"ésser" meaning in Catalan

See ésser in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: [ˈe.sər] [Central], [ˈe.ser] [Valencian] Forms: éssers [plural]
Etymology: Nominalization of Etymology 1. Head templates: {{ca-noun|m}} ésser m (plural éssers)
  1. being (a living creature) Tags: masculine Derived forms: ésser humà
    Sense id: en-ésser-ca-noun-oTgNejfB
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: esser, ser
Etymology number: 2

Verb

IPA: [ˈe.sə] [Balearic, Central], [ˈe.seɾ] [Valencian] Audio: LL-Q7026 (cat)-Unjoanqualsevol-ésser.wav
Etymology: Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere, from Latin esse. Etymology templates: {{dercat|ca|itc-pro|ine-pro}}, {{glossary|Inherited}} Inherited, {{inh|ca|la-eme|essere|||g=|g2=|g3=|id=|lit=|nocat=|pos=|sc=|sort=|tr=|ts=}} Early Medieval Latin essere, {{inh+|ca|la-eme|essere}} Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere, {{inh|ca|la|sum|esse}} Latin esse Head templates: {{ca-verb|root=é}} ésser (first-person singular present soc, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle estat or sigut); root stress: (Central, Valencian, Balearic) /e/ Inflection templates: {{ca-conj}} Forms: ésser [canonical], root stress: [canonical], e [canonical], soc [first-person, present, singular], fui [first-person, preterite, singular], estat [participle, past], sigut [participle, past], conjugation-2 irregular [table-tags], ésser [infinitive], sent [gerund], essent [gerund], estat [masculine, participle, past, singular], sigut [masculine, participle, past, singular], estada [feminine, participle, past, singular], siguda [feminine, participle, past, singular], estats [masculine, participle, past, plural], siguts [masculine, participle, past, plural], estades [feminine, participle, past, plural], sigudes [feminine, participle, past, plural], soc [first-person, indicative, present, singular], ets [indicative, present, second-person, singular], és [indicative, present, singular, third-person], som [first-person, indicative, plural, present], sou [indicative, plural, present, second-person], són [indicative, plural, present, third-person], era [first-person, imperfect, indicative, singular], eres [imperfect, indicative, second-person, singular], era [imperfect, indicative, singular, third-person], érem [first-person, imperfect, indicative, plural], éreu [imperfect, indicative, plural, second-person], eren [imperfect, indicative, plural, third-person], seré [first-person, future, indicative, singular], seràs [future, indicative, second-person, singular], serà [future, indicative, singular, third-person], serem [first-person, future, indicative, plural], sereu [future, indicative, plural, second-person], seran [future, indicative, plural, third-person], fui [first-person, indicative, preterite, singular], fores [indicative, preterite, second-person, singular], fou [indicative, preterite, singular, third-person], fórem [first-person, indicative, plural, preterite], fóreu [indicative, plural, preterite, second-person], foren [indicative, plural, preterite, third-person], seria [conditional, first-person, indicative, singular], fora [conditional, first-person, indicative, singular], series [conditional, indicative, second-person, singular], fores [conditional, indicative, second-person, singular], seria [conditional, indicative, singular, third-person], fora [conditional, indicative, singular, third-person], seríem [conditional, first-person, indicative, plural], fórem [conditional, first-person, indicative, plural], seríeu [conditional, indicative, plural, second-person], fóreu [conditional, indicative, plural, second-person], serien [conditional, indicative, plural, third-person], foren [conditional, indicative, plural, third-person], sigui [first-person, present, singular, subjunctive], siguis [present, second-person, singular, subjunctive], sigui [present, singular, subjunctive, third-person], siguem [first-person, plural, present, subjunctive], sigueu [plural, present, second-person, subjunctive], siguin [plural, present, subjunctive, third-person], fos [first-person, imperfect, singular, subjunctive], fossis [imperfect, second-person, singular, subjunctive], fos [imperfect, singular, subjunctive, third-person], fóssim [first-person, imperfect, plural, subjunctive], fóssiu [imperfect, plural, second-person, subjunctive], fossin [imperfect, plural, subjunctive, third-person], sigues [imperative, second-person], sigui [formal, imperative, second-person-semantically, singular], siguem [first-person, imperative, plural], sigueu [imperative, plural, second-person], siguin [formal, imperative, plural, second-person-semantically], no siguis [imperative, negative, second-person], no sigui [formal, imperative, negative, second-person-semantically, singular], no siguem [first-person, imperative, negative, plural], no sigueu [imperative, negative, plural, second-person], no siguin [formal, imperative, negative, plural, second-person-semantically]
  1. (copulative) to be Tags: Balearic, Central, Valencian, copulative
    Sense id: en-ésser-ca-verb-CvEgfuq9
  2. to exist, to be real, to be reality Tags: Balearic, Central, Valencian
    Sense id: en-ésser-ca-verb-MylANyGF Categories (other): Catalan entries with incorrect language header, IPA pronunciations with invalid representation marks, IPA pronunciations with no pronunciation present Disambiguation of Catalan entries with incorrect language header: 12 8 80 Disambiguation of IPA pronunciations with invalid representation marks: 30 18 52 Disambiguation of IPA pronunciations with no pronunciation present: 11 0 89
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: esser, ser
Etymology number: 1

Inflected forms

Alternative forms

Download JSON data for ésser meaning in Catalan (11.0kB)

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "itc-pro",
        "3": "ine-pro"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "dercat"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Inherited"
      },
      "expansion": "Inherited",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "la-eme",
        "3": "essere",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "id": "",
        "lit": "",
        "nocat": "",
        "pos": "",
        "sc": "",
        "sort": "",
        "tr": "",
        "ts": ""
      },
      "expansion": "Early Medieval Latin essere",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "la-eme",
        "3": "essere"
      },
      "expansion": "Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere",
      "name": "inh+"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "sum",
        "4": "esse"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin esse",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere, from Latin esse.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "ésser",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "root stress:",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "e",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "soc",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "present",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fui",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "preterite",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estat",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigut",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "conjugation-2 irregular",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ca-conj",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ésser",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "infinitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sent",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "gerund"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "essent",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "gerund"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estat",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigut",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estada",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguda",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estats",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguts",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estades",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigudes",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "soc",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "present",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ets",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "és",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "present",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "som",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "present"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sou",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "present",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "són",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "present",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "era",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "eres",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "era",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "érem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "éreu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "eren",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seré",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seràs",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "serà",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "serem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sereu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seran",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "preterite",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fores",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "preterite",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fou",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "preterite",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fórem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "preterite"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóreu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "preterite",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "foren",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "preterite",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seria",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fora",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "series",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fores",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seria",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fora",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seríem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fórem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seríeu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóreu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "serien",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "foren",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "present",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguis",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "present",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "plural",
        "present",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigueu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "present",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fos",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fossis",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fos",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóssim",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóssiu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fossin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigues",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "second-person-semantically",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigueu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "second-person-semantically"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no siguis",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "second-person-semantically",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no siguem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no sigueu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no siguin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "plural",
        "second-person-semantically"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "root": "é"
      },
      "expansion": "ésser (first-person singular present soc, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle estat or sigut); root stress: (Central, Valencian, Balearic) /e/",
      "name": "ca-verb"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "ca-conj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Catalan",
  "lang_code": "ca",
  "pos": "verb",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "to be"
      ],
      "id": "en-ésser-ca-verb-CvEgfuq9",
      "links": [
        [
          "copulative",
          "copular verb"
        ],
        [
          "be",
          "be"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(copulative) to be"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Balearic",
        "Central",
        "Valencian",
        "copulative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "12 8 80",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Catalan entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "30 18 52",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "IPA pronunciations with invalid representation marks",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "11 0 89",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "IPA pronunciations with no pronunciation present",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to exist, to be real, to be reality"
      ],
      "id": "en-ésser-ca-verb-MylANyGF",
      "links": [
        [
          "exist",
          "exist"
        ],
        [
          "real",
          "real"
        ],
        [
          "reality",
          "reality"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Balearic",
        "Central",
        "Valencian"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.sə]",
      "tags": [
        "Balearic",
        "Central"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.seɾ]",
      "tags": [
        "Valencian"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q7026 (cat)-Unjoanqualsevol-ésser.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b8/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b8/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav.ogg",
      "text": "Audio"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "esser"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "ser"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ésser"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_text": "Nominalization of Etymology 1.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "éssers",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m"
      },
      "expansion": "ésser m (plural éssers)",
      "name": "ca-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Catalan",
  "lang_code": "ca",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "ésser humà"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "being (a living creature)"
      ],
      "id": "en-ésser-ca-noun-oTgNejfB",
      "links": [
        [
          "being",
          "being"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.sər]",
      "tags": [
        "Central"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.ser]",
      "tags": [
        "Valencian"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "esser"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "ser"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ésser"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Catalan countable nouns",
    "Catalan entries with incorrect language header",
    "Catalan irregular verbs",
    "Catalan lemmas",
    "Catalan masculine nouns",
    "Catalan nouns",
    "Catalan second conjugation verbs",
    "Catalan terms derived from Early Medieval Latin",
    "Catalan terms derived from Latin",
    "Catalan terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Catalan terms derived from Proto-Italic",
    "Catalan terms inherited from Early Medieval Latin",
    "Catalan terms inherited from Latin",
    "Catalan terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Catalan terms with audio links",
    "Catalan verbs",
    "IPA pronunciations with invalid representation marks",
    "IPA pronunciations with no pronunciation present"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "itc-pro",
        "3": "ine-pro"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "dercat"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Inherited"
      },
      "expansion": "Inherited",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "la-eme",
        "3": "essere",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "g": "",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "id": "",
        "lit": "",
        "nocat": "",
        "pos": "",
        "sc": "",
        "sort": "",
        "tr": "",
        "ts": ""
      },
      "expansion": "Early Medieval Latin essere",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "la-eme",
        "3": "essere"
      },
      "expansion": "Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere",
      "name": "inh+"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ca",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "sum",
        "4": "esse"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin esse",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Inherited from Early Medieval Latin essere, from Latin esse.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "ésser",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "root stress:",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "e",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "soc",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "present",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fui",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "preterite",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estat",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigut",
      "tags": [
        "participle",
        "past"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "conjugation-2 irregular",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ca-conj",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ésser",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "infinitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sent",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "gerund"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "essent",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "gerund"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estat",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigut",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estada",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguda",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estats",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguts",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "estades",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigudes",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "soc",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "present",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ets",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "és",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "present",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "som",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "present"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sou",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "present",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "són",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "present",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "era",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "eres",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "era",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "érem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "éreu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "eren",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seré",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seràs",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "serà",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "serem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sereu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seran",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "future",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "preterite",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fores",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "preterite",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fou",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "preterite",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fórem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "preterite"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóreu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "preterite",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "foren",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "preterite",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seria",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fora",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "series",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fores",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seria",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fora",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seríem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fórem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "seríeu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóreu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "serien",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "foren",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "conditional",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "present",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguis",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "present",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "plural",
        "present",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigueu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "present",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "present",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fos",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fossis",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fos",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóssim",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperfect",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fóssiu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "fossin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperfect",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigues",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "second-person-semantically",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sigueu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "siguin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "second-person-semantically"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no siguis",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no sigui",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "second-person-semantically",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no siguem",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no sigueu",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no siguin",
      "source": "conjugation",
      "tags": [
        "formal",
        "imperative",
        "negative",
        "plural",
        "second-person-semantically"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "root": "é"
      },
      "expansion": "ésser (first-person singular present soc, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle estat or sigut); root stress: (Central, Valencian, Balearic) /e/",
      "name": "ca-verb"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "ca-conj"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Catalan",
  "lang_code": "ca",
  "pos": "verb",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Catalan copulative verbs"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to be"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "copulative",
          "copular verb"
        ],
        [
          "be",
          "be"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(copulative) to be"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Balearic",
        "Central",
        "Valencian",
        "copulative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to exist, to be real, to be reality"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "exist",
          "exist"
        ],
        [
          "real",
          "real"
        ],
        [
          "reality",
          "reality"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Balearic",
        "Central",
        "Valencian"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.sə]",
      "tags": [
        "Balearic",
        "Central"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.seɾ]",
      "tags": [
        "Valencian"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q7026 (cat)-Unjoanqualsevol-ésser.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b8/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/b/b8/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav/LL-Q7026_%28cat%29-Unjoanqualsevol-%C3%A9sser.wav.ogg",
      "text": "Audio"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "esser"
    },
    {
      "word": "ser"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ésser"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Catalan countable nouns",
    "Catalan entries with incorrect language header",
    "Catalan lemmas",
    "Catalan masculine nouns",
    "Catalan nouns",
    "Catalan terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "IPA pronunciations with invalid representation marks",
    "IPA pronunciations with no pronunciation present"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "ésser humà"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_text": "Nominalization of Etymology 1.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "éssers",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m"
      },
      "expansion": "ésser m (plural éssers)",
      "name": "ca-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Catalan",
  "lang_code": "ca",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "being (a living creature)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "being",
          "being"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.sər]",
      "tags": [
        "Central"
      ]
    },
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈe.ser]",
      "tags": [
        "Valencian"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "esser"
    },
    {
      "word": "ser"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ésser"
}
{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1147",
  "msg": "suspicious related form tags ['canonical']: 'root stress:' in 'ésser (first-person singular present soc, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle estat or sigut); root stress: (Central, Valencian, Balearic) /e/'",
  "path": [
    "ésser"
  ],
  "section": "Catalan",
  "subsection": "verb",
  "title": "ésser",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Catalan dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-05-24 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (46b31b8 and c7ea76d). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.