"phải" meaning in Vietnamese

See phải in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: [faːj˧˩] [Hà-Nội], [faːj˧˨] [Huế], [faːj˨˩˦] [Hồ-Chí-Minh-City] Audio: LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav [Hồ-Chí-Minh-City] Forms: [CJK], [CJK], [CJK]
Etymology: Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.). The common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm. Etymology templates: {{m|vi|bị}} bị, {{der|vi|zh|被//|pos=SV: <i class="Latn mention" lang="vi">bị</i>|t=to suffer; passive marker|tr=-}} Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị), {{vi-etym-sino|被|to suffer; passive marker|bị|hv=n}} Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị), {{str left|Baxter and Sagart (2014)|1}} B, {{vi-ref|Baxter and Sagart (2014)}} Baxter and Sagart (2014), {{IPAfont|/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/}} /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/, {{cog|mkh-vie-pro|*dam|*dam ~ *tam}} Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, {{m|vi|đăm}} đăm Head templates: {{head|vi|adjective|||head=|tr=沛, 拜, 派}} phải • (沛, 拜, 派), {{vi-adj|沛, 拜, 派}} phải • (沛, 拜, 派)
  1. (often with bên) right (side, direction) (in bên phải) Tags: often, with bên Categories (topical): Directions Synonyms (the direction right): đăm, mặt Related terms (the direction right): hữu
    Sense id: en-phải-vi-adj-8RbUm3hi Disambiguation of Directions: 72 8 8 5 6 0 Disambiguation of 'the direction right': 74 24 2 Disambiguation of 'the direction right': 74 24 2
  2. correct Synonyms (correct): đúng, chính xác
    Sense id: en-phải-vi-adj-FaWW48mM Categories (other): Vietnamese entries with incorrect language header, Vietnamese particles Disambiguation of Vietnamese entries with incorrect language header: 9 54 37 Disambiguation of Vietnamese particles: 11 40 17 5 5 21 Disambiguation of 'correct': 3 96 1
  3. obverse Synonyms (obverse): trước, chính
    Sense id: en-phải-vi-adj-2i2zb1T- Disambiguation of 'obverse': 0 2 98
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms: ba phải, bên phải, mặt phải, phải biết, phải cách, phải chăng, phải đạo, phải đường, phải giá, phải lẽ, phải lòng, phải lời, phải lứa, phải phép, phải quấy, phải thời, phải trái, tay phải, vừa phải, lẽ phải, phải mặt

Particle

IPA: [faːj˧˩] [Hà-Nội], [faːj˧˨] [Huế], [faːj˨˩˦] [Hồ-Chí-Minh-City] Audio: LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav [Hồ-Chí-Minh-City]
Etymology: Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.). The common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm. Etymology templates: {{m|vi|bị}} bị, {{der|vi|zh|被//|pos=SV: <i class="Latn mention" lang="vi">bị</i>|t=to suffer; passive marker|tr=-}} Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị), {{vi-etym-sino|被|to suffer; passive marker|bị|hv=n}} Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị), {{str left|Baxter and Sagart (2014)|1}} B, {{vi-ref|Baxter and Sagart (2014)}} Baxter and Sagart (2014), {{IPAfont|/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/}} /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/, {{cog|mkh-vie-pro|*dam|*dam ~ *tam}} Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, {{m|vi|đăm}} đăm Head templates: {{head|vi|particle}} phải
  1. yes (in response to a question containing phải)
    Sense id: en-phải-vi-particle-9QCemF~2

Verb

IPA: [faːj˧˩] [Hà-Nội], [faːj˧˨] [Huế], [faːj˨˩˦] [Hồ-Chí-Minh-City] Audio: LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav [Hồ-Chí-Minh-City]
Etymology: Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.). The common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm. Etymology templates: {{m|vi|bị}} bị, {{der|vi|zh|被//|pos=SV: <i class="Latn mention" lang="vi">bị</i>|t=to suffer; passive marker|tr=-}} Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị), {{vi-etym-sino|被|to suffer; passive marker|bị|hv=n}} Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị), {{str left|Baxter and Sagart (2014)|1}} B, {{vi-ref|Baxter and Sagart (2014)}} Baxter and Sagart (2014), {{IPAfont|/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/}} /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/, {{cog|mkh-vie-pro|*dam|*dam ~ *tam}} Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, {{m|vi|đăm}} đăm Head templates: {{head|vi|verb|||head=|tr=}} phải, {{vi-verb}} phải
  1. (modal auxiliary) must, have to, should Tags: auxiliary, modal
    Sense id: en-phải-vi-verb-y5tDmVCJ
  2. (transitive) to have to endure (something unpleasant) Tags: transitive
    Sense id: en-phải-vi-verb-DY464ZWK
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms: lẽ phải, phải mặt, gặp phải, mắc phải, phải bả, phải cái, phải chi, phải dấu, phải đòn, phải đũa, phải gió, phải giờ, phải khi, phải lại, phải môn, phải như, phải rồi, phải tội, phải vạ, thì phải

Download JSON data for phải meaning in Vietnamese (12.9kB)

{
  "antonyms": [
    {
      "sense": "the direction right",
      "word": "trái"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "không đúng"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "sai"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "trật"
    },
    {
      "sense": "obverse",
      "word": "trái"
    }
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "ba phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "bên phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "mặt phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải biết"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải cách"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải chăng"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải đạo"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải đường"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải giá"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải lẽ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải lòng"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải lời"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải lứa"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải phép"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải quấy"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải thời"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "phải trái"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "tay phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "vừa phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "lẽ phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "phải mặt"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "bị"
      },
      "expansion": "bị",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "zh",
        "3": "被//",
        "pos": "SV: <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"vi\">bị</i>",
        "t": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "tr": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "被",
        "2": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "3": "bị",
        "hv": "n"
      },
      "expansion": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "vi-etym-sino"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
        "2": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "B",
      "name": "str left"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)"
      },
      "expansion": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
      "name": "vi-ref"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/"
      },
      "expansion": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/",
      "name": "IPAfont"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "mkh-vie-pro",
        "2": "*dam",
        "3": "*dam ~ *tam"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "đăm"
      },
      "expansion": "đăm",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.).\nThe common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "沛",
      "tags": [
        "CJK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "拜",
      "tags": [
        "CJK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "派",
      "tags": [
        "CJK"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "adjective",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "head": "",
        "tr": "沛, 拜, 派"
      },
      "expansion": "phải • (沛, 拜, 派)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "沛, 拜, 派"
      },
      "expansion": "phải • (沛, 拜, 派)",
      "name": "vi-adj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Vietnamese",
  "lang_code": "vi",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "72 8 8 5 6 0",
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "vi",
          "name": "Directions",
          "orig": "vi:Directions",
          "parents": [
            "Nature",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Go on the right side of the road.",
          "text": "Đi bên phải đường.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Turn right.",
          "text": "Rẽ (tay) phải. Quẹo (tay) phải.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "right (side, direction) (in bên phải)"
      ],
      "id": "en-phải-vi-adj-8RbUm3hi",
      "links": [
        [
          "bên",
          "bên"
        ],
        [
          "right",
          "right"
        ],
        [
          "bên phải",
          "bên phải"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(often with bên) right (side, direction) (in bên phải)"
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "_dis1": "74 24 2",
          "sense": "the direction right",
          "word": "hữu"
        }
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "_dis1": "74 24 2",
          "sense": "the direction right",
          "word": "đăm"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "74 24 2",
          "sense": "the direction right",
          "word": "mặt"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "often",
        "with bên"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "9 54 37",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Vietnamese entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 40 17 5 5 21",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Vietnamese particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Not so.",
          "text": "Không phải như thế.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "correct"
      ],
      "id": "en-phải-vi-adj-FaWW48mM",
      "links": [
        [
          "correct",
          "correct"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "_dis1": "3 96 1",
          "sense": "correct",
          "word": "đúng"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "3 96 1",
          "sense": "correct",
          "word": "chính xác"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "the obverse of a piece of cloth",
          "text": "mặt phải của tấm vải",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "obverse"
      ],
      "id": "en-phải-vi-adj-2i2zb1T-",
      "links": [
        [
          "obverse",
          "obverse"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "_dis1": "0 2 98",
          "sense": "obverse",
          "word": "trước"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 2 98",
          "sense": "obverse",
          "word": "chính"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˩]",
      "tags": [
        "Hà-Nội"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˨]",
      "tags": [
        "Huế"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˨˩˦]",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Hồ Chí Minh City)"
    }
  ],
  "word": "phải"
}

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "lẽ phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "phải mặt"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "gặp phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "mắc phải"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải bả"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải cái"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải chi"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải dấu"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải đòn"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải đũa"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải gió"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải giờ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải khi"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải lại"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải môn"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải như"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải rồi"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải tội"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "phải vạ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "thì phải"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "bị"
      },
      "expansion": "bị",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "zh",
        "3": "被//",
        "pos": "SV: <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"vi\">bị</i>",
        "t": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "tr": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "被",
        "2": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "3": "bị",
        "hv": "n"
      },
      "expansion": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "vi-etym-sino"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
        "2": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "B",
      "name": "str left"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)"
      },
      "expansion": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
      "name": "vi-ref"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/"
      },
      "expansion": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/",
      "name": "IPAfont"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "mkh-vie-pro",
        "2": "*dam",
        "3": "*dam ~ *tam"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "đăm"
      },
      "expansion": "đăm",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.).\nThe common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "verb",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "head": "",
        "tr": ""
      },
      "expansion": "phải",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "phải",
      "name": "vi-verb"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Vietnamese",
  "lang_code": "vi",
  "pos": "verb",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I must go right away.",
          "text": "Tôi phải đi ngay.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "One must earn high enough grades to be promoted to the next grade.",
          "text": "Phải đủ điểm mới được lên lớp.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "must, have to, should"
      ],
      "id": "en-phải-vi-verb-y5tDmVCJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "must",
          "must"
        ],
        [
          "have to",
          "have to"
        ],
        [
          "should",
          "should"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(modal auxiliary) must, have to, should"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "auxiliary",
        "modal"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "to tread on thorns",
          "text": "giẫm phải gai",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "in case one encounters bad wind (i.e., the cold or inclement weather)",
          "text": "ngộ phải gió độc",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I had to go on a rainy and windy day.",
          "text": "Tôi đi phải ngày mưa gió.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to have to endure (something unpleasant)"
      ],
      "id": "en-phải-vi-verb-DY464ZWK",
      "links": [
        [
          "endure",
          "endure"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) to have to endure (something unpleasant)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˩]",
      "tags": [
        "Hà-Nội"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˨]",
      "tags": [
        "Huế"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˨˩˦]",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Hồ Chí Minh City)"
    }
  ],
  "word": "phải"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "bị"
      },
      "expansion": "bị",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "zh",
        "3": "被//",
        "pos": "SV: <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"vi\">bị</i>",
        "t": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "tr": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "被",
        "2": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "3": "bị",
        "hv": "n"
      },
      "expansion": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "vi-etym-sino"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
        "2": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "B",
      "name": "str left"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)"
      },
      "expansion": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
      "name": "vi-ref"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/"
      },
      "expansion": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/",
      "name": "IPAfont"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "mkh-vie-pro",
        "2": "*dam",
        "3": "*dam ~ *tam"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "đăm"
      },
      "expansion": "đăm",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.).\nThe common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "phải",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Vietnamese",
  "lang_code": "vi",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "yes (in response to a question containing phải)"
      ],
      "id": "en-phải-vi-particle-9QCemF~2",
      "links": [
        [
          "yes",
          "yes"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˩]",
      "tags": [
        "Hà-Nội"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˨]",
      "tags": [
        "Huế"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˨˩˦]",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Hồ Chí Minh City)"
    }
  ],
  "word": "phải"
}
{
  "antonyms": [
    {
      "sense": "the direction right",
      "word": "trái"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "không đúng"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "sai"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "trật"
    },
    {
      "sense": "obverse",
      "word": "trái"
    }
  ],
  "categories": [
    "Vietnamese adjectives",
    "Vietnamese entries with incorrect language header",
    "Vietnamese lemmas",
    "Vietnamese particles",
    "Vietnamese terms derived from Chinese",
    "Vietnamese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Vietnamese terms with audio links",
    "Vietnamese verbs",
    "vi:Directions"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "ba phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "bên phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "lẽ phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "mặt phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải biết"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải cách"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải chăng"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải đạo"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải đường"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải giá"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải lẽ"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải lòng"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải lời"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải lứa"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải mặt"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải phép"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải quấy"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải thời"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải trái"
    },
    {
      "word": "tay phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "vừa phải"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "bị"
      },
      "expansion": "bị",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "zh",
        "3": "被//",
        "pos": "SV: <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"vi\">bị</i>",
        "t": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "tr": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "被",
        "2": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "3": "bị",
        "hv": "n"
      },
      "expansion": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "vi-etym-sino"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
        "2": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "B",
      "name": "str left"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)"
      },
      "expansion": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
      "name": "vi-ref"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/"
      },
      "expansion": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/",
      "name": "IPAfont"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "mkh-vie-pro",
        "2": "*dam",
        "3": "*dam ~ *tam"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "đăm"
      },
      "expansion": "đăm",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.).\nThe common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "沛",
      "tags": [
        "CJK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "拜",
      "tags": [
        "CJK"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "派",
      "tags": [
        "CJK"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "adjective",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "head": "",
        "tr": "沛, 拜, 派"
      },
      "expansion": "phải • (沛, 拜, 派)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "沛, 拜, 派"
      },
      "expansion": "phải • (沛, 拜, 派)",
      "name": "vi-adj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Vietnamese",
  "lang_code": "vi",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "sense": "the direction right",
      "word": "hữu"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Vietnamese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Go on the right side of the road.",
          "text": "Đi bên phải đường.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Turn right.",
          "text": "Rẽ (tay) phải. Quẹo (tay) phải.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "right (side, direction) (in bên phải)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "bên",
          "bên"
        ],
        [
          "right",
          "right"
        ],
        [
          "bên phải",
          "bên phải"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(often with bên) right (side, direction) (in bên phải)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "often",
        "with bên"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Vietnamese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Not so.",
          "text": "Không phải như thế.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "correct"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "correct",
          "correct"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Vietnamese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "the obverse of a piece of cloth",
          "text": "mặt phải của tấm vải",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "obverse"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "obverse",
          "obverse"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˩]",
      "tags": [
        "Hà-Nội"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˨]",
      "tags": [
        "Huế"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˨˩˦]",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Hồ Chí Minh City)"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "đúng"
    },
    {
      "sense": "correct",
      "word": "chính xác"
    },
    {
      "sense": "obverse",
      "word": "trước"
    },
    {
      "sense": "obverse",
      "word": "chính"
    },
    {
      "sense": "the direction right",
      "word": "đăm"
    },
    {
      "sense": "the direction right",
      "word": "mặt"
    }
  ],
  "word": "phải"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Vietnamese adjectives",
    "Vietnamese lemmas",
    "Vietnamese particles",
    "Vietnamese terms derived from Chinese",
    "Vietnamese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Vietnamese terms with audio links",
    "Vietnamese verbs",
    "vi:Directions"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "gặp phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "lẽ phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "mắc phải"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải bả"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải cái"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải chi"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải dấu"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải đòn"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải đũa"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải gió"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải giờ"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải khi"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải lại"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải mặt"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải môn"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải như"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải rồi"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải tội"
    },
    {
      "word": "phải vạ"
    },
    {
      "word": "thì phải"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "bị"
      },
      "expansion": "bị",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "zh",
        "3": "被//",
        "pos": "SV: <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"vi\">bị</i>",
        "t": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "tr": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "被",
        "2": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "3": "bị",
        "hv": "n"
      },
      "expansion": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "vi-etym-sino"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
        "2": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "B",
      "name": "str left"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)"
      },
      "expansion": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
      "name": "vi-ref"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/"
      },
      "expansion": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/",
      "name": "IPAfont"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "mkh-vie-pro",
        "2": "*dam",
        "3": "*dam ~ *tam"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "đăm"
      },
      "expansion": "đăm",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.).\nThe common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "verb",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "head": "",
        "tr": ""
      },
      "expansion": "phải",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "phải",
      "name": "vi-verb"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Vietnamese",
  "lang_code": "vi",
  "pos": "verb",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Vietnamese auxiliary verbs",
        "Vietnamese terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I must go right away.",
          "text": "Tôi phải đi ngay.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "One must earn high enough grades to be promoted to the next grade.",
          "text": "Phải đủ điểm mới được lên lớp.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "must, have to, should"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "must",
          "must"
        ],
        [
          "have to",
          "have to"
        ],
        [
          "should",
          "should"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(modal auxiliary) must, have to, should"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "auxiliary",
        "modal"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Vietnamese terms with usage examples",
        "Vietnamese transitive verbs"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "to tread on thorns",
          "text": "giẫm phải gai",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "in case one encounters bad wind (i.e., the cold or inclement weather)",
          "text": "ngộ phải gió độc",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I had to go on a rainy and windy day.",
          "text": "Tôi đi phải ngày mưa gió.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to have to endure (something unpleasant)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "endure",
          "endure"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(transitive) to have to endure (something unpleasant)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "transitive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˩]",
      "tags": [
        "Hà-Nội"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˨]",
      "tags": [
        "Huế"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˨˩˦]",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Hồ Chí Minh City)"
    }
  ],
  "word": "phải"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Vietnamese adjectives",
    "Vietnamese lemmas",
    "Vietnamese particles",
    "Vietnamese terms derived from Chinese",
    "Vietnamese terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Vietnamese terms with audio links",
    "Vietnamese verbs",
    "vi:Directions"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "bị"
      },
      "expansion": "bị",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "zh",
        "3": "被//",
        "pos": "SV: <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"vi\">bị</i>",
        "t": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "tr": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "被",
        "2": "to suffer; passive marker",
        "3": "bị",
        "hv": "n"
      },
      "expansion": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị)",
      "name": "vi-etym-sino"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
        "2": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "B",
      "name": "str left"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)"
      },
      "expansion": "Baxter and Sagart (2014)",
      "name": "vi-ref"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/"
      },
      "expansion": "/*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/",
      "name": "IPAfont"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "mkh-vie-pro",
        "2": "*dam",
        "3": "*dam ~ *tam"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "đăm"
      },
      "expansion": "đăm",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese 被 (“to suffer; passive marker”, SV: bị) (Old Chinese: /*m-pʰ(r)ajʔ, m-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s, mə-pʰ(r)aj, pʰ(r)aj-s/ in Baxter and Sagart (2014)), along the semantic evolution of “to have to endure; to suffer” > “have to; must” > “correct” > “right (in direction)”. It may reflect an Old Chinese pronunciation /*N-pʰ(r)ajʔ-s/ with the loss of a nasal prefix as is also seen in other early loans (Sagart, per. comm.).\nThe common Vietic word for “right” is Proto-Vietic *dam ~ *tam, whence the now-archaic đăm.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "vi",
        "2": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "phải",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Vietnamese",
  "lang_code": "vi",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "yes (in response to a question containing phải)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "yes",
          "yes"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˩]",
      "tags": [
        "Hà-Nội"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˧˨]",
      "tags": [
        "Huế"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[faːj˨˩˦]",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q9199 (vie)-Jessica Nguyen (Pamputt)-phải.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/5/50/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav/LL-Q9199_%28vie%29-Jessica_Nguyen_%28Pamputt%29-ph%E1%BA%A3i.wav.ogg",
      "tags": [
        "Hồ-Chí-Minh-City"
      ],
      "text": "Audio (Hồ Chí Minh City)"
    }
  ],
  "word": "phải"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Vietnamese dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (ee658f9 and be4df6b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.