"copula" meaning in English

See copula in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: /ˈkɒpjʊlə/ [Received-Pronunciation], /ˈkɒpjələ/ [UK], /ˈkɑpjələ/ [US], /ˈkɔpjələ/ [US] Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-copula.wav [Southern-England] Forms: copulas [plural], copulae [plural]
Rhymes: -ɒpjələ Etymology: Borrowed from Latin copula (“connection, linking of words”), from co- (“together”) + apere (“fasten”). Doublet of couple. Etymology templates: {{bor|en|la|copula||connection, linking of words}} Latin copula (“connection, linking of words”), {{prefix|la|co-|apere|nocat=1|t1=together|t2=fasten}} co- (“together”) + apere (“fasten”), {{doublet|en|couple}} Doublet of couple Head templates: {{en-noun|s|copulae}} copula (plural copulas or copulae)
  1. (linguistics, grammar) A word, usually a verb, used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial), that unites or associates the subject with the predicate. Categories (topical): Grammar, Linguistics Translations (grammar: linking kind of word): رَابِطَة (rābiṭa) [feminine] (Arabic), رَابِط (rābiṭ) [masculine] (Arabic), عِمَاد (ʕimād) [masculine] (Arabic), звя́зка (zvjázka) [feminine] (Belarusian), дзеясло́ў-звя́зка (dzjejaslóŭ-zvjázka) [masculine] (Belarusian), ко́пула (kópula) [feminine] (Belarusian), връ́зка (vrǎ́zka) [feminine] (Bulgarian), ко́пула (kópula) [feminine] (Bulgarian), хоттам (xottam) (Chechen), 係詞 (Chinese Mandarin), 系词 (xìcí) (Chinese Mandarin), 連詞 (Chinese Mandarin), 连词 (liáncí) (Chinese Mandarin), 連繫動詞 (Chinese Mandarin), 连系动词 (liánxì dòngcí) (Chinese Mandarin), spona [feminine] (Czech), kopula [neuter] (Danish), koppelwerkwoord [neuter] (Dutch), ligverbo (Esperanto), koopula (Estonian), tɔɣ-kɔpʋla (Farefare), kopula (Farefare), kopula (Finnish), copule [feminine] (French), Kopula [feminine] (German), Kopulaverb [neuter] (German), συνδετικό ρήμα (syndetikó ríma) (Greek), योजक (yojak) [masculine] (Hindi), संयोजक (sañyojak) [masculine] (Hindi), kopula (Hungarian), kapcsolóige (Hungarian), kopulatív ige (Hungarian), tengisögn [feminine] (Icelandic), kopula (Indonesian), copula [feminine] (Italian), 繋辞 (keiji) (alt: けいじ) (Japanese), コピュラ (kopyura) (Japanese), 連辞 (renji) (alt: れんじ) (Japanese), 指定詞 (shiteishi) (alt: していし) (Japanese), コプラ (kopura) (Japanese), жалғаулық (jalğaulyq) (Kazakh), 계사 (gyesa) (Korean), 코퓰러 (kopyulleo) (Korean), байламта (baylamta) (Kyrgyz), копула (kopula) [feminine] (Macedonian), kopula (Norwegian Bokmål), فعل ربطی (fe'l-e rabti) (Persian), łącznik [inanimate, masculine] (Polish), spójka [feminine] (Polish), cópula [feminine] (Portuguese), verbo de ligação [masculine] (Portuguese), copulă [feminine] (Romanian), свя́зка (svjázka) [feminine] (Russian), ко́пула (kópula) [feminine] (Russian), глаго́л-свя́зка (glagól-svjázka) [masculine] (Russian), копула [Cyrillic, masculine] (Serbo-Croatian), спона [Cyrillic, feminine] (Serbo-Croatian), kopula [Roman, masculine] (Serbo-Croatian), spona [Roman, feminine] (Serbo-Croatian), spona [feminine] (Slovak), vez [feminine] (Slovene), kopula [feminine] (Slovene), cópula [feminine] (Spanish), kopula [common-gender] (Swedish), pandiwang pangawing (Tagalog), ตัวเชื่อม (dtuua-chʉ̂ʉam) (Thai), koşaç (Turkish), зв'я́зка (zvʺjázka) [feminine] (Ukrainian), дієсло́во-зв'я́зка (dijeslóvo-zvʺjázka) [neuter] (Ukrainian), ко́пула (kópula) [feminine] (Ukrainian), bogʻlama (Uzbek), feʼl-bogʻlama (Uzbek), từ liên hệ (Vietnamese), cyplad [masculine] (Welsh), gırek (Zazaki), kopula (Zazaki)
    Sense id: en-copula-en-noun-2Zp9aFHP Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences Disambiguation of 'grammar: linking kind of word': 72 13 3 12
  2. (statistics) A function that represents the association between two or more variables, independent of the individual marginal distributions of the variables. Categories (topical): Statistics Translations (statistics: measure of association): 耦合 (ǒuhé) (Chinese Mandarin), 關聯結構 (Chinese Mandarin), 关联结构 (guānliánjiégòu) (Chinese Mandarin), コピュラ (kopyura) (Japanese), ко́пула (kópula) [feminine] (Russian), cópula (Spanish)
    Sense id: en-copula-en-noun-rlWCKb7m Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 34 42 10 14 Topics: mathematics, sciences, statistics Disambiguation of 'statistics: measure of association': 18 69 5 8
  3. (music) A device that connects two or more keyboards of an organ. Categories (topical): Music
    Sense id: en-copula-en-noun-QyH9Pj57 Topics: entertainment, lifestyle, music
  4. (biology) The act of copulation; mating. Categories (topical): Biology
    Sense id: en-copula-en-noun-5WcPwKi9 Topics: biology, natural-sciences
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: linking verb [grammar, linguistics, human-sciences, sciences], copular [grammar, linguistics, human-sciences, sciences], copular verb [grammar, linguistics, human-sciences, sciences] Derived forms: copular, double copula, pseudocopula, semicopula, zero copula Related terms: copular, copulate, copulation, copulative, couple, coupling, ex copula, in copula

Inflected forms

Download JSON data for copula meaning in English (20.7kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "copular"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "double copula"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "pseudocopula"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "semicopula"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "zero copula"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "copula",
        "4": "",
        "5": "connection, linking of words"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin copula (“connection, linking of words”)",
      "name": "bor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "co-",
        "3": "apere",
        "nocat": "1",
        "t1": "together",
        "t2": "fasten"
      },
      "expansion": "co- (“together”) + apere (“fasten”)",
      "name": "prefix"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "couple"
      },
      "expansion": "Doublet of couple",
      "name": "doublet"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Borrowed from Latin copula (“connection, linking of words”), from co- (“together”) + apere (“fasten”). Doublet of couple.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "copulas",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "copulae",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "s",
        "2": "copulae"
      },
      "expansion": "copula (plural copulas or copulae)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "cop‧u‧la"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "copular"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "copulate"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "copulation"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "copulative"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "couple"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "coupling"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "ex copula"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "word": "in copula"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammar",
          "orig": "en:Grammar",
          "parents": [
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Linguistics",
          "orig": "en:Linguistics",
          "parents": [
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1994, Randall Hendrick, “8: The Brythonic Celtic copula and head raising”, in David Lightfoot, Norbert Hornstein, editors, Verb Movement, page 163",
          "text": "I begin by arguing in section 2 that there are in fact at least two Celtic copulas, a grammatical copula that simply spells out tense and agreement, and a substantive copula formed on a lexically listed verbal stem.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2002, Quentin Smith, Language and Time, page 189",
          "text": "The theory of conjunctively tensed copulae will be developed and stated with more precision in the following section.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2003, Giuliano Bernini, “The copula in learner Italian: Finiteness and verbal inflection”, in Christine Dimroth, Marianne Starren, editors, Information Structure and the Dynamics of Language Acquisition, page 159",
          "text": "This paper explores the position of the copula in the development of the verb system in second language acquisition of Italian.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2006, Christine Czinglar, Antigone Katiĉić, Katharina Köhler, Chris Schaner-Wolles, edited by Natalia Gagarina and Insa Gülzow, Strategies in the L1-Acquisition of Predication: The Copula Construction in German and Croatian, page 95",
          "text": "The present study focuses on the acquisition of a specific verbal element, namely the copula, in predicative constructions in a cross-linguistic perspective (English, German, Croatian).",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A word, usually a verb, used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial), that unites or associates the subject with the predicate."
      ],
      "id": "en-copula-en-noun-2Zp9aFHP",
      "links": [
        [
          "linguistics",
          "linguistics"
        ],
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "word",
          "word"
        ],
        [
          "subject",
          "subject"
        ],
        [
          "predicate",
          "predicate"
        ],
        [
          "complement",
          "complement"
        ],
        [
          "adverbial",
          "adverbial"
        ],
        [
          "unite",
          "unite"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(linguistics, grammar) A word, usually a verb, used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial), that unites or associates the subject with the predicate."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "rābiṭa",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "رَابِطَة"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "rābiṭ",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "رَابِط"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "ʕimād",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "عِمَاد"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "be",
          "lang": "Belarusian",
          "roman": "zvjázka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "звя́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "be",
          "lang": "Belarusian",
          "roman": "dzjejaslóŭ-zvjázka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "дзеясло́ў-звя́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "be",
          "lang": "Belarusian",
          "roman": "kópula",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "ко́пула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "vrǎ́zka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "връ́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "kópula",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "ко́пула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ce",
          "lang": "Chechen",
          "roman": "xottam",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "хоттам"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "係詞"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "xìcí",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "系词"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "連詞"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "liáncí",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "连词"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "連繫動詞"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "liánxì dòngcí",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "连系动词"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cs",
          "lang": "Czech",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "spona"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "da",
          "lang": "Danish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "koppelwerkwoord"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "eo",
          "lang": "Esperanto",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "ligverbo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "et",
          "lang": "Estonian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "koopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "gur",
          "lang": "Farefare",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "tɔɣ-kɔpʋla"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "gur",
          "lang": "Farefare",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "copule"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "Kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "Kopulaverb"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "syndetikó ríma",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "συνδετικό ρήμα"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "yojak",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "योजक"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "sañyojak",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "संयोजक"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "hu",
          "lang": "Hungarian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "hu",
          "lang": "Hungarian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kapcsolóige"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "hu",
          "lang": "Hungarian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopulatív ige"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "is",
          "lang": "Icelandic",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "tengisögn"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "copula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "alt": "けいじ",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "keiji",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "繋辞"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "kopyura",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "コピュラ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "alt": "れんじ",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "renji",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "連辞"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "alt": "していし",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "shiteishi",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "指定詞"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "kopura",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "コプラ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "kk",
          "lang": "Kazakh",
          "roman": "jalğaulyq",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "жалғаулық"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ko",
          "lang": "Korean",
          "roman": "gyesa",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "계사"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ko",
          "lang": "Korean",
          "roman": "kopyulleo",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "코퓰러"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ky",
          "lang": "Kyrgyz",
          "roman": "baylamta",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "байламта"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "mk",
          "lang": "Macedonian",
          "roman": "kopula",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "копула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "nb",
          "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "fa",
          "lang": "Persian",
          "roman": "fe'l-e rabti",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "فعل ربطی"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "inanimate",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "łącznik"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "spójka"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "cópula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "verbo de ligação"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ro",
          "lang": "Romanian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "copulă"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "svjázka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "свя́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "kópula",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "ко́пула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "glagól-svjázka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "глаго́л-свя́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "Cyrillic",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "копула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "Cyrillic",
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "спона"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "Roman",
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "Roman",
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "spona"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sk",
          "lang": "Slovak",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "spona"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sl",
          "lang": "Slovene",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "vez"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sl",
          "lang": "Slovene",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "cópula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "common-gender"
          ],
          "word": "kopula"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "tl",
          "lang": "Tagalog",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "pandiwang pangawing"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "th",
          "lang": "Thai",
          "roman": "dtuua-chʉ̂ʉam",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "ตัวเชื่อม"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "tr",
          "lang": "Turkish",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "koşaç"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "uk",
          "lang": "Ukrainian",
          "roman": "zvʺjázka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "зв'я́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "uk",
          "lang": "Ukrainian",
          "roman": "dijeslóvo-zvʺjázka",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "neuter"
          ],
          "word": "дієсло́во-зв'я́зка"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "uk",
          "lang": "Ukrainian",
          "roman": "kópula",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "ко́пула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "uz",
          "lang": "Uzbek",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "bogʻlama"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "uz",
          "lang": "Uzbek",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "feʼl-bogʻlama"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "vi",
          "lang": "Vietnamese",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "từ liên hệ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "cy",
          "lang": "Welsh",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "cyplad"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "zza",
          "lang": "Zazaki",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "gırek"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "72 13 3 12",
          "code": "zza",
          "lang": "Zazaki",
          "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
          "word": "kopula"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Statistics",
          "orig": "en:Statistics",
          "parents": [
            "Formal sciences",
            "Mathematics",
            "Sciences",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "34 42 10 14",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
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          "source": "w+disamb"
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        {
          "ref": "2009 March 10, Dennis Overbye, “Mathematical Model and the Mortgage Mess”, in New York Times",
          "text": "In 2000, David X. Li, a banker with a doctorate in statistics who was then at RiskMetrics, part of J. P. Morgan Chase, began using mathematical functions called Gaussian copulas to estimate the likelihood of corporations’ dying in unison.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2009, N. Balakrishnan, Chin-Diew Lai, Continuous Bivariate Distributions, page 59",
          "text": "There is little statistical theoretical theory for copulas. Sensitivity studies of estimation procedures and goodness-of-fit tests for copulas are unknown.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2011, Julian Shaw, “Chapter 16: Julian Shaw”, in Richard R. Lindsey, Barry Schachter, editors, How I Became a Quant: Insights from 25 of Wall Street's Elite, page 240",
          "text": "Copulas provide an example of the haphazard evolution of quantitative finance. The key result is Sklar's theorem, which says that one can characterize any multivariate probability distribution by its copula (which specifies the correlation structure) and its marginal distributions (the conditional one dimensional distributions). Thus one can create multivariate distributions by mixing and matching copulas and marginal distributions.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2011, Ostap Okhrin, “Chapter 17: Fitting High-Dimensional Copulae to Data”, in Jin-Chuan Duan, Wolfgang Karl Härdle, James E. Gentle, editors, Handbook of Computational Finance, page 482",
          "text": "A recently developed flexible method is provided by hierarchical Archimedean copulae (HAC).",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A function that represents the association between two or more variables, independent of the individual marginal distributions of the variables."
      ],
      "id": "en-copula-en-noun-rlWCKb7m",
      "links": [
        [
          "statistics",
          "statistics"
        ],
        [
          "function",
          "function"
        ],
        [
          "association",
          "association"
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        [
          "variable",
          "variable"
        ],
        [
          "independent",
          "independent"
        ],
        [
          "individual",
          "individual"
        ],
        [
          "marginal",
          "marginal"
        ],
        [
          "distribution",
          "distribution"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(statistics) A function that represents the association between two or more variables, independent of the individual marginal distributions of the variables."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "mathematics",
        "sciences",
        "statistics"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "18 69 5 8",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "ǒuhé",
          "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
          "word": "耦合"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "18 69 5 8",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
          "word": "關聯結構"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "18 69 5 8",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "guānliánjiégòu",
          "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
          "word": "关联结构"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "18 69 5 8",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "kopyura",
          "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
          "word": "コピュラ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "18 69 5 8",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "kópula",
          "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "ко́пула"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "18 69 5 8",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
          "word": "cópula"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Music",
          "orig": "en:Music",
          "parents": [
            "Art",
            "Sound",
            "Culture",
            "Energy",
            "Society",
            "Nature",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A device that connects two or more keyboards of an organ."
      ],
      "id": "en-copula-en-noun-QyH9Pj57",
      "links": [
        [
          "music",
          "music"
        ],
        [
          "connect",
          "connect"
        ],
        [
          "keyboard",
          "keyboard"
        ],
        [
          "organ",
          "organ"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(music) A device that connects two or more keyboards of an organ."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "entertainment",
        "lifestyle",
        "music"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Biology",
          "orig": "en:Biology",
          "parents": [
            "Sciences",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "The act of copulation; mating."
      ],
      "id": "en-copula-en-noun-5WcPwKi9",
      "links": [
        [
          "biology",
          "biology"
        ],
        [
          "copulation",
          "copulation"
        ],
        [
          "mating",
          "mating"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(biology) The act of copulation; mating."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "biology",
        "natural-sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɒpjʊlə/",
      "tags": [
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɒpjələ/",
      "tags": [
        "UK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɑpjələ/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɔpjələ/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "rhymes": "-ɒpjələ"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-copula.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/2/2a/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/2/2a/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Southern-England"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Southern England)"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "linguistics",
        "human-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "word": "linking verb"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "linguistics",
        "human-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "word": "copular"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "linguistics",
        "human-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "word": "copular verb"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "copula"
  ],
  "word": "copula"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "English 3-syllable words",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English doublets",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English nouns with irregular plurals",
    "English terms borrowed from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "Rhymes:English/ɒpjələ",
    "Rhymes:English/ɒpjələ/3 syllables"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "copular"
    },
    {
      "word": "double copula"
    },
    {
      "word": "pseudocopula"
    },
    {
      "word": "semicopula"
    },
    {
      "word": "zero copula"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "copula",
        "4": "",
        "5": "connection, linking of words"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin copula (“connection, linking of words”)",
      "name": "bor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "co-",
        "3": "apere",
        "nocat": "1",
        "t1": "together",
        "t2": "fasten"
      },
      "expansion": "co- (“together”) + apere (“fasten”)",
      "name": "prefix"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "couple"
      },
      "expansion": "Doublet of couple",
      "name": "doublet"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Borrowed from Latin copula (“connection, linking of words”), from co- (“together”) + apere (“fasten”). Doublet of couple.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "copulas",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "copulae",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "s",
        "2": "copulae"
      },
      "expansion": "copula (plural copulas or copulae)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "cop‧u‧la"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "copular"
    },
    {
      "word": "copulate"
    },
    {
      "word": "copulation"
    },
    {
      "word": "copulative"
    },
    {
      "word": "couple"
    },
    {
      "word": "coupling"
    },
    {
      "word": "ex copula"
    },
    {
      "word": "in copula"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "en:Grammar",
        "en:Linguistics"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1994, Randall Hendrick, “8: The Brythonic Celtic copula and head raising”, in David Lightfoot, Norbert Hornstein, editors, Verb Movement, page 163",
          "text": "I begin by arguing in section 2 that there are in fact at least two Celtic copulas, a grammatical copula that simply spells out tense and agreement, and a substantive copula formed on a lexically listed verbal stem.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2002, Quentin Smith, Language and Time, page 189",
          "text": "The theory of conjunctively tensed copulae will be developed and stated with more precision in the following section.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2003, Giuliano Bernini, “The copula in learner Italian: Finiteness and verbal inflection”, in Christine Dimroth, Marianne Starren, editors, Information Structure and the Dynamics of Language Acquisition, page 159",
          "text": "This paper explores the position of the copula in the development of the verb system in second language acquisition of Italian.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2006, Christine Czinglar, Antigone Katiĉić, Katharina Köhler, Chris Schaner-Wolles, edited by Natalia Gagarina and Insa Gülzow, Strategies in the L1-Acquisition of Predication: The Copula Construction in German and Croatian, page 95",
          "text": "The present study focuses on the acquisition of a specific verbal element, namely the copula, in predicative constructions in a cross-linguistic perspective (English, German, Croatian).",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A word, usually a verb, used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial), that unites or associates the subject with the predicate."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "linguistics",
          "linguistics"
        ],
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "word",
          "word"
        ],
        [
          "subject",
          "subject"
        ],
        [
          "predicate",
          "predicate"
        ],
        [
          "complement",
          "complement"
        ],
        [
          "adverbial",
          "adverbial"
        ],
        [
          "unite",
          "unite"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(linguistics, grammar) A word, usually a verb, used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (usually a subject complement or an adverbial), that unites or associates the subject with the predicate."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "en:Statistics"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "2009 March 10, Dennis Overbye, “Mathematical Model and the Mortgage Mess”, in New York Times",
          "text": "In 2000, David X. Li, a banker with a doctorate in statistics who was then at RiskMetrics, part of J. P. Morgan Chase, began using mathematical functions called Gaussian copulas to estimate the likelihood of corporations’ dying in unison.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2009, N. Balakrishnan, Chin-Diew Lai, Continuous Bivariate Distributions, page 59",
          "text": "There is little statistical theoretical theory for copulas. Sensitivity studies of estimation procedures and goodness-of-fit tests for copulas are unknown.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2011, Julian Shaw, “Chapter 16: Julian Shaw”, in Richard R. Lindsey, Barry Schachter, editors, How I Became a Quant: Insights from 25 of Wall Street's Elite, page 240",
          "text": "Copulas provide an example of the haphazard evolution of quantitative finance. The key result is Sklar's theorem, which says that one can characterize any multivariate probability distribution by its copula (which specifies the correlation structure) and its marginal distributions (the conditional one dimensional distributions). Thus one can create multivariate distributions by mixing and matching copulas and marginal distributions.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2011, Ostap Okhrin, “Chapter 17: Fitting High-Dimensional Copulae to Data”, in Jin-Chuan Duan, Wolfgang Karl Härdle, James E. Gentle, editors, Handbook of Computational Finance, page 482",
          "text": "A recently developed flexible method is provided by hierarchical Archimedean copulae (HAC).",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A function that represents the association between two or more variables, independent of the individual marginal distributions of the variables."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "statistics",
          "statistics"
        ],
        [
          "function",
          "function"
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        [
          "association",
          "association"
        ],
        [
          "variable",
          "variable"
        ],
        [
          "independent",
          "independent"
        ],
        [
          "individual",
          "individual"
        ],
        [
          "marginal",
          "marginal"
        ],
        [
          "distribution",
          "distribution"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(statistics) A function that represents the association between two or more variables, independent of the individual marginal distributions of the variables."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "mathematics",
        "sciences",
        "statistics"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Music"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A device that connects two or more keyboards of an organ."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "music",
          "music"
        ],
        [
          "connect",
          "connect"
        ],
        [
          "keyboard",
          "keyboard"
        ],
        [
          "organ",
          "organ"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(music) A device that connects two or more keyboards of an organ."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "entertainment",
        "lifestyle",
        "music"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Biology"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "The act of copulation; mating."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "biology",
          "biology"
        ],
        [
          "copulation",
          "copulation"
        ],
        [
          "mating",
          "mating"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(biology) The act of copulation; mating."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "biology",
        "natural-sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɒpjʊlə/",
      "tags": [
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɒpjələ/",
      "tags": [
        "UK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɑpjələ/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈkɔpjələ/",
      "tags": [
        "US"
      ]
    },
    {
      "rhymes": "-ɒpjələ"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-copula.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/2/2a/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/2/2a/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-copula.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Southern-England"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Southern England)"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "linguistics",
        "human-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "word": "linking verb"
    },
    {
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "linguistics",
        "human-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "word": "copular"
    },
    {
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "linguistics",
        "human-sciences",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "word": "copular verb"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "rābiṭa",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "رَابِطَة"
    },
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "rābiṭ",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "رَابِط"
    },
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "ʕimād",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "عِمَاد"
    },
    {
      "code": "be",
      "lang": "Belarusian",
      "roman": "zvjázka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "звя́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "be",
      "lang": "Belarusian",
      "roman": "dzjejaslóŭ-zvjázka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "дзеясло́ў-звя́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "be",
      "lang": "Belarusian",
      "roman": "kópula",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "ко́пула"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "vrǎ́zka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "връ́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "kópula",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "ко́пула"
    },
    {
      "code": "ce",
      "lang": "Chechen",
      "roman": "xottam",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "хоттам"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "係詞"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "xìcí",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "系词"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "連詞"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "liáncí",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "连词"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "連繫動詞"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "liánxì dòngcí",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "连系动词"
    },
    {
      "code": "cs",
      "lang": "Czech",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "spona"
    },
    {
      "code": "da",
      "lang": "Danish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "koppelwerkwoord"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "ligverbo"
    },
    {
      "code": "et",
      "lang": "Estonian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "koopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "gur",
      "lang": "Farefare",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "tɔɣ-kɔpʋla"
    },
    {
      "code": "gur",
      "lang": "Farefare",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "copule"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "Kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "Kopulaverb"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "syndetikó ríma",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "συνδετικό ρήμα"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "yojak",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "योजक"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "sañyojak",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "संयोजक"
    },
    {
      "code": "hu",
      "lang": "Hungarian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "hu",
      "lang": "Hungarian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kapcsolóige"
    },
    {
      "code": "hu",
      "lang": "Hungarian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopulatív ige"
    },
    {
      "code": "is",
      "lang": "Icelandic",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "tengisögn"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "copula"
    },
    {
      "alt": "けいじ",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "keiji",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "繋辞"
    },
    {
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "kopyura",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "コピュラ"
    },
    {
      "alt": "れんじ",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "renji",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "連辞"
    },
    {
      "alt": "していし",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "shiteishi",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "指定詞"
    },
    {
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "kopura",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "コプラ"
    },
    {
      "code": "kk",
      "lang": "Kazakh",
      "roman": "jalğaulyq",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "жалғаулық"
    },
    {
      "code": "ko",
      "lang": "Korean",
      "roman": "gyesa",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "계사"
    },
    {
      "code": "ko",
      "lang": "Korean",
      "roman": "kopyulleo",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "코퓰러"
    },
    {
      "code": "ky",
      "lang": "Kyrgyz",
      "roman": "baylamta",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "байламта"
    },
    {
      "code": "mk",
      "lang": "Macedonian",
      "roman": "kopula",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "копула"
    },
    {
      "code": "nb",
      "lang": "Norwegian Bokmål",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "fa",
      "lang": "Persian",
      "roman": "fe'l-e rabti",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "فعل ربطی"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "inanimate",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "łącznik"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "spójka"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "cópula"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "verbo de ligação"
    },
    {
      "code": "ro",
      "lang": "Romanian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "copulă"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "svjázka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "свя́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "kópula",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "ко́пула"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "glagól-svjázka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "глаго́л-свя́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "Cyrillic",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "копула"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "Cyrillic",
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "спона"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "Roman",
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "Roman",
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "spona"
    },
    {
      "code": "sk",
      "lang": "Slovak",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "spona"
    },
    {
      "code": "sl",
      "lang": "Slovene",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "vez"
    },
    {
      "code": "sl",
      "lang": "Slovene",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "cópula"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "common-gender"
      ],
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "tl",
      "lang": "Tagalog",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "pandiwang pangawing"
    },
    {
      "code": "th",
      "lang": "Thai",
      "roman": "dtuua-chʉ̂ʉam",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "ตัวเชื่อม"
    },
    {
      "code": "tr",
      "lang": "Turkish",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "koşaç"
    },
    {
      "code": "uk",
      "lang": "Ukrainian",
      "roman": "zvʺjázka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "зв'я́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "uk",
      "lang": "Ukrainian",
      "roman": "dijeslóvo-zvʺjázka",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "neuter"
      ],
      "word": "дієсло́во-зв'я́зка"
    },
    {
      "code": "uk",
      "lang": "Ukrainian",
      "roman": "kópula",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "ко́пула"
    },
    {
      "code": "uz",
      "lang": "Uzbek",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "bogʻlama"
    },
    {
      "code": "uz",
      "lang": "Uzbek",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "feʼl-bogʻlama"
    },
    {
      "code": "vi",
      "lang": "Vietnamese",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "từ liên hệ"
    },
    {
      "code": "cy",
      "lang": "Welsh",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "cyplad"
    },
    {
      "code": "zza",
      "lang": "Zazaki",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "gırek"
    },
    {
      "code": "zza",
      "lang": "Zazaki",
      "sense": "grammar: linking kind of word",
      "word": "kopula"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "ǒuhé",
      "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
      "word": "耦合"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
      "word": "關聯結構"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "guānliánjiégòu",
      "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
      "word": "关联结构"
    },
    {
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "kopyura",
      "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
      "word": "コピュラ"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "kópula",
      "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "ко́пула"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "statistics: measure of association",
      "word": "cópula"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "copula"
  ],
  "word": "copula"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable English dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-17 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (0b52755 and 5cb0836). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.