"vocative" meaning in English

See vocative in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈvɑkətɪv/, /ˈvoʊkətɪv/, /ˈvɒkətɪv/ Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-vocative.wav Forms: more vocative [comparative], most vocative [superlative]
enPR: väk'ətĭv, vŏk'ətĭv Etymology: From Late Middle English [Term?], borrowed from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”); a calque of Ancient Greek κλητῐκή (klētikḗ, “for calling; vocative case”) – from vocāre (“to call”), from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-, o-grade of *wekʷ- (“give vocal utterance, speak”). See Latin vōx. Etymology templates: {{root|en|ine-pro|*wekʷ-}}, {{inh|en|enm}} Middle English [Term?], {{der|en|frm|vocatif}} Middle French vocatif, {{der|en|la|vocātīvus||for calling}} Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”), {{der|en|ine-pro||*wokʷ-}} Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ- Head templates: {{en-adj}} vocative (comparative more vocative, superlative most vocative)
  1. Of or pertaining to calling; used in calling or vocation. Translations (of or pertaining to calling): kutsumuksellinen (Finnish), kutsumus- (Finnish), vocationnel (French), წოდებითი (c̣odebiti) (Georgian), მოწოდებითი (moc̣odebiti) (Georgian), aufrufend (German), κλητικός (klitikós) (Greek), संबोधित (sambodhit) (Hindi), 天職の (tenshoku no) (Japanese), vocātīvus (Latin), vocativo [masculine] (Portuguese), призыва́ющий (prizyvájuščij) (Russian), зову́щий (zovúščij) (Russian)
    Sense id: en-vocative-en-adj-kY8vy6n5 Disambiguation of 'of or pertaining to calling': 99 1
  2. (grammar) Used in address; appellative (said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed). For example "Domine, O Lord" Categories (topical): Grammar, Grammatical cases Translations (grammar: used in address): κλητικός (klētikós) (Ancient Greek), نِدَاء (nidāʔ) [masculine] (Arabic), клі́чны (klíčny) (Belarusian), зва́телен (zvátelen) (Bulgarian), vocatiu (Catalan), vokativní (Czech), vocatief [masculine] (Dutch), vokativo (Esperanto), vokatiivinen (Finnish), vocatif [masculine] (French), vocativo [masculine] (Galician), წოდებითი (c̣odebiti) (Georgian), vokativ (German), κλητικός (klitikós) (Greek), संबोधित (sambodhit) (Hindi), megszólító (Hungarian), gairmeach (Irish), 呼格の (kokaku no) (Japanese), vocātīvus (Latin), вокатив (vokativ) [masculine] (Macedonian), wołacz [masculine] (Polish), vocativo (Portuguese), зва́тельный (zvátelʹnyj) (Russian), gairmeach (Scottish Gaelic), vokativan (Serbo-Croatian), vocativo (Spanish), vokativ (Swedish), кли́чний (klýčnyj) (Ukrainian), cyfarchol (Welsh)
    Sense id: en-vocative-en-adj-bjquz0Qh Disambiguation of Grammatical cases: 4 40 30 23 3 Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English entries with topic categories using raw markup, Terms with Ancient Greek translations, Terms with Arabic translations, Terms with Belarusian translations, Terms with Bulgarian translations, Terms with Catalan translations, Terms with Czech translations, Terms with Dutch translations, Terms with Esperanto translations, Terms with Finnish translations, Terms with French translations, Terms with Galician translations, Terms with Georgian translations, Terms with German translations, Terms with Greek translations, Terms with Hebrew translations, Terms with Hindi translations, Terms with Hungarian translations, Terms with Irish translations, Terms with Italian translations, Terms with Japanese translations, Terms with Latin translations, Terms with Macedonian translations, Terms with Polish translations, Terms with Portuguese translations, Terms with Russian translations, Terms with Scottish Gaelic translations, Terms with Serbo-Croatian translations, Terms with Spanish translations, Terms with Swedish translations, Terms with Turkish translations, Terms with Ukrainian translations, Terms with Welsh translations Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 3 52 20 15 9 Disambiguation of English entries with topic categories using raw markup: 5 48 20 16 10 Disambiguation of Terms with Ancient Greek translations: 16 37 18 15 14 Disambiguation of Terms with Arabic translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Belarusian translations: 11 52 15 12 10 Disambiguation of Terms with Bulgarian translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Catalan translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Czech translations: 8 46 12 9 24 Disambiguation of Terms with Dutch translations: 12 47 16 13 11 Disambiguation of Terms with Esperanto translations: 15 51 15 12 8 Disambiguation of Terms with Finnish translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with French translations: 12 49 16 13 10 Disambiguation of Terms with Galician translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Georgian translations: 9 50 9 7 25 Disambiguation of Terms with German translations: 13 51 14 12 11 Disambiguation of Terms with Greek translations: 7 39 23 17 15 Disambiguation of Terms with Hebrew translations: 14 47 13 11 16 Disambiguation of Terms with Hindi translations: 9 42 23 18 8 Disambiguation of Terms with Hungarian translations: 7 42 15 12 24 Disambiguation of Terms with Irish translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Italian translations: 9 55 15 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Japanese translations: 9 55 15 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Latin translations: 9 55 15 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Macedonian translations: 10 48 9 8 26 Disambiguation of Terms with Polish translations: 17 46 15 12 10 Disambiguation of Terms with Portuguese translations: 10 48 9 8 26 Disambiguation of Terms with Russian translations: 9 55 15 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Scottish Gaelic translations: 15 48 14 12 10 Disambiguation of Terms with Serbo-Croatian translations: 10 48 9 8 26 Disambiguation of Terms with Spanish translations: 8 64 12 9 7 Disambiguation of Terms with Swedish translations: 15 51 14 11 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Turkish translations: 15 51 14 11 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Ukrainian translations: 15 49 14 12 9 Disambiguation of Terms with Welsh translations: 14 46 13 11 16 Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences Disambiguation of 'grammar: used in address': 19 81
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: vocal

Noun

IPA: /ˈvɑkətɪv/, /ˈvoʊkətɪv/, /ˈvɒkətɪv/ Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-vocative.wav Forms: vocatives [plural]
enPR: väk'ətĭv, vŏk'ətĭv Etymology: From Late Middle English [Term?], borrowed from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”); a calque of Ancient Greek κλητῐκή (klētikḗ, “for calling; vocative case”) – from vocāre (“to call”), from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-, o-grade of *wekʷ- (“give vocal utterance, speak”). See Latin vōx. Etymology templates: {{root|en|ine-pro|*wekʷ-}}, {{inh|en|enm}} Middle English [Term?], {{der|en|frm|vocatif}} Middle French vocatif, {{der|en|la|vocātīvus||for calling}} Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”), {{der|en|ine-pro||*wokʷ-}} Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ- Head templates: {{en-noun}} vocative (plural vocatives)
  1. (grammar) The vocative case Categories (topical): Grammar
    Sense id: en-vocative-en-noun-dNwlBhPR Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences
  2. (grammar) A word in the vocative case Categories (topical): Grammar
    Sense id: en-vocative-en-noun-ONKt~qeI Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences
  3. (rare) Something said to (or as though to) a particular person or thing; an entreaty, an invocation. Tags: rare
    Sense id: en-vocative-en-noun-toZZcGHZ
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: interjection

Inflected forms

Alternative forms

Download JSON data for vocative meaning in English (15.8kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*wekʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English [Term?]",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "frm",
        "3": "vocatif"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle French vocatif",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "vocātīvus",
        "4": "",
        "5": "for calling"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*wokʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Late Middle English [Term?], borrowed from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”); a calque of Ancient Greek κλητῐκή (klētikḗ, “for calling; vocative case”) – from vocāre (“to call”), from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-, o-grade of *wekʷ- (“give vocal utterance, speak”). See Latin vōx.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "more vocative",
      "tags": [
        "comparative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "most vocative",
      "tags": [
        "superlative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "vocative (comparative more vocative, superlative most vocative)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "vocal"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Of or pertaining to calling; used in calling or vocation."
      ],
      "id": "en-vocative-en-adj-kY8vy6n5",
      "links": [
        [
          "vocation",
          "vocation"
        ]
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "kutsumuksellinen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "kutsumus-"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "vocationnel"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "ka",
          "lang": "Georgian",
          "roman": "c̣odebiti",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "წოდებითი"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "ka",
          "lang": "Georgian",
          "roman": "moc̣odebiti",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "მოწოდებითი"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "aufrufend"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "klitikós",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "κλητικός"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "sambodhit",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "संबोधित"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "tenshoku no",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "天職の"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "la",
          "lang": "Latin",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "vocātīvus"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "vocativo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "prizyvájuščij",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "призыва́ющий"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "99 1",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "zovúščij",
          "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
          "word": "зову́щий"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
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          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammar",
          "orig": "en:Grammar",
          "parents": [
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "3 52 20 15 9",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "5 48 20 16 10",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with topic categories using raw markup",
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            "Entries with topic categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
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        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 37 18 15 14",
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        },
        {
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          "_dis": "9 50 9 7 25",
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        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 40 30 23 3",
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammatical cases",
          "orig": "en:Grammatical cases",
          "parents": [
            "Grammar",
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
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            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
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        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used in address; appellative (said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed). For example \"Domine, O Lord\""
      ],
      "id": "en-vocative-en-adj-bjquz0Qh",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "appellative",
          "appellative"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) Used in address; appellative (said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed). For example \"Domine, O Lord\""
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "ar",
          "lang": "Arabic",
          "roman": "nidāʔ",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "نِدَاء"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "be",
          "lang": "Belarusian",
          "roman": "klíčny",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "клі́чны"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "bg",
          "lang": "Bulgarian",
          "roman": "zvátelen",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "зва́телен"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vocatiu"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "cs",
          "lang": "Czech",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vokativní"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "vocatief"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "eo",
          "lang": "Esperanto",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vokativo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vokatiivinen"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "vocatif"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "gl",
          "lang": "Galician",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "vocativo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "ka",
          "lang": "Georgian",
          "roman": "c̣odebiti",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "წოდებითი"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vokativ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "el",
          "lang": "Greek",
          "roman": "klitikós",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "κλητικός"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "grc",
          "lang": "Ancient Greek",
          "roman": "klētikós",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "κλητικός"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "hi",
          "lang": "Hindi",
          "roman": "sambodhit",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "संबोधित"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "hu",
          "lang": "Hungarian",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "megszólító"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "ga",
          "lang": "Irish",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "gairmeach"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "kokaku no",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "呼格の"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "la",
          "lang": "Latin",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vocātīvus"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "mk",
          "lang": "Macedonian",
          "roman": "vokativ",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "вокатив"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "pl",
          "lang": "Polish",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "wołacz"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vocativo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "zvátelʹnyj",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "зва́тельный"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "gd",
          "lang": "Scottish Gaelic",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "gairmeach"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "sh",
          "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vokativan"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vocativo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "vokativ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "uk",
          "lang": "Ukrainian",
          "roman": "klýčnyj",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "кли́чний"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 81",
          "code": "cy",
          "lang": "Welsh",
          "sense": "grammar: used in address",
          "word": "cyfarchol"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɑkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvoʊkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɒkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-vocative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "väk'ətĭv"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "vŏk'ətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Vocative case"
  ],
  "word": "vocative"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*wekʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English [Term?]",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "frm",
        "3": "vocatif"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle French vocatif",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "vocātīvus",
        "4": "",
        "5": "for calling"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*wokʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Late Middle English [Term?], borrowed from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”); a calque of Ancient Greek κλητῐκή (klētikḗ, “for calling; vocative case”) – from vocāre (“to call”), from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-, o-grade of *wekʷ- (“give vocal utterance, speak”). See Latin vōx.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "vocatives",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "vocative (plural vocatives)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "interjection"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammar",
          "orig": "en:Grammar",
          "parents": [
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "The vocative case"
      ],
      "id": "en-vocative-en-noun-dNwlBhPR",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "vocative case",
          "vocative case"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) The vocative case"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammar",
          "orig": "en:Grammar",
          "parents": [
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A word in the vocative case"
      ],
      "id": "en-vocative-en-noun-ONKt~qeI",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "vocative case",
          "vocative case"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) A word in the vocative case"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "Something said to (or as though to) a particular person or thing; an entreaty, an invocation."
      ],
      "id": "en-vocative-en-noun-toZZcGHZ",
      "links": [
        [
          "entreaty",
          "entreaty"
        ],
        [
          "invocation",
          "invocation"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(rare) Something said to (or as though to) a particular person or thing; an entreaty, an invocation."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "rare"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɑkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvoʊkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɒkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-vocative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "väk'ətĭv"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "vŏk'ətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Vocative case"
  ],
  "word": "vocative"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with topic categories using raw markup",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms derived from Middle French",
    "English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "English terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *wekʷ-",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "Middle English term requests",
    "Requests for review of Arabic translations",
    "Requests for review of Dutch translations",
    "Requests for review of Hebrew translations",
    "Requests for review of Italian translations",
    "Requests for review of Serbo-Croatian translations",
    "Requests for review of Swedish translations",
    "Requests for review of Turkish translations",
    "Terms with Ancient Greek translations",
    "Terms with Arabic translations",
    "Terms with Belarusian translations",
    "Terms with Bulgarian translations",
    "Terms with Catalan translations",
    "Terms with Czech translations",
    "Terms with Dutch translations",
    "Terms with Esperanto translations",
    "Terms with Finnish translations",
    "Terms with French translations",
    "Terms with Galician translations",
    "Terms with Georgian translations",
    "Terms with German translations",
    "Terms with Greek translations",
    "Terms with Hebrew translations",
    "Terms with Hindi translations",
    "Terms with Hungarian translations",
    "Terms with Irish translations",
    "Terms with Italian translations",
    "Terms with Japanese translations",
    "Terms with Latin translations",
    "Terms with Macedonian translations",
    "Terms with Polish translations",
    "Terms with Portuguese translations",
    "Terms with Russian translations",
    "Terms with Scottish Gaelic translations",
    "Terms with Serbo-Croatian translations",
    "Terms with Spanish translations",
    "Terms with Swedish translations",
    "Terms with Turkish translations",
    "Terms with Ukrainian translations",
    "Terms with Welsh translations",
    "en:Grammatical cases"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*wekʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English [Term?]",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "frm",
        "3": "vocatif"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle French vocatif",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "vocātīvus",
        "4": "",
        "5": "for calling"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*wokʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Late Middle English [Term?], borrowed from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”); a calque of Ancient Greek κλητῐκή (klētikḗ, “for calling; vocative case”) – from vocāre (“to call”), from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-, o-grade of *wekʷ- (“give vocal utterance, speak”). See Latin vōx.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "more vocative",
      "tags": [
        "comparative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "most vocative",
      "tags": [
        "superlative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "vocative (comparative more vocative, superlative most vocative)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "vocal"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Of or pertaining to calling; used in calling or vocation."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "vocation",
          "vocation"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used in address; appellative (said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed). For example \"Domine, O Lord\""
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "appellative",
          "appellative"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) Used in address; appellative (said of that case or form of the noun, pronoun, or adjective, in which a person or thing is addressed). For example \"Domine, O Lord\""
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɑkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvoʊkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɒkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-vocative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "väk'ətĭv"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "vŏk'ətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "kutsumuksellinen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "kutsumus-"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "vocationnel"
    },
    {
      "code": "ka",
      "lang": "Georgian",
      "roman": "c̣odebiti",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "წოდებითი"
    },
    {
      "code": "ka",
      "lang": "Georgian",
      "roman": "moc̣odebiti",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "მოწოდებითი"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "aufrufend"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "klitikós",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "κλητικός"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "sambodhit",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "संबोधित"
    },
    {
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "tenshoku no",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "天職の"
    },
    {
      "code": "la",
      "lang": "Latin",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "vocātīvus"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "vocativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "prizyvájuščij",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "призыва́ющий"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "zovúščij",
      "sense": "of or pertaining to calling",
      "word": "зову́щий"
    },
    {
      "code": "ar",
      "lang": "Arabic",
      "roman": "nidāʔ",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "نِدَاء"
    },
    {
      "code": "be",
      "lang": "Belarusian",
      "roman": "klíčny",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "клі́чны"
    },
    {
      "code": "bg",
      "lang": "Bulgarian",
      "roman": "zvátelen",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "зва́телен"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vocatiu"
    },
    {
      "code": "cs",
      "lang": "Czech",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vokativní"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "vocatief"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vokativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vokatiivinen"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "vocatif"
    },
    {
      "code": "gl",
      "lang": "Galician",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "vocativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "ka",
      "lang": "Georgian",
      "roman": "c̣odebiti",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "წოდებითი"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vokativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "el",
      "lang": "Greek",
      "roman": "klitikós",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "κλητικός"
    },
    {
      "code": "grc",
      "lang": "Ancient Greek",
      "roman": "klētikós",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "κλητικός"
    },
    {
      "code": "hi",
      "lang": "Hindi",
      "roman": "sambodhit",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "संबोधित"
    },
    {
      "code": "hu",
      "lang": "Hungarian",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "megszólító"
    },
    {
      "code": "ga",
      "lang": "Irish",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "gairmeach"
    },
    {
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "kokaku no",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "呼格の"
    },
    {
      "code": "la",
      "lang": "Latin",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vocātīvus"
    },
    {
      "code": "mk",
      "lang": "Macedonian",
      "roman": "vokativ",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "вокатив"
    },
    {
      "code": "pl",
      "lang": "Polish",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "wołacz"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vocativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "zvátelʹnyj",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "зва́тельный"
    },
    {
      "code": "gd",
      "lang": "Scottish Gaelic",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "gairmeach"
    },
    {
      "code": "sh",
      "lang": "Serbo-Croatian",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vokativan"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vocativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "vokativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "uk",
      "lang": "Ukrainian",
      "roman": "klýčnyj",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "кли́чний"
    },
    {
      "code": "cy",
      "lang": "Welsh",
      "sense": "grammar: used in address",
      "word": "cyfarchol"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Vocative case"
  ],
  "word": "vocative"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with topic categories using raw markup",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Middle English",
    "English terms derived from Middle French",
    "English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "English terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *wekʷ-",
    "English terms inherited from Middle English",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "Middle English term requests",
    "Requests for review of Arabic translations",
    "Requests for review of Dutch translations",
    "Requests for review of Hebrew translations",
    "Requests for review of Italian translations",
    "Requests for review of Serbo-Croatian translations",
    "Requests for review of Swedish translations",
    "Requests for review of Turkish translations",
    "Terms with Ancient Greek translations",
    "Terms with Arabic translations",
    "Terms with Belarusian translations",
    "Terms with Bulgarian translations",
    "Terms with Catalan translations",
    "Terms with Czech translations",
    "Terms with Dutch translations",
    "Terms with Esperanto translations",
    "Terms with Finnish translations",
    "Terms with French translations",
    "Terms with Galician translations",
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    "Terms with Greek translations",
    "Terms with Hebrew translations",
    "Terms with Hindi translations",
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    "Terms with Japanese translations",
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    "Terms with Macedonian translations",
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    "Terms with Russian translations",
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    "Terms with Spanish translations",
    "Terms with Swedish translations",
    "Terms with Turkish translations",
    "Terms with Ukrainian translations",
    "Terms with Welsh translations",
    "en:Grammatical cases"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*wekʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "enm"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle English [Term?]",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "frm",
        "3": "vocatif"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle French vocatif",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "vocātīvus",
        "4": "",
        "5": "for calling"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*wokʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Late Middle English [Term?], borrowed from Middle French vocatif, from Latin vocātīvus (“for calling”); a calque of Ancient Greek κλητῐκή (klētikḗ, “for calling; vocative case”) – from vocāre (“to call”), from Proto-Indo-European *wokʷ-, o-grade of *wekʷ- (“give vocal utterance, speak”). See Latin vōx.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "vocatives",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "vocative (plural vocatives)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "interjection"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "The vocative case"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "vocative case",
          "vocative case"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) The vocative case"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A word in the vocative case"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "vocative case",
          "vocative case"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) A word in the vocative case"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with rare senses"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Something said to (or as though to) a particular person or thing; an entreaty, an invocation."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "entreaty",
          "entreaty"
        ],
        [
          "invocation",
          "invocation"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(rare) Something said to (or as though to) a particular person or thing; an entreaty, an invocation."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "rare"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɑkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvoʊkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈvɒkətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-vocative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/d/d6/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-vocative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "väk'ətĭv"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "vŏk'ətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Vocative case"
  ],
  "word": "vocative"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable English dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-21 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-06 using wiktextract (6c02f21 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.