"halmaz" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See halmaz in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: /ˈxɑl.mɑz/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *ḱolh₂mos, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₂- (“to stick; prick; stab”). Cognate with Latin culmus, Ancient Greek κάλαμος (kálamos). Kroonen, who adds Lithuanian kélmas (“tree trunk”) as a cognate, reconstructs the original athematic paradigm as *ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós (cf. *elm-, *alm-, *ulm- (“elm”)), rejecting Beekes' *ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-. Etymology templates: {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*ḱolh₂mos}} Proto-Indo-European *ḱolh₂mos, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*ḱelh₂-|t=to stick; prick; stab}} Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₂- (“to stick; prick; stab”), {{cog|la|culmus}} Latin culmus, {{cog|grc|κάλαμος}} Ancient Greek κάλαμος (kálamos), {{cog|lt|kélmas||tree trunk}} Lithuanian kélmas (“tree trunk”), {{m|ine-pro||*ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós}} *ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós, {{m|gem-pro|*elmaz|*elm-, *alm-, *ulm-|elm}} *elm-, *alm-, *ulm- (“elm”), {{m|ine-pro||*ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-}} *ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém- Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-noun}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], halmaz [nominative, singular], halmōz [nominative, plural], halmōs [nominative, plural], halm [singular, vocative], halmōz [plural, vocative], halmōs [plural, vocative], halmą [accusative, singular], halmanz [accusative, plural], halmas [genitive, singular], halmis [genitive, singular], halmǫ̂ [genitive, plural], halmai [dative, singular], halmamaz [dative, plural], halmō [instrumental, singular], halmamiz [instrumental, plural]
  1. (botany) halm; stem; stalk Tags: masculine, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-halmaz-gem-pro-noun-uMQ4Hy1o Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header: 90 10 Topics: biology, botany, natural-sciences
  2. straw; hay Tags: masculine, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-halmaz-gem-pro-noun-wCkSDkNT
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: helmaz Related terms: halmą

Download JSON data for halmaz meaning in Proto-Germanic (6.0kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *halm\nOld English: healm, halm\nMiddle English: healm, halm, helm, holm\nEnglish: halm, haulm\nScots: haulm\nOld Frisian: *halm\nSaterland Frisian: Hoolm\nWest Frisian: haal\nOld Saxon: halm\nMiddle Low German: halm\nGerman Low German: Halm\nOld Dutch: *halm\nMiddle Dutch: halm\nDutch: halm\nOld High German: halm\nMiddle High German: halm, halme, helm\nGerman: Halm\nLuxembourgish: Hallem",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *halm\nOld English: healm, halm\nMiddle English: healm, halm, helm, holm\nEnglish: halm, haulm\nScots: haulm\nOld Frisian: *halm\nSaterland Frisian: Hoolm\nWest Frisian: haal\nOld Saxon: halm\nMiddle Low German: halm\nGerman Low German: Halm\nOld Dutch: *halm\nMiddle Dutch: halm\nDutch: halm\nOld High German: halm\nMiddle High German: halm, halme, helm\nGerman: Halm\nLuxembourgish: Hallem"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "halmr"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: halmr",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: halmr"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "hálmur"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: hálmur",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: hálmur"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fo",
            "2": "hálmur"
          },
          "expansion": "Faroese: hálmur",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Faroese: hálmur"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nn",
            "2": "halm",
            "3": ";",
            "4": "hålm’e<q:dialectal>",
            "5": "håm’e"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian Nynorsk: halm; (dialectal) hålm’e, håm’e",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian Nynorsk: halm; (dialectal) hålm’e, håm’e"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: halm",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: halm"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: halm",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: halm"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nb",
            "2": "halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian Bokmål: halm",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian Bokmål: halm"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱolh₂mos"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱolh₂mos",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱelh₂-",
        "t": "to stick; prick; stab"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₂- (“to stick; prick; stab”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "culmus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin culmus",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κάλαμος"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κάλαμος (kálamos)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lt",
        "2": "kélmas",
        "3": "",
        "4": "tree trunk"
      },
      "expansion": "Lithuanian kélmas (“tree trunk”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*elmaz",
        "3": "*elm-, *alm-, *ulm-",
        "4": "elm"
      },
      "expansion": "*elm-, *alm-, *ulm- (“elm”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱolh₂mos, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₂- (“to stick; prick; stab”). Cognate with Latin culmus, Ancient Greek κάλαμος (kálamos). Kroonen, who adds Lithuanian kélmas (“tree trunk”) as a cognate, reconstructs the original athematic paradigm as *ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós (cf. *elm-, *alm-, *ulm- (“elm”)), rejecting Beekes' *ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmis",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmamaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmamiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/halmaz",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "halmą"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "90 10",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "halm; stem; stalk"
      ],
      "id": "en-halmaz-gem-pro-noun-uMQ4Hy1o",
      "links": [
        [
          "botany",
          "botany"
        ],
        [
          "halm",
          "halm"
        ],
        [
          "stem",
          "stem"
        ],
        [
          "stalk",
          "stalk"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(botany) halm; stem; stalk"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "biology",
        "botany",
        "natural-sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "straw; hay"
      ],
      "id": "en-halmaz-gem-pro-noun-wCkSDkNT",
      "links": [
        [
          "straw",
          "straw"
        ],
        [
          "hay",
          "hay"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxɑl.mɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "helmaz"
    }
  ],
  "word": "halmaz"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic a-stem nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic masculine nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *halm\nOld English: healm, halm\nMiddle English: healm, halm, helm, holm\nEnglish: halm, haulm\nScots: haulm\nOld Frisian: *halm\nSaterland Frisian: Hoolm\nWest Frisian: haal\nOld Saxon: halm\nMiddle Low German: halm\nGerman Low German: Halm\nOld Dutch: *halm\nMiddle Dutch: halm\nDutch: halm\nOld High German: halm\nMiddle High German: halm, halme, helm\nGerman: Halm\nLuxembourgish: Hallem",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *halm\nOld English: healm, halm\nMiddle English: healm, halm, helm, holm\nEnglish: halm, haulm\nScots: haulm\nOld Frisian: *halm\nSaterland Frisian: Hoolm\nWest Frisian: haal\nOld Saxon: halm\nMiddle Low German: halm\nGerman Low German: Halm\nOld Dutch: *halm\nMiddle Dutch: halm\nDutch: halm\nOld High German: halm\nMiddle High German: halm, halme, helm\nGerman: Halm\nLuxembourgish: Hallem"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "halmr"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: halmr",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: halmr"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "hálmur"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: hálmur",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: hálmur"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fo",
            "2": "hálmur"
          },
          "expansion": "Faroese: hálmur",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Faroese: hálmur"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nn",
            "2": "halm",
            "3": ";",
            "4": "hålm’e<q:dialectal>",
            "5": "håm’e"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian Nynorsk: halm; (dialectal) hålm’e, håm’e",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian Nynorsk: halm; (dialectal) hålm’e, håm’e"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: halm",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: halm"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: halm",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: halm"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nb",
            "2": "halm"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian Bokmål: halm",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian Bokmål: halm"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱolh₂mos"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱolh₂mos",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱelh₂-",
        "t": "to stick; prick; stab"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₂- (“to stick; prick; stab”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "culmus"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin culmus",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κάλαμος"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κάλαμος (kálamos)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lt",
        "2": "kélmas",
        "3": "",
        "4": "tree trunk"
      },
      "expansion": "Lithuanian kélmas (“tree trunk”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*elmaz",
        "3": "*elm-, *alm-, *ulm-",
        "4": "elm"
      },
      "expansion": "*elm-, *alm-, *ulm- (“elm”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱolh₂mos, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱelh₂- (“to stick; prick; stab”). Cognate with Latin culmus, Ancient Greek κάλαμος (kálamos). Kroonen, who adds Lithuanian kélmas (“tree trunk”) as a cognate, reconstructs the original athematic paradigm as *ḱélh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-m-ós (cf. *elm-, *alm-, *ulm- (“elm”)), rejecting Beekes' *ḱólh₂-m̥ ~ *ḱl̥h₂-ém-.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "a-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmą",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmanz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmas",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmis",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmamaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "halmamiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/halmaz",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "halmą"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "gem-pro:Botany"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "halm; stem; stalk"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "botany",
          "botany"
        ],
        [
          "halm",
          "halm"
        ],
        [
          "stem",
          "stem"
        ],
        [
          "stalk",
          "stalk"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(botany) halm; stem; stalk"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "biology",
        "botany",
        "natural-sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "straw; hay"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "straw",
          "straw"
        ],
        [
          "hay",
          "hay"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxɑl.mɑz/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "helmaz"
    }
  ],
  "word": "halmaz"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (ee658f9 and be4df6b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.