"hwītaz" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See hwītaz in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈxʷiː.tɑz/
Etymology: Kroonen notes a possible derivation from Proto-Indo-European *ḱweytōr, genitive *ḱwitnós, a heteroclitic byform of *ḱweytos (“bright; shine”). The oblique stem, used to form *ḱwitnós would create a voiceless geminate stop tt assuming Kluge's law, which would be reduced to a single t after the heavy first syllable once the consonantism was analogically extended to other cases. Compare Proto-Slavic *světъ. Etymology templates: {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*ḱweytōr}} Proto-Indo-European *ḱweytōr, {{cog|sla-pro|*světъ}} Proto-Slavic *světъ Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-adj-a|hwīt}}, {{gem-decl-adj-table2|*hwītaz|*hwītanǭ|*hwītas, -is|*hwītammai|*hwītanō|*hwītai|*hwītanz|*hwītaizǫ̂|*hwītaimaz|*hwītaimiz|*hwītō|*hwītǭ|*hwītaizōz|*hwītaizōi|*hwītaizō|*hwītôz|*hwītōz|*hwītaizǫ̂|*hwītaimaz|*hwītaimiz|*hwītą, -atō|*hwītą, -atō|*hwītas, -is|*hwītammai|*hwītanō|*hwītō|*hwītō|*hwītaizǫ̂|*hwītaimaz|*hwītaimiz|*hwītô|*hwītanų|*hwītiniz|*hwītini|*hwītinē|*hwītaniz|*hwītanunz|*hwītanǫ̂|*hwītammaz|*hwītammiz|*hwītǭ|*hwītōnų|*hwītōniz|*hwītōni|*hwītōnē|*hwītōniz|*hwītōnunz|*hwītōnǫ̂|*hwītōmaz|*hwītōmiz|*hwītô|*hwītô|*hwītiniz|*hwītini|*hwītinē|*hwītōnō|*hwītōnō|*hwītanǫ̂|*hwītammaz|*hwītammiz|title=*hwītaz (a-stem)}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], hwītaz [masculine, nominative, singular, strong], hwītai [masculine, nominative, plural, strong], hwītō [feminine, nominative, singular, strong], hwītôz [feminine, nominative, plural, strong], hwītą [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], -atō [neuter, nominative, singular, strong], hwītō [neuter, nominative, plural, strong], hwītanǭ [accusative, masculine, singular, strong], hwītanz [accusative, masculine, plural, strong], hwītǭ [accusative, feminine, singular, strong], hwītōz [accusative, feminine, plural, strong], hwītą [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], -atō [accusative, neuter, singular, strong], hwītō [accusative, neuter, plural, strong], hwītas [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], -is [genitive, masculine, singular, strong], hwītaizǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, strong], hwītaizōz [feminine, genitive, singular, strong], hwītaizǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, strong], hwītas [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], -is [genitive, neuter, singular, strong], hwītaizǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, strong], hwītammai [dative, masculine, singular, strong], hwītaimaz [dative, masculine, plural, strong], hwītaizōi [dative, feminine, singular, strong], hwītaimaz [dative, feminine, plural, strong], hwītammai [dative, neuter, singular, strong], hwītaimaz [dative, neuter, plural, strong], hwītanō [instrumental, masculine, singular, strong], hwītaimiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, strong], hwītaizō [feminine, instrumental, singular, strong], hwītaimiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, strong], hwītanō [instrumental, neuter, singular, strong], hwītaimiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, strong], hwītô [masculine, nominative, singular, weak], hwītaniz [masculine, nominative, plural, weak], hwītǭ [feminine, nominative, singular, weak], hwītōniz [feminine, nominative, plural, weak], hwītô [neuter, nominative, singular, weak], hwītōnō [neuter, nominative, plural, weak], hwītanų [accusative, masculine, singular, weak], hwītanunz [accusative, masculine, plural, weak], hwītōnų [accusative, feminine, singular, weak], hwītōnunz [accusative, feminine, plural, weak], hwītô [accusative, neuter, singular, weak], hwītōnō [accusative, neuter, plural, weak], hwītiniz [genitive, masculine, singular, weak], hwītanǫ̂ [genitive, masculine, plural, weak], hwītōniz [feminine, genitive, singular, weak], hwītōnǫ̂ [feminine, genitive, plural, weak], hwītiniz [genitive, neuter, singular, weak], hwītanǫ̂ [genitive, neuter, plural, weak], hwītini [dative, masculine, singular, weak], hwītammaz [dative, masculine, plural, weak], hwītōni [dative, feminine, singular, weak], hwītōmaz [dative, feminine, plural, weak], hwītini [dative, neuter, singular, weak], hwītammaz [dative, neuter, plural, weak], hwītinē [instrumental, masculine, singular, weak], hwītammiz [instrumental, masculine, plural, weak], hwītōnē [feminine, instrumental, singular, weak], hwītōmiz [feminine, instrumental, plural, weak], hwītinē [instrumental, neuter, singular, weak], hwītammiz [instrumental, neuter, plural, weak]
  1. white Wikipedia link: Kluge's law Tags: reconstruction Synonyms: *blaikaz, *blankaz Derived forms: snaiwahwītaz, hwītijaną, hwītį̄
    Sense id: en-hwītaz-gem-pro-adj-AY-pakRx Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Related terms: blaikaz, blankaz, hwītaz, blasaz, falwaz, grēwaz, haswaz, grīsaz, hairaz, blakaz, swartaz, raudaz, brūnaz, erpaz, dusnaz, gelwaz, gulaz, grōniz, blēwaz, hēwijaz, baswaz

Download JSON data for hwītaz meaning in Proto-Germanic (12.8kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*hwīt"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwīt\nOld English: hwīt\nMiddle English: whit, hwit, white, whyte, whitt, whytt, whyt, whiȝt, qwyght, ȝwijt, wyghte, whiyt, whijt\nEnglish: white (see there for further descendants)\nScots: quhite, fyte, fite, whyte, white\nYola: whit\nOld Frisian: hwīt, wīt\nNorth Frisian: wit, witj\nSaterland Frisian: wiet\nWest Frisian: wyt\nOld Saxon: hwīt\nMiddle Low German: wit\nGerman Low German: witt\nLow German: witt\nPlautdietsch: witt\nOld Dutch: wīt\nMiddle Dutch: wit\nDutch: wit\nAfrikaans: wit\nLimburgish: wiet\nOld High German: wīz\nMiddle High German: wīz, wīs\nAlemannic German: wiiss\nItalian Walser: wiss, wéiss\nBavarian:\nCimbrian: baiz, baizz, bais\nMòcheno: bais\nUdinese: bais, baiss\nCentral Franconian: wieß\nKirchröadsj Ripuarian: wies\nGerman: weiß\nLuxembourgish: wäiss\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: weiss\nVilamovian: wȧjs\nYiddish: ווײַס (vays)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwīt\nOld English: hwīt\nMiddle English: whit, hwit, white, whyte, whitt, whytt, whyt, whiȝt, qwyght, ȝwijt, wyghte, whiyt, whijt\nEnglish: white (see there for further descendants)\nScots: quhite, fyte, fite, whyte, white\nYola: whit\nOld Frisian: hwīt, wīt\nNorth Frisian: wit, witj\nSaterland Frisian: wiet\nWest Frisian: wyt\nOld Saxon: hwīt\nMiddle Low German: wit\nGerman Low German: witt\nLow German: witt\nPlautdietsch: witt\nOld Dutch: wīt\nMiddle Dutch: wit\nDutch: wit\nAfrikaans: wit\nLimburgish: wiet\nOld High German: wīz\nMiddle High German: wīz, wīs\nAlemannic German: wiiss\nItalian Walser: wiss, wéiss\nBavarian:\nCimbrian: baiz, baizz, bais\nMòcheno: bais\nUdinese: bais, baiss\nCentral Franconian: wieß\nKirchröadsj Ripuarian: wies\nGerman: weiß\nLuxembourgish: wäiss\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: weiss\nVilamovian: wȧjs\nYiddish: ווײַס (vays)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "hvítr"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: hvítr\nIcelandic: hvítur\nFaroese: hvítur\nNorn: hvid\nNorwegian Nynorsk: kvit, (dialectal) kvit’u, kvit’e\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: kvit\nElfdalian: wait\nOld Swedish: hvīter\nSwedish: vit, hvit (pre-1906 spelling)\nDanish: hvid\nNorwegian Bokmål: hvit\nOld Gutnish: huit\nGutnish: veitar, veita, veit",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: hvítr\nIcelandic: hvítur\nFaroese: hvítur\nNorn: hvid\nNorwegian Nynorsk: kvit, (dialectal) kvit’u, kvit’e\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: kvit\nElfdalian: wait\nOld Swedish: hvīter\nSwedish: vit, hvit (pre-1906 spelling)\nDanish: hvid\nNorwegian Bokmål: hvit\nOld Gutnish: huit\nGutnish: veitar, veita, veit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐍈𐌴𐌹𐍄𐍃"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐍈𐌴𐌹𐍄𐍃 (ƕeits)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐍈𐌴𐌹𐍄𐍃 (ƕeits)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gme-cgo",
            "2": "wichtgata",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Crimean Gothic: wichtgata",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Crimean Gothic: wichtgata"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱweytōr"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱweytōr",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sla-pro",
        "2": "*světъ"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Slavic *světъ",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Kroonen notes a possible derivation from Proto-Indo-European *ḱweytōr, genitive *ḱwitnós, a heteroclitic byform of *ḱweytos (“bright; shine”). The oblique stem, used to form *ḱwitnós would create a voiceless geminate stop tt assuming Kluge's law, which would be reduced to a single t after the heavy first syllable once the consonantism was analogically extended to other cases. Compare Proto-Slavic *světъ.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "hwīt"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*hwītaz",
        "10": "*hwītaimiz",
        "11": "*hwītō",
        "12": "*hwītǭ",
        "13": "*hwītaizōz",
        "14": "*hwītaizōi",
        "15": "*hwītaizō",
        "16": "*hwītôz",
        "17": "*hwītōz",
        "18": "*hwītaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*hwītaimaz",
        "2": "*hwītanǭ",
        "20": "*hwītaimiz",
        "21": "*hwītą, -atō",
        "22": "*hwītą, -atō",
        "23": "*hwītas, -is",
        "24": "*hwītammai",
        "25": "*hwītanō",
        "26": "*hwītō",
        "27": "*hwītō",
        "28": "*hwītaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*hwītaimaz",
        "3": "*hwītas, -is",
        "30": "*hwītaimiz",
        "31": "*hwītô",
        "32": "*hwītanų",
        "33": "*hwītiniz",
        "34": "*hwītini",
        "35": "*hwītinē",
        "36": "*hwītaniz",
        "37": "*hwītanunz",
        "38": "*hwītanǫ̂",
        "39": "*hwītammaz",
        "4": "*hwītammai",
        "40": "*hwītammiz",
        "41": "*hwītǭ",
        "42": "*hwītōnų",
        "43": "*hwītōniz",
        "44": "*hwītōni",
        "45": "*hwītōnē",
        "46": "*hwītōniz",
        "47": "*hwītōnunz",
        "48": "*hwītōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*hwītōmaz",
        "5": "*hwītanō",
        "50": "*hwītōmiz",
        "51": "*hwītô",
        "52": "*hwītô",
        "53": "*hwītiniz",
        "54": "*hwītini",
        "55": "*hwītinē",
        "56": "*hwītōnō",
        "57": "*hwītōnō",
        "58": "*hwītanǫ̂",
        "59": "*hwītammaz",
        "6": "*hwītai",
        "60": "*hwītammiz",
        "7": "*hwītanz",
        "8": "*hwītaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*hwītaimaz",
        "title": "*hwītaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hwītaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "snaiwahwītaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hwītijaną"
        },
        {
          "word": "hwītį̄"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "white"
      ],
      "id": "en-hwītaz-gem-pro-adj-AY-pakRx",
      "links": [
        [
          "white",
          "white"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "blaikaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blankaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hwītaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blasaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "falwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grēwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "haswaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grīsaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hairaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blakaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "swartaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "raudaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "brūnaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "erpaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "dusnaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "gelwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "gulaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "grōniz"
        },
        {
          "word": "blēwaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "hēwijaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "baswaz"
        }
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*blaikaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "*blankaz"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ],
      "wikipedia": [
        "Kluge's law"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxʷiː.tɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hwītaz"
}
{
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "snaiwahwītaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwītijaną"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwītį̄"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*hwīt"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwīt\nOld English: hwīt\nMiddle English: whit, hwit, white, whyte, whitt, whytt, whyt, whiȝt, qwyght, ȝwijt, wyghte, whiyt, whijt\nEnglish: white (see there for further descendants)\nScots: quhite, fyte, fite, whyte, white\nYola: whit\nOld Frisian: hwīt, wīt\nNorth Frisian: wit, witj\nSaterland Frisian: wiet\nWest Frisian: wyt\nOld Saxon: hwīt\nMiddle Low German: wit\nGerman Low German: witt\nLow German: witt\nPlautdietsch: witt\nOld Dutch: wīt\nMiddle Dutch: wit\nDutch: wit\nAfrikaans: wit\nLimburgish: wiet\nOld High German: wīz\nMiddle High German: wīz, wīs\nAlemannic German: wiiss\nItalian Walser: wiss, wéiss\nBavarian:\nCimbrian: baiz, baizz, bais\nMòcheno: bais\nUdinese: bais, baiss\nCentral Franconian: wieß\nKirchröadsj Ripuarian: wies\nGerman: weiß\nLuxembourgish: wäiss\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: weiss\nVilamovian: wȧjs\nYiddish: ווײַס (vays)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwīt\nOld English: hwīt\nMiddle English: whit, hwit, white, whyte, whitt, whytt, whyt, whiȝt, qwyght, ȝwijt, wyghte, whiyt, whijt\nEnglish: white (see there for further descendants)\nScots: quhite, fyte, fite, whyte, white\nYola: whit\nOld Frisian: hwīt, wīt\nNorth Frisian: wit, witj\nSaterland Frisian: wiet\nWest Frisian: wyt\nOld Saxon: hwīt\nMiddle Low German: wit\nGerman Low German: witt\nLow German: witt\nPlautdietsch: witt\nOld Dutch: wīt\nMiddle Dutch: wit\nDutch: wit\nAfrikaans: wit\nLimburgish: wiet\nOld High German: wīz\nMiddle High German: wīz, wīs\nAlemannic German: wiiss\nItalian Walser: wiss, wéiss\nBavarian:\nCimbrian: baiz, baizz, bais\nMòcheno: bais\nUdinese: bais, baiss\nCentral Franconian: wieß\nKirchröadsj Ripuarian: wies\nGerman: weiß\nLuxembourgish: wäiss\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: weiss\nVilamovian: wȧjs\nYiddish: ווײַס (vays)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "hvítr"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: hvítr\nIcelandic: hvítur\nFaroese: hvítur\nNorn: hvid\nNorwegian Nynorsk: kvit, (dialectal) kvit’u, kvit’e\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: kvit\nElfdalian: wait\nOld Swedish: hvīter\nSwedish: vit, hvit (pre-1906 spelling)\nDanish: hvid\nNorwegian Bokmål: hvit\nOld Gutnish: huit\nGutnish: veitar, veita, veit",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: hvítr\nIcelandic: hvítur\nFaroese: hvítur\nNorn: hvid\nNorwegian Nynorsk: kvit, (dialectal) kvit’u, kvit’e\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: kvit\nElfdalian: wait\nOld Swedish: hvīter\nSwedish: vit, hvit (pre-1906 spelling)\nDanish: hvid\nNorwegian Bokmål: hvit\nOld Gutnish: huit\nGutnish: veitar, veita, veit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐍈𐌴𐌹𐍄𐍃"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐍈𐌴𐌹𐍄𐍃 (ƕeits)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐍈𐌴𐌹𐍄𐍃 (ƕeits)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gme-cgo",
            "2": "wichtgata",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Crimean Gothic: wichtgata",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Crimean Gothic: wichtgata"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱweytōr"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱweytōr",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sla-pro",
        "2": "*světъ"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Slavic *světъ",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Kroonen notes a possible derivation from Proto-Indo-European *ḱweytōr, genitive *ḱwitnós, a heteroclitic byform of *ḱweytos (“bright; shine”). The oblique stem, used to form *ḱwitnós would create a voiceless geminate stop tt assuming Kluge's law, which would be reduced to a single t after the heavy first syllable once the consonantism was analogically extended to other cases. Compare Proto-Slavic *světъ.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-adj-a",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītôz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-atō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-is",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaizō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "strong"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "neuter",
        "nominative",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "genitive",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "feminine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "masculine",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "instrumental",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "singular",
        "weak"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "hwītammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "neuter",
        "plural",
        "weak"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "hwīt"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-a"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "*hwītaz",
        "10": "*hwītaimiz",
        "11": "*hwītō",
        "12": "*hwītǭ",
        "13": "*hwītaizōz",
        "14": "*hwītaizōi",
        "15": "*hwītaizō",
        "16": "*hwītôz",
        "17": "*hwītōz",
        "18": "*hwītaizǫ̂",
        "19": "*hwītaimaz",
        "2": "*hwītanǭ",
        "20": "*hwītaimiz",
        "21": "*hwītą, -atō",
        "22": "*hwītą, -atō",
        "23": "*hwītas, -is",
        "24": "*hwītammai",
        "25": "*hwītanō",
        "26": "*hwītō",
        "27": "*hwītō",
        "28": "*hwītaizǫ̂",
        "29": "*hwītaimaz",
        "3": "*hwītas, -is",
        "30": "*hwītaimiz",
        "31": "*hwītô",
        "32": "*hwītanų",
        "33": "*hwītiniz",
        "34": "*hwītini",
        "35": "*hwītinē",
        "36": "*hwītaniz",
        "37": "*hwītanunz",
        "38": "*hwītanǫ̂",
        "39": "*hwītammaz",
        "4": "*hwītammai",
        "40": "*hwītammiz",
        "41": "*hwītǭ",
        "42": "*hwītōnų",
        "43": "*hwītōniz",
        "44": "*hwītōni",
        "45": "*hwītōnē",
        "46": "*hwītōniz",
        "47": "*hwītōnunz",
        "48": "*hwītōnǫ̂",
        "49": "*hwītōmaz",
        "5": "*hwītanō",
        "50": "*hwītōmiz",
        "51": "*hwītô",
        "52": "*hwītô",
        "53": "*hwītiniz",
        "54": "*hwītini",
        "55": "*hwītinē",
        "56": "*hwītōnō",
        "57": "*hwītōnō",
        "58": "*hwītanǫ̂",
        "59": "*hwītammaz",
        "6": "*hwītai",
        "60": "*hwītammiz",
        "7": "*hwītanz",
        "8": "*hwītaizǫ̂",
        "9": "*hwītaimaz",
        "title": "*hwītaz (a-stem)"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-adj-table2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hwītaz",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "blaikaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blankaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwītaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blasaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "falwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "haswaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grīsaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hairaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blakaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "swartaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "raudaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "brūnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "erpaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "dusnaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gelwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "gulaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "grōniz"
    },
    {
      "word": "blēwaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "hēwijaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "baswaz"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic a-stem adjectives",
        "Proto-Germanic adjectives",
        "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "gem-pro:Colors"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "white"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "white",
          "white"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*blaikaz"
        },
        {
          "word": "*blankaz"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ],
      "wikipedia": [
        "Kluge's law"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxʷiː.tɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hwītaz"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.