*brūną, -atō",
        "22": "*brūną, -atō",
        "23": "*brūnas, -is",
        "24": "*brūnammai",
        "25": "*brūnanō",
        "26": "*brūnō",
        "27": "*brūnō",
        "28": "*brūnaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*brūnaimaz",
        "3": "*brūnas, -is",
        "30": "*brūnaimiz",
        "31": "*brūnô",
        "32": "*brūnanų",
        "33": "*brūniniz",
        "34": "*brūnini",
        "35": "*brūninē",
        "36": "*brūnaniz",
        "37": "*brūnanunz",
        "38": "*brūnanǫ̂",
        "39": "*brūnammaz",
        "4": "*brūnammai",
        "40": "*brūnammiz",
        "41": "*brūnǭ",
        "42": "*brūnōnų",
        "43": "*brūnōniz",
        "44": "*brūnōni",
        "45": "*brūnōnē",
        "46": "*brūnōniz",
        "47": "*brūnōnunz",
        "48": "*brūnōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*brūnōmaz",
        "5": "*brūnanō",
        "50": "*brūnōmiz",
        "51": "*brūnô",
        "52": "*brūnô",
        "53": "*brūniniz",
        "54": "*brūnini",
        "55": "*brūninē",
        "56": "*brūnōnō",
        "57": "*brūnōnō",
        "58": "*brūnanǫ̂",
        "59": "*brūnammaz",
        "6": "*brūnai",
        "60": "*brūnammiz",
        "7": "*brūnanz",
        "8": "*brūnaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*brūnaimaz",
        "title": "*brūnaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/brūnaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "blaikaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blankaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwītaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blasaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "falwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "haswaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grīsaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hairaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blakaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "swartaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "raudaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "brūnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "erpaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "dusnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gelwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gulaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grōniz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hēwijaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "baswaz"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic a-stem adjectives",
        "Proto-Germanic adjectives",
        "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "gem-pro:Colors"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "brown"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "brown",
          "brown"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈbruː.nɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "brūnaz"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.