"ergative" meaning in English

See ergative in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈɜːɡətɪv/ [Received-Pronunciation], /ˈɝɡətɪv/, [-ɾɪv] Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-ergative.wav
enPR: ûr'gətĭv Etymology: From Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”) + English -ive (suffix meaning ‘belong or relating to; of the nature of; serving to; tending to’ forming adjectives). Etymology templates: {{root|en|ine-pro|*werǵ-}}, {{der|en|grc|ἐργᾰ́της|t=labourer, worker}} Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”), {{glossary|suffix}} suffix, {{glossary|adjective}} adjective Head templates: {{en-adj|-}} ergative (not comparable)
  1. (grammar) With the subject of a transitive construction having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of an intransitive construction. Tags: not-comparable Categories (topical): Grammar Synonyms: elliptical Derived forms: ergative-absolutive, ergative case, ergatively, ergative verb, ergativity, unergative Related terms: absolutive, stative Translations (with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions): ergatief (Afrikaans), ergativo (Aragonese), ergativu (Asturian), ergatibo (Basque), ergatiu (Catalan), 能格 (nénggé) (Chinese Mandarin), ergativ (Czech), ergativ (Danish), ergatief (Dutch), ergativo (Esperanto), ergativu (Extremaduran), ergatif (French), ergativo (Galician), ergativ (German), ergativisch (German), ergativus (Indonesian), ergativo (Italian), 能格 (nōkaku) (alt: のうかく) (Japanese), ergativo (Portuguese), ergativo (Spanish), ergativ (Zazaki)
    Sense id: en-ergative-en-adj-17u3jKjV Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences

Noun

IPA: /ˈɜːɡətɪv/ [Received-Pronunciation], /ˈɝɡətɪv/, [-ɾɪv] Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-ergative.wav Forms: ergatives [plural]
enPR: ûr'gətĭv Etymology: From Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”) + English -ive (suffix meaning ‘belong or relating to; of the nature of; serving to; tending to’ forming adjectives). Etymology templates: {{root|en|ine-pro|*werǵ-}}, {{der|en|grc|ἐργᾰ́της|t=labourer, worker}} Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”), {{glossary|suffix}} suffix, {{glossary|adjective}} adjective Head templates: {{en-noun}} ergative (plural ergatives)
  1. (grammar) Ellipsis of ergative case (“a grammatical case used to indicate the agent of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages”). Tags: abbreviation, alt-of, ellipsis Alternative form of: ergative case (extra: a grammatical case used to indicate the agent of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages) Categories (topical): Grammar
    Sense id: en-ergative-en-noun-3o~uzviV Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences
  2. (grammar) An ergative verb or other expression. Categories (topical): Grammar Translations (ergative verb or other expression): 能格 (nénggé) (Chinese Mandarin), ergatief [masculine] (Dutch), ergatif [masculine] (French), ergativo [masculine] (Italian), 能格 (nōkaku) (alt: のうかく) (Japanese), 능격 (neunggyeok) (alt: 能格) (Korean)
    Sense id: en-ergative-en-noun-6-qKQ6VB Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English entries with language name categories using raw markup, English terms suffixed with -ive, Terms with Afrikaans translations, Terms with Aragonese translations, Terms with Asturian translations, Terms with Basque translations, Terms with Catalan translations, Terms with Czech translations, Terms with Danish translations, Terms with Dutch translations, Terms with Esperanto translations, Terms with Extremaduran translations, Terms with French translations, Terms with Galician translations, Terms with German translations, Terms with Indonesian translations, Terms with Italian translations, Terms with Japanese translations, Terms with Korean translations, Terms with Mandarin translations, Terms with Portuguese translations, Terms with Spanish translations, Terms with Zazaki translations Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 36 14 50 Disambiguation of English entries with language name categories using raw markup: 33 16 51 Disambiguation of English terms suffixed with -ive: 27 17 56 Disambiguation of Terms with Afrikaans translations: 32 18 50 Disambiguation of Terms with Aragonese translations: 32 18 50 Disambiguation of Terms with Asturian translations: 32 18 51 Disambiguation of Terms with Basque translations: 29 19 52 Disambiguation of Terms with Catalan translations: 29 19 52 Disambiguation of Terms with Czech translations: 31 17 52 Disambiguation of Terms with Danish translations: 24 12 65 Disambiguation of Terms with Dutch translations: 28 18 54 Disambiguation of Terms with Esperanto translations: 25 17 58 Disambiguation of Terms with Extremaduran translations: 29 19 52 Disambiguation of Terms with French translations: 27 17 56 Disambiguation of Terms with Galician translations: 29 19 52 Disambiguation of Terms with German translations: 30 17 53 Disambiguation of Terms with Indonesian translations: 32 18 50 Disambiguation of Terms with Italian translations: 29 14 57 Disambiguation of Terms with Japanese translations: 28 15 58 Disambiguation of Terms with Korean translations: 29 19 52 Disambiguation of Terms with Mandarin translations: 26 19 56 Disambiguation of Terms with Portuguese translations: 32 18 50 Disambiguation of Terms with Spanish translations: 23 13 63 Disambiguation of Terms with Zazaki translations: 28 15 58 Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences Disambiguation of 'ergative verb or other expression': 6 94

Inflected forms

Download JSONL data for ergative meaning in English (20.5kB)

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  "etymology_templates": [
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        "3": "ἐργᾰ́της",
        "t": "labourer, worker"
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  "etymology_text": "From Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”) + English -ive (suffix meaning ‘belong or relating to; of the nature of; serving to; tending to’ forming adjectives).",
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    "er‧gat‧ive"
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  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
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          "word": "unergative"
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          "word": "ergative verb"
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          "word": "ergativity"
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          "word": "unergative"
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        {
          "text": "The case systems of ergative languages are counter-intuitive to speakers of Indo-European languages.",
          "type": "example"
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        {
          "ref": "1972, R[obert] M[alcolm] W[ard] Dixon, “Australian Languages”, in The Dyirbal Language of North Queensland (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics; 9), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: University Press, page 4",
          "text": "The most common situation is for nouns to inflect according to a nominative-ergative pattern, while pronouns at least superficially follow a nominative-accusative pattern. That is, nouns have a single case (nominative) marking intransitive subject and transitive object functions, and another case (ergative) for transitive subject function.",
          "type": "quotation"
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        {
          "ref": "1986, William A[uguste] Foley, “Nominals”, in The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (Cambridge Language Surveys), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, published 1999, page 108",
          "text": "For Podopa, the actor of most transitive verbs (and of some intransitive verbs as well) may occur with or without the ergative case suffix, but with a semantic difference. The ergative suffix indicates that the actor is acting independently, is self-motivated, and exerts his personal control over the situation; while its lack indicates that the actor is performing according to his set social obligations, not according to his own independent will, and does not assert his personal control over the situation.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1987, George van Driem, “Nominal Morphology”, in A Grammar of Limbu (Mouton Grammar Library; 4), Berlin, New York, N.Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, page 39",
          "text": "The ergative case marks the agent of a transitive verb. The ergative suffix is -le/-re/-lle/-ʔille. The form of the ergative suffix is /-le/ for the indefinite and /-ʔille/ for the definite after the consonants /ʔ/, /k/, /t/, /p/, /b/, /ŋ/, /n/ and /m/.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2000, Hans Bennis, “Adjectives and Argument Structure”, in Peter Coopmans, Martin Everaert, Jane Grimshaw, editors, Lexical Specification and Insertion (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory; 197), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, pages 27–28",
          "text": "In Section 1 I will discuss the existence of a class of ergative adjectives in Dutch[…]. It will be demonstrated that there are a number of arguments supporting the claim that the class of adjectives should be divided into ergative and unergative adjectives. A large number of adjectives that are unergative according to the tests provided in Section 2 appear to be ergative with respect to their argument structure.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2008, Geoffrey Khan, “Introduction”, in HdO: The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar (Handbook of Oriental Studies; Section 1 (The Near and Middle East); 96), volume 1 (Grammar), Leiden, Boston, Mass.: Brill, →ISSN, page 22",
          "text": "Another difference between C. Barwar and Kurdish is the fact that in C. Barwar the compound perfect construction is not ergative. […] In Kurdish, on the other hand, the corresponding compound construction, which appears to have been the model for the NENA [North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic] construction, is ergative in form when the verb is transitive. The loss of the ergative inflection in C. Barwar and most other NENA dialects is again a development internal to NENA. The original ergative type of construction has survived only in a few Jewish dialects on the eastern periphery.",
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          "code": "af",
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          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergatief"
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          "lang": "Aragonese",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
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          "lang": "Asturian",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
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          "code": "eu",
          "lang": "Basque",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergatibo"
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          "code": "ca",
          "lang": "Catalan",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergatiu"
        },
        {
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "nénggé",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "能格"
        },
        {
          "code": "cs",
          "lang": "Czech",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativ"
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          "lang": "Danish",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
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          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativo"
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          "lang": "Extremaduran",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativu"
        },
        {
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergatif"
        },
        {
          "code": "gl",
          "lang": "Galician",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativo"
        },
        {
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativ"
        },
        {
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativisch"
        },
        {
          "code": "id",
          "lang": "Indonesian",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativus"
        },
        {
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativo"
        },
        {
          "alt": "のうかく",
          "code": "ja",
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          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "能格"
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        {
          "code": "pt",
          "lang": "Portuguese",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativo"
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        {
          "code": "es",
          "lang": "Spanish",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativo"
        },
        {
          "code": "zza",
          "lang": "Zazaki",
          "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
          "word": "ergativ"
        }
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      "ipa": "/ˈɝɡətɪv/"
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          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "30 17 53",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with German translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "32 18 50",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Indonesian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "29 14 57",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Italian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "28 15 58",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Japanese translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "29 19 52",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Korean translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "26 19 56",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Mandarin translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "32 18 50",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Portuguese translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "23 13 63",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Spanish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "28 15 58",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Zazaki translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1971, John M[athieson] Anderson, “Locative”, in The Grammar of Case: Towards a Localistic Theory (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics; 4), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, published 1976, part III (Locative and Ablative), page 90",
          "text": "Unlike those with subjectivized ergatives, such locative clauses naturally do not allow for imperatives (*Contain the apples).",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1987, Edward L. Keenan, Bernard Comrie, “Noun Phrase Accessibility and Universal Grammar”, in Edward L. Keenan, Universal Grammar: 15 Essays (Croom Helm Linguistics Series), Beckenham, Kent, North Ryde, N.S.W.: Croom Helm, part 1 (Cross Language Variation), page 26",
          "text": "Woodbury (1975) does argue, however, that absolutives are more relativisable in Greenlandic than are ergatives, on the grounds that (1) RCs [Relative Clauses] formed on ergatives are somewhat more restricted in the distribution in matrix clauses (p. 21) than are those formed on absolutives, and (2) for certain verb classes ergatives cannot be relativised out of the active participle (p. 27).",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1994, Virginia Yip, “Grammatical Consciousness-raising and Learnability”, in Terence Odlin, editor, Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar (Cambridge Applied Linguistics), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, page 128",
          "text": "Ergatives share close similarities with agentless passives: Both are intransitive, both lack an agent, while the patient appears in the subject position. As the acquisition data show, learners seem to treat ergatives like passives.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2012, Michael A. Daniel, Timur A. Maisak, Solmaz R. Merdanova, “Causatives in Agul”, in Pirkko Suihkonen, Bernard Comrie, Valery D. Solovyev, editors, Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations: A Crosslinguistic Typology (Studies in Language Companion Series; 126), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, page 66",
          "text": "Combining two ergatives in one clause is not always ungrammatical in Agul; but one of the ergatives must be used in a non-agentive function, e.g. instrumental or temporal.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "An ergative verb or other expression."
      ],
      "id": "en-ergative-en-noun-6-qKQ6VB",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "ergative verb",
          "ergative verb"
        ],
        [
          "expression",
          "expression"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) An ergative verb or other expression."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "6 94",
          "code": "cmn",
          "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
          "roman": "nénggé",
          "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
          "word": "能格"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "6 94",
          "code": "nl",
          "lang": "Dutch",
          "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "ergatief"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "6 94",
          "code": "fr",
          "lang": "French",
          "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "ergatif"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "6 94",
          "code": "it",
          "lang": "Italian",
          "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
          "tags": [
            "masculine"
          ],
          "word": "ergativo"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "6 94",
          "alt": "のうかく",
          "code": "ja",
          "lang": "Japanese",
          "roman": "nōkaku",
          "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
          "word": "能格"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "6 94",
          "alt": "能格",
          "code": "ko",
          "lang": "Korean",
          "roman": "neunggyeok",
          "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
          "word": "능격"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɜːɡətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɝɡətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[-ɾɪv]"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-ergative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "ûr'gətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ergative"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "English 3-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Ancient Greek",
    "English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "English terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *werǵ-",
    "English terms suffixed with -ive",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English uncomparable adjectives",
    "Terms with Afrikaans translations",
    "Terms with Aragonese translations",
    "Terms with Asturian translations",
    "Terms with Basque translations",
    "Terms with Catalan translations",
    "Terms with Czech translations",
    "Terms with Danish translations",
    "Terms with Dutch translations",
    "Terms with Esperanto translations",
    "Terms with Extremaduran translations",
    "Terms with French translations",
    "Terms with Galician translations",
    "Terms with German translations",
    "Terms with Indonesian translations",
    "Terms with Italian translations",
    "Terms with Japanese translations",
    "Terms with Korean translations",
    "Terms with Mandarin translations",
    "Terms with Portuguese translations",
    "Terms with Spanish translations",
    "Terms with Zazaki translations"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "ergative-absolutive"
    },
    {
      "word": "ergative case"
    },
    {
      "word": "ergatively"
    },
    {
      "word": "ergative verb"
    },
    {
      "word": "ergativity"
    },
    {
      "word": "unergative"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*werǵ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "grc",
        "3": "ἐργᾰ́της",
        "t": "labourer, worker"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "suffix",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "adjective"
      },
      "expansion": "adjective",
      "name": "glossary"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”) + English -ive (suffix meaning ‘belong or relating to; of the nature of; serving to; tending to’ forming adjectives).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "ergative (not comparable)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "er‧gat‧ive"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "absolutive"
    },
    {
      "word": "stative"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "antonyms": [
        {
          "word": "unergative"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English terms with usage examples",
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "The case systems of ergative languages are counter-intuitive to speakers of Indo-European languages.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1972, R[obert] M[alcolm] W[ard] Dixon, “Australian Languages”, in The Dyirbal Language of North Queensland (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics; 9), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: University Press, page 4",
          "text": "The most common situation is for nouns to inflect according to a nominative-ergative pattern, while pronouns at least superficially follow a nominative-accusative pattern. That is, nouns have a single case (nominative) marking intransitive subject and transitive object functions, and another case (ergative) for transitive subject function.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1986, William A[uguste] Foley, “Nominals”, in The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (Cambridge Language Surveys), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, published 1999, page 108",
          "text": "For Podopa, the actor of most transitive verbs (and of some intransitive verbs as well) may occur with or without the ergative case suffix, but with a semantic difference. The ergative suffix indicates that the actor is acting independently, is self-motivated, and exerts his personal control over the situation; while its lack indicates that the actor is performing according to his set social obligations, not according to his own independent will, and does not assert his personal control over the situation.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1987, George van Driem, “Nominal Morphology”, in A Grammar of Limbu (Mouton Grammar Library; 4), Berlin, New York, N.Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, page 39",
          "text": "The ergative case marks the agent of a transitive verb. The ergative suffix is -le/-re/-lle/-ʔille. The form of the ergative suffix is /-le/ for the indefinite and /-ʔille/ for the definite after the consonants /ʔ/, /k/, /t/, /p/, /b/, /ŋ/, /n/ and /m/.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2000, Hans Bennis, “Adjectives and Argument Structure”, in Peter Coopmans, Martin Everaert, Jane Grimshaw, editors, Lexical Specification and Insertion (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory; 197), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, pages 27–28",
          "text": "In Section 1 I will discuss the existence of a class of ergative adjectives in Dutch[…]. It will be demonstrated that there are a number of arguments supporting the claim that the class of adjectives should be divided into ergative and unergative adjectives. A large number of adjectives that are unergative according to the tests provided in Section 2 appear to be ergative with respect to their argument structure.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2008, Geoffrey Khan, “Introduction”, in HdO: The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Barwar (Handbook of Oriental Studies; Section 1 (The Near and Middle East); 96), volume 1 (Grammar), Leiden, Boston, Mass.: Brill, →ISSN, page 22",
          "text": "Another difference between C. Barwar and Kurdish is the fact that in C. Barwar the compound perfect construction is not ergative. […] In Kurdish, on the other hand, the corresponding compound construction, which appears to have been the model for the NENA [North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic] construction, is ergative in form when the verb is transitive. The loss of the ergative inflection in C. Barwar and most other NENA dialects is again a development internal to NENA. The original ergative type of construction has survived only in a few Jewish dialects on the eastern periphery.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "With the subject of a transitive construction having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of an intransitive construction."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "subject",
          "subject#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "transitive",
          "transitive"
        ],
        [
          "construction",
          "construction"
        ],
        [
          "having",
          "have#Verb"
        ],
        [
          "grammatical case",
          "grammatical case"
        ],
        [
          "thematic relation",
          "thematic relation"
        ],
        [
          "different",
          "different#Adjective"
        ],
        [
          "intransitive",
          "intransitive"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) With the subject of a transitive construction having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of an intransitive construction."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "elliptical"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "not-comparable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɜːɡətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɝɡətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[-ɾɪv]"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-ergative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "ûr'gətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "af",
      "lang": "Afrikaans",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergatief"
    },
    {
      "code": "an",
      "lang": "Aragonese",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "ast",
      "lang": "Asturian",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativu"
    },
    {
      "code": "eu",
      "lang": "Basque",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergatibo"
    },
    {
      "code": "ca",
      "lang": "Catalan",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergatiu"
    },
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "nénggé",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "能格"
    },
    {
      "code": "cs",
      "lang": "Czech",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "da",
      "lang": "Danish",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergatief"
    },
    {
      "code": "eo",
      "lang": "Esperanto",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "ext",
      "lang": "Extremaduran",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativu"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergatif"
    },
    {
      "code": "gl",
      "lang": "Galician",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativisch"
    },
    {
      "code": "id",
      "lang": "Indonesian",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativus"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "alt": "のうかく",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "nōkaku",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "能格"
    },
    {
      "code": "pt",
      "lang": "Portuguese",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "es",
      "lang": "Spanish",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "code": "zza",
      "lang": "Zazaki",
      "sense": "with the subjects of transitive constructions having grammatical cases or thematic relations different from those of from intransitive constructions",
      "word": "ergativ"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Cambridge University Press"
  ],
  "word": "ergative"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "English 3-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from Ancient Greek",
    "English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "English terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *werǵ-",
    "English terms suffixed with -ive",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English uncomparable adjectives",
    "Terms with Afrikaans translations",
    "Terms with Aragonese translations",
    "Terms with Asturian translations",
    "Terms with Basque translations",
    "Terms with Catalan translations",
    "Terms with Czech translations",
    "Terms with Danish translations",
    "Terms with Dutch translations",
    "Terms with Esperanto translations",
    "Terms with Extremaduran translations",
    "Terms with French translations",
    "Terms with Galician translations",
    "Terms with German translations",
    "Terms with Indonesian translations",
    "Terms with Italian translations",
    "Terms with Japanese translations",
    "Terms with Korean translations",
    "Terms with Mandarin translations",
    "Terms with Portuguese translations",
    "Terms with Spanish translations",
    "Terms with Zazaki translations"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*werǵ-"
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      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "grc",
        "3": "ἐργᾰ́της",
        "t": "labourer, worker"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "suffix",
      "name": "glossary"
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    {
      "args": {
        "1": "adjective"
      },
      "expansion": "adjective",
      "name": "glossary"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Ancient Greek ἐργᾰ́της (ergátēs, “labourer, worker”) + English -ive (suffix meaning ‘belong or relating to; of the nature of; serving to; tending to’ forming adjectives).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "ergatives",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "ergative (plural ergatives)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "er‧gat‧ive"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "a grammatical case used to indicate the agent of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages",
          "word": "ergative case"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "English ellipses",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "2006, Miriam Butt, “The Ergative Dragon”, in Theories of Case (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, page 178",
          "text": "Samoan, for example, differs from the usual pattern displayed by split ergative languages in that the appearance of the ergative is grounded in sociolinguistic factors as well as syntactic ones. The more formal register of Samoan requires the ergative on all postverbal transitive subjects. The less formal register allows the ergative not to be expressed at all.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Ellipsis of ergative case (“a grammatical case used to indicate the agent of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
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          "ergative case",
          "ergative case#English"
        ],
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          "grammatical case"
        ],
        [
          "used",
          "use#Verb"
        ],
        [
          "indicate",
          "indicate"
        ],
        [
          "agent",
          "agent"
        ],
        [
          "transitive verb",
          "transitive verb"
        ],
        [
          "ergative-absolutive",
          "ergative-absolutive"
        ],
        [
          "language",
          "language"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) Ellipsis of ergative case (“a grammatical case used to indicate the agent of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages”)."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "ellipsis"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "en:Grammar"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1971, John M[athieson] Anderson, “Locative”, in The Grammar of Case: Towards a Localistic Theory (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics; 4), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, published 1976, part III (Locative and Ablative), page 90",
          "text": "Unlike those with subjectivized ergatives, such locative clauses naturally do not allow for imperatives (*Contain the apples).",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1987, Edward L. Keenan, Bernard Comrie, “Noun Phrase Accessibility and Universal Grammar”, in Edward L. Keenan, Universal Grammar: 15 Essays (Croom Helm Linguistics Series), Beckenham, Kent, North Ryde, N.S.W.: Croom Helm, part 1 (Cross Language Variation), page 26",
          "text": "Woodbury (1975) does argue, however, that absolutives are more relativisable in Greenlandic than are ergatives, on the grounds that (1) RCs [Relative Clauses] formed on ergatives are somewhat more restricted in the distribution in matrix clauses (p. 21) than are those formed on absolutives, and (2) for certain verb classes ergatives cannot be relativised out of the active participle (p. 27).",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1994, Virginia Yip, “Grammatical Consciousness-raising and Learnability”, in Terence Odlin, editor, Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar (Cambridge Applied Linguistics), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, page 128",
          "text": "Ergatives share close similarities with agentless passives: Both are intransitive, both lack an agent, while the patient appears in the subject position. As the acquisition data show, learners seem to treat ergatives like passives.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2012, Michael A. Daniel, Timur A. Maisak, Solmaz R. Merdanova, “Causatives in Agul”, in Pirkko Suihkonen, Bernard Comrie, Valery D. Solovyev, editors, Argument Structure and Grammatical Relations: A Crosslinguistic Typology (Studies in Language Companion Series; 126), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, page 66",
          "text": "Combining two ergatives in one clause is not always ungrammatical in Agul; but one of the ergatives must be used in a non-agentive function, e.g. instrumental or temporal.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "An ergative verb or other expression."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "ergative verb",
          "ergative verb"
        ],
        [
          "expression",
          "expression"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) An ergative verb or other expression."
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɜːɡətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɝɡətɪv/"
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[-ɾɪv]"
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-ergative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/e/ea/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-ergative.wav.ogg"
    },
    {
      "enpr": "ûr'gətĭv"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "cmn",
      "lang": "Chinese Mandarin",
      "roman": "nénggé",
      "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
      "word": "能格"
    },
    {
      "code": "nl",
      "lang": "Dutch",
      "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "ergatief"
    },
    {
      "code": "fr",
      "lang": "French",
      "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "ergatif"
    },
    {
      "code": "it",
      "lang": "Italian",
      "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ],
      "word": "ergativo"
    },
    {
      "alt": "のうかく",
      "code": "ja",
      "lang": "Japanese",
      "roman": "nōkaku",
      "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
      "word": "能格"
    },
    {
      "alt": "能格",
      "code": "ko",
      "lang": "Korean",
      "roman": "neunggyeok",
      "sense": "ergative verb or other expression",
      "word": "능격"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ergative"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable English dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-07-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-07-01 using wiktextract (f8674bc and 7cfad79). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.