"ん" meaning in Japanese

See in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Combining form

IPA: [n], [m], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ɴ], [ɰ̃]
Etymology: /r-/ → /r/ → /n/, /ŋ/ Regular contraction of various morae preceding another mora starting with a nasalized consonant, such as /n/ or /d/. This contracted form is considered informal. Head templates: {{ja-pos|combining form}} ん
  1. contraction of ら (ra) Tags: abbreviation, alt-of, contraction, morpheme Alternative form of: (extra: ra)
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-combining_form-~4Nv5glJ Categories (other): Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7
  2. contraction of る (ru) Tags: abbreviation, alt-of, contraction, morpheme Alternative form of: (extra: ru)
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-combining_form-ffOFFqgg Categories (other): Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7
  3. contraction of れ (re) Tags: abbreviation, alt-of, contraction, morpheme Alternative form of: (extra: re)
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-combining_form-E9KepHCu Categories (other): Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 5

Particle

IPA: [n], [m], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ɴ], [ɰ̃]
Etymology: table /no/ → /n/, /ŋ/ Regular contraction of the possessive or nominalizing particle の (no). This contracted form is considered informal. Etymology templates: {{etymid|ja|possessive}} table, {{ja-r|の}} の (no) Head templates: {{ja-pos|particle}} ん • (n)
  1. contraction of の (no) Tags: abbreviation, alt-of, contraction Alternative form of: (extra: no)
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-particle-y--UF5r- Categories (other): Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup, Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese particles Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant wikilinks: 7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant alt parameters: 15 44 41
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 4

Suffix

IPA: [n], [m], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ɴ], [ɰ̃] Forms: -n [romanization]
Etymology: table /nu/ → /n/, /ŋ/ An abbreviation of the negative ending ぬ (nu). Etymology templates: {{etymid|ja|negative}} table, {{ja-r|ぬ}} ぬ (nu) Head templates: {{ja-pos|suffix}} ん • (-n)
  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): negative form of verbs Tags: after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb, form-of, morpheme, negative Form of: verbs Synonyms: ない (nai) [informal], ません (masen) [formal], (english: zu) [formal, literary], へん (english: hen) [Kansai]
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-suffix-XrO3TwJS Categories (other): Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup, Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese terms modified by "noun + な", Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese terms with redundant script codes Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant wikilinks: 7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3 Disambiguation of Japanese terms modified by "noun + な": 3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant alt parameters: 15 44 41 Related terms: Use the dictionary form, stem + い [-i], + だ(noun + である) (de aru) [noun], mizenkei + ない (-nai), stem + くない (-ku nai), + で(は)ない (alt: de [wa] nai) [noun], ren'yōkei + ます (-masu), stem + いです (-i desu), + です (desu) [noun], ren'yōkei + ません (-masen), stem + くないですstem + くありません (-ku arimasen), + で(は)ないですnoun + で(は)ありません (alt: de [wa] nai desu; de [wa] arimasen) [noun], ren'yōkei + た (-ta) (english: with onbin sound changes for Group I verbs), stem + かった (-katta), + だった(noun + であった) (de atta) [noun], mizenkei + なかった (-nakatta), stem + くなかった (-ku nakatta), + で(は)なかった (alt: de [wa] nakatta) [noun], ren'yōkei + ました (-mashita), stem + かったです (-katta desu), + でした (deshita) [noun], ren'yōkei + ませんでした (-masen deshita), stem + くなかったですstem + くありませんでした (-ku arimasen deshita), + で(は)なかったですnoun + で(は)ありませんでした (alt: de [wa] nakatta desu; de [wa] arimasen deshita) [noun], mizenkei + うmizenkei + よう (-yō) (alt: -u > -o) (english: of Group I verbs; of other verbs), †stem + かろう(stem + いだろう) (-i darō), + だろう(noun + であろう) (de arō) [noun], ren'yōkei + ましょう (-mashō), + でしょう (deshō) [noun], ren'yōkei + て (-te) (english: with onbin sound changes for Group I verbs), stem + くて (-kute), + で(noun + であって) (de atte) [noun], kateikei + ば (-ba), stem + ければ (-kereba)
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix

IPA: [n], [m], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ɴ], [ɰ̃] Forms: -n [romanization]
Etymology: table /mu/ → /n/, /ŋ/ An abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending む (mu). Etymology templates: {{etymid|ja|volitional}} table, {{ja-r|む}} む (mu) Head templates: {{ja-pos|suffix}} ん • (-n)
  1. (non-productive, archaic) (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): volitional form of verbs Tags: archaic, morpheme Synonyms (reflex in modern language): (-u)
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-suffix-cwPj09FG Categories (other): Japanese links with redundant alt parameters, Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup, Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese terms modified by "noun + な", Japanese links with redundant alt parameters Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant wikilinks: 7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3 Disambiguation of Japanese terms modified by "noun + な": 3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant alt parameters: 15 44 41
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix

IPA: [n], [m], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ɴ], [ɰ̃] Forms: -n [romanization]
Etymology: Possibly a reduced form of ちゃん. Etymology templates: {{l|ja|ちゃん}} ちゃん Head templates: {{ja-pos|suffix}} ん • (-n)
  1. (women's speech) added to female names or parts of them to express affection Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-suffix--d7NOVk2 Categories (other): Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup, Japanese links with redundant wikilinks, Japanese terms modified by "noun + な", Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys Disambiguation of Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup: 11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7 Disambiguation of Japanese links with redundant wikilinks: 7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3 Disambiguation of Japanese terms modified by "noun + な": 3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32 Disambiguation of Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys: 12 12 12 12 14 14 20 4
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 6

Syllable

IPA: [n], [m], [ŋ], [ɲ], [ɴ], [ɰ̃]
Etymology: Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji 无 in the cursive sōsho style. ん and む were originally both used for both the n and mu sounds; ん was designated as n in the script reform. Etymology templates: {{m|ja|无}} 无, {{ja-kana-mannyogana-etym}} Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji 无 in the cursive sōsho style, {{lang|ja|ん}} ん, {{m|ja|む}} む, {{lang|ja|ん}} ん Head templates: {{ja-pos|syllable}} ん • (n)
  1. The hiragana syllable ん (n). Its equivalent in katakana is ン (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order.
    Sense id: en-ん-ja-syllable-YnhC7kmW Categories (other): Japanese terms modified by "noun + な" Disambiguation of Japanese terms modified by "noun + な": 3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32 Related terms: あぁ, かゕがか゚, さざ, ただ, , はばぱ, , やゃ, らら゚, わゎわ゙, いぃ, きぎき゚, しじ, ちぢ, , ひびぴ, , 𛀆, りり゚, ゐ𛅐ゐ゙, うぅゔ, くぐく゚, すず, つっづ, , ふぶぷ, , ゆゅ, るる゚, 𛄟, えぇ, けゖげけ゚, せぜ, てで, , へべぺ, , 𛀁, れれ゚, ゑ𛅑ゑ゙, おぉ, こごこ゚, そぞ, とど, , ほぼぽ, , よょ, ろろ゚, を𛅒を゙, Additional symbols ーゝゞゟ
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Alternative forms

Download JSON data for ん meaning in Japanese (20.1kB)

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "无"
      },
      "expansion": "无",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji 无 in the cursive sōsho style",
      "name": "ja-kana-mannyogana-etym"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "ん"
      },
      "expansion": "ん",
      "name": "lang"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "む"
      },
      "expansion": "む",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "ん"
      },
      "expansion": "ん",
      "name": "lang"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji 无 in the cursive sōsho style. ん and む were originally both used for both the n and mu sounds; ん was designated as n in the script reform.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "syllable"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "syllable",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "The hiragana syllable ん (n). Its equivalent in katakana is ン (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order."
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-syllable-YnhC7kmW",
      "links": [
        [
          "ん",
          "ん#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "ン",
          "ン#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "gojūon",
          "gojūon"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "あぁ"
        },
        {
          "word": "かゕがか゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "さざ"
        },
        {
          "word": "ただ"
        },
        {
          "word": "な"
        },
        {
          "word": "はばぱ"
        },
        {
          "word": "ま"
        },
        {
          "word": "やゃ"
        },
        {
          "word": "らら゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "わゎわ゙"
        },
        {
          "word": "いぃ"
        },
        {
          "word": "きぎき゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "しじ"
        },
        {
          "word": "ちぢ"
        },
        {
          "word": "に"
        },
        {
          "word": "ひびぴ"
        },
        {
          "word": "み"
        },
        {
          "word": "𛀆"
        },
        {
          "word": "りり゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "ゐ𛅐ゐ゙"
        },
        {
          "word": "うぅゔ"
        },
        {
          "word": "くぐく゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "すず"
        },
        {
          "word": "つっづ"
        },
        {
          "word": "ぬ"
        },
        {
          "word": "ふぶぷ"
        },
        {
          "word": "む"
        },
        {
          "word": "ゆゅ"
        },
        {
          "word": "るる゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "𛄟"
        },
        {
          "word": "えぇ"
        },
        {
          "word": "けゖげけ゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "せぜ"
        },
        {
          "word": "てで"
        },
        {
          "word": "ね"
        },
        {
          "word": "へべぺ"
        },
        {
          "word": "め"
        },
        {
          "word": "𛀁"
        },
        {
          "word": "れれ゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "ゑ𛅑ゑ゙"
        },
        {
          "word": "おぉ"
        },
        {
          "word": "こごこ゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "そぞ"
        },
        {
          "word": "とど"
        },
        {
          "word": "の"
        },
        {
          "word": "ほぼぽ"
        },
        {
          "word": "も"
        },
        {
          "word": "よょ"
        },
        {
          "word": "ろろ゚"
        },
        {
          "word": "を𛅒を゙"
        },
        {
          "word": "Additional symbols ーゝゞゟ"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Japanese script reform"
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "negative"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ぬ"
      },
      "expansion": "ぬ (nu)",
      "name": "ja-r"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\n/nu/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nAn abbreviation of the negative ending ぬ (nu).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-n",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (-n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 44 41",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I don't know.",
          "roman": "wakaran",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "分",
              "わ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "分からん"
        },
        {
          "english": "This is unforgivable!",
          "roman": "yurusen zo",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "許",
              "ゆる"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "許せんぞ"
        },
        {
          "text": "北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』\nあるといえばあるが、しかし、ほんとうのことはわからん。http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/001403/files/50005_37895.html\nAru to ieba aru ga, shikashi, hontō no koto wa wakaran.\nThere is, to be sure, but, I don't know the facts.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "form_of": [
        {
          "word": "verbs"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "(after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): negative form of verbs",
        "negative form of verbs"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-suffix-XrO3TwJS",
      "links": [
        [
          "未然形",
          "未然形#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "negative",
          "negative"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): negative form of verbs"
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "Use the dictionary form"
        },
        {
          "tags": [
            "-i"
          ],
          "word": "stem + い"
        },
        {
          "roman": "de aru",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ だ(noun + である)"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-nai",
          "word": "mizenkei + ない"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-ku nai",
          "word": "stem + くない"
        },
        {
          "alt": "de [wa] nai",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ で(は)ない"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-masu",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + ます"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-i desu",
          "word": "stem + いです"
        },
        {
          "roman": "desu",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ です"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-masen",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + ません"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-ku arimasen",
          "word": "stem + くないですstem + くありません"
        },
        {
          "alt": "de [wa] nai desu; de [wa] arimasen",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ で(は)ないですnoun + で(は)ありません"
        },
        {
          "english": "with onbin sound changes for Group I verbs",
          "roman": "-ta",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + た"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-katta",
          "word": "stem + かった"
        },
        {
          "roman": "de atta",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ だった(noun + であった)"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-nakatta",
          "word": "mizenkei + なかった"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-ku nakatta",
          "word": "stem + くなかった"
        },
        {
          "alt": "de [wa] nakatta",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ で(は)なかった"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-mashita",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + ました"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-katta desu",
          "word": "stem + かったです"
        },
        {
          "roman": "deshita",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ でした"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-masen deshita",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + ませんでした"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-ku arimasen deshita",
          "word": "stem + くなかったですstem + くありませんでした"
        },
        {
          "alt": "de [wa] nakatta desu; de [wa] arimasen deshita",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ で(は)なかったですnoun + で(は)ありませんでした"
        },
        {
          "alt": "-u > -o",
          "english": "of Group I verbs; of other verbs",
          "roman": "-yō",
          "word": "mizenkei + うmizenkei + よう"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-i darō",
          "word": "†stem + かろう(stem + いだろう)"
        },
        {
          "roman": "de arō",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ だろう(noun + であろう)"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-mashō",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + ましょう"
        },
        {
          "roman": "deshō",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ でしょう"
        },
        {
          "english": "with onbin sound changes for Group I verbs",
          "roman": "-te",
          "word": "ren'yōkei + て"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-kute",
          "word": "stem + くて"
        },
        {
          "roman": "de atte",
          "tags": [
            "noun"
          ],
          "word": "+ で(noun + であって)"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-ba",
          "word": "kateikei + ば"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-kereba",
          "word": "stem + ければ"
        }
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "roman": "nai",
          "tags": [
            "informal"
          ],
          "word": "ない"
        },
        {
          "roman": "masen",
          "tags": [
            "formal"
          ],
          "word": "ません"
        },
        {
          "english": "zu",
          "tags": [
            "formal",
            "literary"
          ],
          "word": "ず"
        },
        {
          "english": "hen",
          "tags": [
            "Kansai"
          ],
          "word": "へん"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb",
        "form-of",
        "morpheme",
        "negative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "volitional"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "む"
      },
      "expansion": "む (mu)",
      "name": "ja-r"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\n/mu/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nAn abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending む (mu).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-n",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (-n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 44 41",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Let's go.",
          "roman": "iza yukan",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "行",
              "ゆ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "いざ行かん"
        },
        {
          "english": "literally, “May God's protection be with you.”",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "神",
              "かみ"
            ],
            [
              "御",
              "ご"
            ],
            [
              "加",
              "か"
            ],
            [
              "護",
              "ご"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "神の御加護があらんことを\nkami no go-kago ga aran koto o\nGod bless you."
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "高",
              "こう"
            ],
            [
              "級",
              "きゅう"
            ],
            [
              "食",
              "しょっ"
            ],
            [
              "器",
              "き"
            ],
            [
              "美",
              "び"
            ],
            [
              "器",
              "き"
            ],
            [
              "美",
              "び"
            ],
            [
              "食",
              "しょく"
            ],
            [
              "通",
              "つう"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』\n高級食器、美器をつくらんとするものは、美食に通ずべし。http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/001403/files/50005_37895.html\nKōkyū shokki, biki o tsukuran to suru mono wa, bishoku ni tsūzu beshi.\nHe who tries to make high-class tableware and beautyware, must be familiar with epicurism."
        },
        {
          "english": "To reach the deepest part, you must / defeat the One Truth.\nDo so and this door will open.\n(literally, “Thou, in going to the deepest part, / defeat the One Truth\nIf you do thusly this door would be opened”)",
          "ref": "2004, Murakoshi, Suguru and trans. Blaustein, Jeremy, et al., quoting note on door, Silent Hill 4: The Room, Tokyo: Konami, PlayStation 2; Xbox; PC, level/area: One Truth room",
          "roman": "sa sureba kono tobira hirakaren",
          "text": "汝、最深部へ行くには 一つの真実を倒せ\nさすればこの扉開かれん\nnanji, saishinbu e iku ni wa / hitotsu no shinjitsu o taose",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "(after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): volitional form of verbs"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-suffix-cwPj09FG",
      "links": [
        [
          "未然形",
          "未然形#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "volitional",
          "volitional"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "non-productive",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(non-productive, archaic) (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): volitional form of verbs"
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "roman": "-u",
          "sense": "reflex in modern language",
          "word": "う"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "possessive"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "の"
      },
      "expansion": "の (no)",
      "name": "ja-r"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\n/no/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nRegular contraction of the possessive or nominalizing particle の (no). This contracted form is considered informal.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "no",
          "word": "の"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 44 41",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Wanna come to my place?",
          "roman": "Ore n chi ni konai?",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "俺",
              "おれ"
            ],
            [
              "家",
              "ち"
            ],
            [
              "来",
              "こ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "俺ん家に来ない?"
        },
        {
          "english": "Excuse me, I have a question that I would like to ask.",
          "roman": "Ano, kikitai koto ga aru n da kedo.",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "聞",
              "き"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "あの、聞きたいことがあるんだけど。"
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "一",
              "いっ"
            ],
            [
              "種",
              "しゅ"
            ],
            [
              "潮",
              "しお"
            ],
            [
              "見",
              "み"
            ],
            [
              "君",
              "くん"
            ],
            [
              "毒",
              "どく"
            ],
            [
              "蜘",
              "ぐ"
            ],
            [
              "蛛",
              "も"
            ],
            [
              "間",
              "ま"
            ],
            [
              "違",
              "ちが"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "甲賀三郎, 『蜘蛛』\n「とたてぐもの一種なんだよ。潮見君は毒蜘蛛と間違えたんだよ」http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/000260/files/1431_20128.html\n“Totategumo no isshu na n da yo. Shiomi-kun wa dokugumo to machigaeta n da yo”\n\"It's a type of trapdoor spider. You've mistaken it for a venomous spider.\""
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of の (no)"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-particle-y--UF5r-",
      "links": [
        [
          "の",
          "の#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 5,
  "etymology_text": "/r-/ → /r/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nRegular contraction of various morae preceding another mora starting with a nasalized consonant, such as /n/ or /d/. This contracted form is considered informal.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "combining form"
      },
      "expansion": "ん",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "combining_form",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "ra",
          "word": "ら"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "家",
              "いえ"
            ],
            [
              "帰",
              "かえ"
            ],
            [
              "家",
              "いえ"
            ],
            [
              "帰",
              "かえ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "家に帰らなきゃ。 → 家に帰んなきゃ。\nIe ni kaeranakya. → Ie ni kaennakya.\nI must go home."
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "涙",
              "なみだ"
            ],
            [
              "止",
              "と"
            ],
            [
              "涙",
              "なみだ"
            ],
            [
              "止",
              "と"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "涙が止まらない → 涙が止まんない\nnamida ga tomaranai → namida ga tomannai\nthe tears won't stop"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of ら (ra)"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-combining_form-~4Nv5glJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "ら",
          "ら#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "ru",
          "word": "る"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "何",
              "なに"
            ],
            [
              "何",
              "なに"
            ],
            [
              "何",
              "なに"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "何しているの? → 何してるの? → 何してんの?\nNani shite iru no? → Nani shiteru no? → Nani shiten no?\nWhat are you doing? → What ya doing? → What'cha doin'?"
        },
        {
          "text": "ふざけるな!→ふざけんな!\nFuzakeru na! → Fuzaken na!\nStop playing around!",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "気",
              "き"
            ],
            [
              "気",
              "き"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "気にするな → 気にすんな\nki ni suru na → ki ni sun na\nDon't mind."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of る (ru)"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-combining_form-ffOFFqgg",
      "links": [
        [
          "る",
          "る#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "re",
          "word": "れ"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "信",
              "しん"
            ],
            [
              "信",
              "しん"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "信じられない。 → 信じらんない。\nShinjirarenai. → Shinjirannai.\nI can't believe it."
        },
        {
          "text": "それで→そんで\nsore de → son de\nand so",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of れ (re)"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-combining_form-E9KepHCu",
      "links": [
        [
          "れ",
          "れ#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 6,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "ちゃん"
      },
      "expansion": "ちゃん",
      "name": "l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly a reduced form of ちゃん.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-n",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (-n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "11 11 11 11 17 17 15 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "7 7 7 22 22 20 12 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "3 3 3 3 30 16 10 32",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "12 12 12 12 14 14 20 4",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant sortkeys",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "栞",
              "しおり"
            ],
            [
              "一美",
              "かずみ"
            ],
            [
              "茜",
              "あかね"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "栞 → しおりん, 一美 → ずみん, 茜 → ねん\nShiori → Shiorin, Kazumi → Zumin, Akane → Nen\nShiori → Shiorin, Kazumi → Zumin, Akane → Nen (nicknames)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "added to female names or parts of them to express affection"
      ],
      "id": "en-ん-ja-suffix--d7NOVk2",
      "qualifier": "women's speech",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(women's speech) added to female names or parts of them to express affection"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "Japanese hiragana",
    "Japanese lemmas",
    "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
    "Japanese suffixes",
    "Japanese syllables",
    "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
    "Japanese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "无"
      },
      "expansion": "无",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji 无 in the cursive sōsho style",
      "name": "ja-kana-mannyogana-etym"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "ん"
      },
      "expansion": "ん",
      "name": "lang"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "む"
      },
      "expansion": "む",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "ん"
      },
      "expansion": "ん",
      "name": "lang"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji 无 in the cursive sōsho style. ん and む were originally both used for both the n and mu sounds; ん was designated as n in the script reform.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "syllable"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "syllable",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "あぁ"
    },
    {
      "word": "かゕがか゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "さざ"
    },
    {
      "word": "ただ"
    },
    {
      "word": "な"
    },
    {
      "word": "はばぱ"
    },
    {
      "word": "ま"
    },
    {
      "word": "やゃ"
    },
    {
      "word": "らら゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "わゎわ゙"
    },
    {
      "word": "いぃ"
    },
    {
      "word": "きぎき゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "しじ"
    },
    {
      "word": "ちぢ"
    },
    {
      "word": "に"
    },
    {
      "word": "ひびぴ"
    },
    {
      "word": "み"
    },
    {
      "word": "𛀆"
    },
    {
      "word": "りり゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "ゐ𛅐ゐ゙"
    },
    {
      "word": "うぅゔ"
    },
    {
      "word": "くぐく゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "すず"
    },
    {
      "word": "つっづ"
    },
    {
      "word": "ぬ"
    },
    {
      "word": "ふぶぷ"
    },
    {
      "word": "む"
    },
    {
      "word": "ゆゅ"
    },
    {
      "word": "るる゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "𛄟"
    },
    {
      "word": "えぇ"
    },
    {
      "word": "けゖげけ゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "せぜ"
    },
    {
      "word": "てで"
    },
    {
      "word": "ね"
    },
    {
      "word": "へべぺ"
    },
    {
      "word": "め"
    },
    {
      "word": "𛀁"
    },
    {
      "word": "れれ゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "ゑ𛅑ゑ゙"
    },
    {
      "word": "おぉ"
    },
    {
      "word": "こごこ゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "そぞ"
    },
    {
      "word": "とど"
    },
    {
      "word": "の"
    },
    {
      "word": "ほぼぽ"
    },
    {
      "word": "も"
    },
    {
      "word": "よょ"
    },
    {
      "word": "ろろ゚"
    },
    {
      "word": "を𛅒を゙"
    },
    {
      "word": "Additional symbols ーゝゞゟ"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "The hiragana syllable ん (n). Its equivalent in katakana is ン (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "ん",
          "ん#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "ン",
          "ン#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "gojūon",
          "gojūon"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Japanese script reform"
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "Japanese hiragana",
    "Japanese lemmas",
    "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
    "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
    "Japanese suffixes",
    "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
    "Japanese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Japanese terms with redundant script codes",
    "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "negative"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ぬ"
      },
      "expansion": "ぬ (nu)",
      "name": "ja-r"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\n/nu/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nAn abbreviation of the negative ending ぬ (nu).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-n",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (-n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "Use the dictionary form"
    },
    {
      "tags": [
        "-i"
      ],
      "word": "stem + い"
    },
    {
      "roman": "de aru",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ だ(noun + である)"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-nai",
      "word": "mizenkei + ない"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ku nai",
      "word": "stem + くない"
    },
    {
      "alt": "de [wa] nai",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ で(は)ない"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-masu",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + ます"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-i desu",
      "word": "stem + いです"
    },
    {
      "roman": "desu",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ です"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-masen",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + ません"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ku arimasen",
      "word": "stem + くないですstem + くありません"
    },
    {
      "alt": "de [wa] nai desu; de [wa] arimasen",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ で(は)ないですnoun + で(は)ありません"
    },
    {
      "english": "with onbin sound changes for Group I verbs",
      "roman": "-ta",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + た"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-katta",
      "word": "stem + かった"
    },
    {
      "roman": "de atta",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ だった(noun + であった)"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-nakatta",
      "word": "mizenkei + なかった"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ku nakatta",
      "word": "stem + くなかった"
    },
    {
      "alt": "de [wa] nakatta",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ で(は)なかった"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-mashita",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + ました"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-katta desu",
      "word": "stem + かったです"
    },
    {
      "roman": "deshita",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ でした"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-masen deshita",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + ませんでした"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ku arimasen deshita",
      "word": "stem + くなかったですstem + くありませんでした"
    },
    {
      "alt": "de [wa] nakatta desu; de [wa] arimasen deshita",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ で(は)なかったですnoun + で(は)ありませんでした"
    },
    {
      "alt": "-u > -o",
      "english": "of Group I verbs; of other verbs",
      "roman": "-yō",
      "word": "mizenkei + うmizenkei + よう"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-i darō",
      "word": "†stem + かろう(stem + いだろう)"
    },
    {
      "roman": "de arō",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ だろう(noun + であろう)"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-mashō",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + ましょう"
    },
    {
      "roman": "deshō",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ でしょう"
    },
    {
      "english": "with onbin sound changes for Group I verbs",
      "roman": "-te",
      "word": "ren'yōkei + て"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-kute",
      "word": "stem + くて"
    },
    {
      "roman": "de atte",
      "tags": [
        "noun"
      ],
      "word": "+ で(noun + であって)"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ba",
      "word": "kateikei + ば"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-kereba",
      "word": "stem + ければ"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
        "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
        "Japanese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I don't know.",
          "roman": "wakaran",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "分",
              "わ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "分からん"
        },
        {
          "english": "This is unforgivable!",
          "roman": "yurusen zo",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "許",
              "ゆる"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "許せんぞ"
        },
        {
          "text": "北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』\nあるといえばあるが、しかし、ほんとうのことはわからん。http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/001403/files/50005_37895.html\nAru to ieba aru ga, shikashi, hontō no koto wa wakaran.\nThere is, to be sure, but, I don't know the facts.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "form_of": [
        {
          "word": "verbs"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "(after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): negative form of verbs",
        "negative form of verbs"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "未然形",
          "未然形#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "negative",
          "negative"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): negative form of verbs"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb",
        "form-of",
        "morpheme",
        "negative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "roman": "nai",
      "tags": [
        "informal"
      ],
      "word": "ない"
    },
    {
      "roman": "masen",
      "tags": [
        "formal"
      ],
      "word": "ません"
    },
    {
      "english": "zu",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "literary"
      ],
      "word": "ず"
    },
    {
      "english": "hen",
      "tags": [
        "Kansai"
      ],
      "word": "へん"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "Japanese hiragana",
    "Japanese lemmas",
    "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
    "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
    "Japanese suffixes",
    "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
    "Japanese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "volitional"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "む"
      },
      "expansion": "む (mu)",
      "name": "ja-r"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\n/mu/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nAn abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending む (mu).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-n",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (-n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
        "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
        "Japanese terms with archaic senses",
        "Japanese terms with quotations",
        "Japanese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Let's go.",
          "roman": "iza yukan",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "行",
              "ゆ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "いざ行かん"
        },
        {
          "english": "literally, “May God's protection be with you.”",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "神",
              "かみ"
            ],
            [
              "御",
              "ご"
            ],
            [
              "加",
              "か"
            ],
            [
              "護",
              "ご"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "神の御加護があらんことを\nkami no go-kago ga aran koto o\nGod bless you."
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "高",
              "こう"
            ],
            [
              "級",
              "きゅう"
            ],
            [
              "食",
              "しょっ"
            ],
            [
              "器",
              "き"
            ],
            [
              "美",
              "び"
            ],
            [
              "器",
              "き"
            ],
            [
              "美",
              "び"
            ],
            [
              "食",
              "しょく"
            ],
            [
              "通",
              "つう"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』\n高級食器、美器をつくらんとするものは、美食に通ずべし。http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/001403/files/50005_37895.html\nKōkyū shokki, biki o tsukuran to suru mono wa, bishoku ni tsūzu beshi.\nHe who tries to make high-class tableware and beautyware, must be familiar with epicurism."
        },
        {
          "english": "To reach the deepest part, you must / defeat the One Truth.\nDo so and this door will open.\n(literally, “Thou, in going to the deepest part, / defeat the One Truth\nIf you do thusly this door would be opened”)",
          "ref": "2004, Murakoshi, Suguru and trans. Blaustein, Jeremy, et al., quoting note on door, Silent Hill 4: The Room, Tokyo: Konami, PlayStation 2; Xbox; PC, level/area: One Truth room",
          "roman": "sa sureba kono tobira hirakaren",
          "text": "汝、最深部へ行くには 一つの真実を倒せ\nさすればこの扉開かれん\nnanji, saishinbu e iku ni wa / hitotsu no shinjitsu o taose",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "(after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): volitional form of verbs"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "未然形",
          "未然形#Japanese"
        ],
        [
          "volitional",
          "volitional"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "non-productive",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(non-productive, archaic) (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, “incomplete form”) of a verb): volitional form of verbs"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "roman": "-u",
      "sense": "reflex in modern language",
      "word": "う"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "Japanese hiragana",
    "Japanese lemmas",
    "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
    "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
    "Japanese particles",
    "Japanese suffixes",
    "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
    "Japanese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "possessive"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "の"
      },
      "expansion": "の (no)",
      "name": "ja-r"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\n/no/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nRegular contraction of the possessive or nominalizing particle の (no). This contracted form is considered informal.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "no",
          "word": "の"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Japanese contractions",
        "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
        "Japanese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Wanna come to my place?",
          "roman": "Ore n chi ni konai?",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "俺",
              "おれ"
            ],
            [
              "家",
              "ち"
            ],
            [
              "来",
              "こ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "俺ん家に来ない?"
        },
        {
          "english": "Excuse me, I have a question that I would like to ask.",
          "roman": "Ano, kikitai koto ga aru n da kedo.",
          "ruby": [
            [
              "聞",
              "き"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "あの、聞きたいことがあるんだけど。"
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "一",
              "いっ"
            ],
            [
              "種",
              "しゅ"
            ],
            [
              "潮",
              "しお"
            ],
            [
              "見",
              "み"
            ],
            [
              "君",
              "くん"
            ],
            [
              "毒",
              "どく"
            ],
            [
              "蜘",
              "ぐ"
            ],
            [
              "蛛",
              "も"
            ],
            [
              "間",
              "ま"
            ],
            [
              "違",
              "ちが"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "甲賀三郎, 『蜘蛛』\n「とたてぐもの一種なんだよ。潮見君は毒蜘蛛と間違えたんだよ」http://www.aozora.gr.jp/cards/000260/files/1431_20128.html\n“Totategumo no isshu na n da yo. Shiomi-kun wa dokugumo to machigaeta n da yo”\n\"It's a type of trapdoor spider. You've mistaken it for a venomous spider.\""
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of の (no)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "の",
          "の#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Japanese combining forms",
    "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "Japanese hiragana",
    "Japanese lemmas",
    "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
    "Japanese suffixes",
    "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
    "Japanese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 5,
  "etymology_text": "/r-/ → /r/ → /n/, /ŋ/\nRegular contraction of various morae preceding another mora starting with a nasalized consonant, such as /n/ or /d/. This contracted form is considered informal.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "combining form"
      },
      "expansion": "ん",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "combining_form",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "ra",
          "word": "ら"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
        "Japanese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "家",
              "いえ"
            ],
            [
              "帰",
              "かえ"
            ],
            [
              "家",
              "いえ"
            ],
            [
              "帰",
              "かえ"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "家に帰らなきゃ。 → 家に帰んなきゃ。\nIe ni kaeranakya. → Ie ni kaennakya.\nI must go home."
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "涙",
              "なみだ"
            ],
            [
              "止",
              "と"
            ],
            [
              "涙",
              "なみだ"
            ],
            [
              "止",
              "と"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "涙が止まらない → 涙が止まんない\nnamida ga tomaranai → namida ga tomannai\nthe tears won't stop"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of ら (ra)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "ら",
          "ら#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "ru",
          "word": "る"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
        "Japanese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "何",
              "なに"
            ],
            [
              "何",
              "なに"
            ],
            [
              "何",
              "なに"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "何しているの? → 何してるの? → 何してんの?\nNani shite iru no? → Nani shiteru no? → Nani shiten no?\nWhat are you doing? → What ya doing? → What'cha doin'?"
        },
        {
          "text": "ふざけるな!→ふざけんな!\nFuzakeru na! → Fuzaken na!\nStop playing around!",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "気",
              "き"
            ],
            [
              "気",
              "き"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "気にするな → 気にすんな\nki ni suru na → ki ni sun na\nDon't mind."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of る (ru)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "る",
          "る#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "re",
          "word": "れ"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Japanese links with redundant alt parameters",
        "Japanese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "信",
              "しん"
            ],
            [
              "信",
              "しん"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "信じられない。 → 信じらんない。\nShinjirarenai. → Shinjirannai.\nI can't believe it."
        },
        {
          "text": "それで→そんで\nsore de → son de\nand so",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "contraction of れ (re)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "れ",
          "れ#Japanese"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "contraction",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Japanese entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "Japanese hiragana",
    "Japanese lemmas",
    "Japanese links with redundant wikilinks",
    "Japanese suffixes",
    "Japanese terms modified by \"noun + な\"",
    "Japanese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Japanese terms with redundant sortkeys"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 6,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ja",
        "2": "ちゃん"
      },
      "expansion": "ちゃん",
      "name": "l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly a reduced form of ちゃん.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "-n",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "ん • (-n)",
      "name": "ja-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Japanese",
  "lang_code": "ja",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Japanese terms with usage examples",
        "Japanese women's speech terms"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ruby": [
            [
              "栞",
              "しおり"
            ],
            [
              "一美",
              "かずみ"
            ],
            [
              "茜",
              "あかね"
            ]
          ],
          "text": "栞 → しおりん, 一美 → ずみん, 茜 → ねん\nShiori → Shiorin, Kazumi → Zumin, Akane → Nen\nShiori → Shiorin, Kazumi → Zumin, Akane → Nen (nicknames)"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "added to female names or parts of them to express affection"
      ],
      "qualifier": "women's speech",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(women's speech) added to female names or parts of them to express affection"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[n]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ŋ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɲ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɴ]"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ɰ̃]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[m]"
    },
    {
      "other": "[ɴ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ん"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Japanese dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-17 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (0b52755 and 5cb0836). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.