"-가" meaning in Korean

See -가 in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Particle

Forms: [canonical], -ga [romanization]
Etymology: Uncertain. It was not attested in texts from the 15ᵗʰ century, and its first attestation has been variously placed at 1572 CE or mid-17ᵗʰ century. Etymology templates: {{unc|ko}} Uncertain, {{C.E.|nodots=1}} CE, {{CE}} CE, {{der|ko|ja|-}} Japanese, {{collapse|It was initially of limited distribution and used in a complementary manner to <i class="Kore mention" lang="ko">이</i> (-i). The development of its usage is as follows: # Since the mid-17th century: used after nouns ending in -i or -y, #: e.g. pwuli-ka ("mouth"), nay-ka ("scent"), poy-ka ("boat"); # Since the mid-18th century: used after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i, #: e.g. ca-ka ("one who"), soyngswo-ka, nwongso-ka ("farm work"); # During the end of the 18th century: used briefly in the form of double particle -i/yka after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i, #: e.g. to-yka ("road"), inkwu-yka ("population"), nwongso-yka ("farm work"). Various theories exist regarding its origin: # Developed from the interrogative particle <i class="Kore mention" lang="ko">가</i> (-ga); # Developed from the vocative case particle <i class="Kore mention" lang="ko">하</i> (-ha)/<i class="Kore mention" lang="ko">아</i> (-a); # Developed from the connective ending <i class="Kore mention" lang="ko">다가</i> (-daga); # Developed from the verb <i class="Kore mention" lang="ko">가</i> (ga-, “to go”); # Borrowed from the Japanese nominative particle <i class="Jpan mention" lang="ja">が</i> (ga).|Click for etymological details|bg=#FFFFFF}} Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 가 • (-ga)
  1. Synonym of 이 (-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel. Synonyms: [synonym, synonym-of]
    Sense id: en--가-ko-particle-k6nSTijD
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Particle

Forms: [canonical], -ga [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean 去 (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for yes-no questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka). In the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for yes-no questions); see "Related terms" below. Etymology templates: {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-가〮|-ká}} 가〮 (Yale: -ká), {{inh|ko|oko|去|tr=*-ka}} Old Korean 去 (*-ka) Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 가 • (-ga)
  1. (Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language. Tags: Gyeongsang
    Sense id: en--가-ko-particle-vHLrYHrz Categories (other): Gyeongsang Korean
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Particle

IPA: [ɡá] [Yukjin] Forms: [canonical], -ga [romanization]
Etymology: From Old Korean 果 (*-kwa). Unlike Middle Korean and most other dialects, Yukjin was apparently unaffected by the lenition to 와 (-wa) in intervocalic environments. Until the early twentieth century, the pronunciation was still 과 (-gwa), but it has since shifted. Etymology templates: {{anchor|Yukjin}}, {{inh|ko|oko|果|tr=*-kwa}} Old Korean 果 (*-kwa) Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 가 • (-ga)
  1. Yukjin and Russia form of 과 (-gwa, “with, and”) Tags: Russia, Yukjin, alt-of Alternative form of: (extra: -gwa, “with, and”)
    Sense id: en--가-ko-particle-RiO6FZjJ Categories (other): Koryo-mar, Yukjin Korean
  2. Yukjin and Russia form of 와 (-wa, “with, and”) Tags: Russia, Yukjin, alt-of Alternative form of: (extra: -wa, “with, and”)
    Sense id: en--가-ko-particle-1sTrHZit Categories (other): Koryo-mar, Yukjin Korean
  3. (for a verb of speech) to
    Sense id: en--가-ko-particle-Zj6hv~~l
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix

Forms: [canonical], -ga [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean 去 (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for yes-no questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka). In the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for yes-no questions); see "Related terms" below. Etymology templates: {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-가〮|-ká}} 가〮 (Yale: -ká), {{inh|ko|oko|去|tr=*-ka}} Old Korean 去 (*-ka) Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 가 • (-ga)
  1. (Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking yes-no questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”). Tags: Gyeongsang, morpheme Related terms: [-na], 는가 (-neun'ga), 던가 (-deon'ga), 습니까 (-seumnikka), 을까 (-eulkka)
    Sense id: en--가-ko-suffix-xo7nO0sb Categories (other): Gyeongsang Korean, Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 6 24 17 17 0 36 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 6 23 19 19 0 33 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 8 16 23 23 0 29 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 8 18 19 19 0 35
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Download JSON data for -가 meaning in Korean (11.0kB)

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko"
      },
      "expansion": "Uncertain",
      "name": "unc"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "nodots": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "CE",
      "name": "C.E."
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "CE",
      "name": "CE"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "ja",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Japanese",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "It was initially of limited distribution and used in a complementary manner to <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">이</i> (-i). The development of its usage is as follows:\n# Since the mid-17th century: used after nouns ending in -i or -y,\n#: e.g. pwuli-ka (\"mouth\"), nay-ka (\"scent\"), poy-ka (\"boat\");\n# Since the mid-18th century: used after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,\n#: e.g. ca-ka (\"one who\"), soyngswo-ka, nwongso-ka (\"farm work\");\n# During the end of the 18th century: used briefly in the form of double particle -i/yka after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,\n#: e.g. to-yka (\"road\"), inkwu-yka (\"population\"), nwongso-yka (\"farm work\").\nVarious theories exist regarding its origin:\n# Developed from the interrogative particle <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">가</i> (-ga);\n# Developed from the vocative case particle <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">하</i> (-ha)/<i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">아</i> (-a);\n# Developed from the connective ending <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">다가</i> (-daga);\n# Developed from the verb <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">가</i> (ga-, “to go”);\n# Borrowed from the Japanese nominative particle <i class=\"Jpan mention\" lang=\"ja\">が</i> (ga).",
        "2": "Click for etymological details",
        "bg": "#FFFFFF"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "collapse"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Uncertain. It was not attested in texts from the 15ᵗʰ century, and its first attestation has been variously placed at 1572 CE or mid-17ᵗʰ century.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
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    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I said it.",
          "roman": "Nae-ga malhaetjana.",
          "text": "내가 말했잖아.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Which place is best?",
          "roman": "Eodi-ga jo'eulkka?",
          "text": "어디가 좋을까?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Audio: (file)",
          "text": "의자가 있다. ― Uija-ga itda. ― There is a chair.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Synonym of 이 (-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel."
      ],
      "id": "en--가-ko-particle-k6nSTijD",
      "links": [
        [
          "이",
          "-이#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "extra": "(-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel",
          "tags": [
            "synonym",
            "synonym-of"
          ],
          "word": "이"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-가〮",
        "2": "-ká"
      },
      "expansion": "가〮 (Yale: -ká)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "去",
        "tr": "*-ka"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 去 (*-ka)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean 去 (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for yes-no questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for yes-no questions); see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gyeongsang Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "6 24 17 17 0 36",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "6 23 19 19 0 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "8 16 23 23 0 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "8 18 19 19 0 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Isn't it?",
          "roman": "Ai-ga?",
          "text": "아이가?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Is this your name?",
          "roman": "Igi ni ireum-i-ga?",
          "text": "이기 니 이름이가?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Are you brothers?",
          "roman": "Neugeu-deur-i seongje-ga?",
          "text": "느그들이 성제가?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking yes-no questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--가-ko-suffix-xo7nO0sb",
      "links": [
        [
          "plain style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Haera-che"
        ],
        [
          "yes-no question",
          "yes-no question#English"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아이다",
          "아이다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking yes-no questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "tags": [
            "-na"
          ],
          "word": "나"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-neun'ga",
          "word": "는가"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-deon'ga",
          "word": "던가"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-seumnikka",
          "word": "습니까"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-eulkka",
          "word": "을까"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-가〮",
        "2": "-ká"
      },
      "expansion": "가〮 (Yale: -ká)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "去",
        "tr": "*-ka"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 去 (*-ka)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean 去 (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for yes-no questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for yes-no questions); see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
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      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
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  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
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          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gyeongsang Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Is this your name?",
          "roman": "Igi ni ireum-ga?",
          "text": "이기 니 이름가?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "id": "en--가-ko-particle-vHLrYHrz",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Yukjin"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "果",
        "tr": "*-kwa"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 果 (*-kwa)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Old Korean 果 (*-kwa). Unlike Middle Korean and most other dialects, Yukjin was apparently unaffected by the lenition to 와 (-wa) in intervocalic environments. Until the early twentieth century, the pronunciation was still 과 (-gwa), but it has since shifted.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
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  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
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      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
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  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "-gwa, “with, and”",
          "word": "과"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Koryo-mar",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Yukjin Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Yukjin and Russia form of 과 (-gwa, “with, and”)"
      ],
      "id": "en--가-ko-particle-RiO6FZjJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "과",
          "-과#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Russia",
        "Yukjin",
        "alt-of"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "-wa, “with, and”",
          "word": "와"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Koryo-mar",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Yukjin Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "In a neighbourhood lived a lady with a man.\nExcerpt of the folk tale, 'The Foolish Husband who Caught a Bear with his Wife's Wisdom'.",
          "ref": "한 동네에 여자가 남자 살았지. (Koryo-mar, Shymkent)",
          "text": "Han dongne-e yeojaga namja saratji.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "You and I are in a relationship where we don't use honorifics.",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Nae-ga neo-neu yadyahaneun cheoji-da.",
          "text": "내가 너느 야댜하는 쳐지다. (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "english": "A leopard cat and a fox are different.",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Seulgi-ga yeokki ttada.",
          "text": "슬기가 여끼 따다. (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Yukjin and Russia form of 와 (-wa, “with, and”)"
      ],
      "id": "en--가-ko-particle-1sTrHZit",
      "links": [
        [
          "와",
          "-와#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Russia",
        "Yukjin",
        "alt-of"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I spoke to my friend.",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Dongmi-ga malhaetji.",
          "text": "동미가 말했지. (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "english": "What were they asking [to] you?",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Ne-ga museugeo mureo-bodeoya?",
          "text": "네가 무스거 물어보더야? (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to"
      ],
      "id": "en--가-ko-particle-Zj6hv~~l",
      "links": [
        [
          "to",
          "to"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(for a verb of speech) to"
      ],
      "raw_tags": [
        "for a verb of speech"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɡá]",
      "tags": [
        "Yukjin"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean terms derived from Japanese",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms with unknown etymologies",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko"
      },
      "expansion": "Uncertain",
      "name": "unc"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "nodots": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "CE",
      "name": "C.E."
    },
    {
      "args": {},
      "expansion": "CE",
      "name": "CE"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "ja",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Japanese",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "It was initially of limited distribution and used in a complementary manner to <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">이</i> (-i). The development of its usage is as follows:\n# Since the mid-17th century: used after nouns ending in -i or -y,\n#: e.g. pwuli-ka (\"mouth\"), nay-ka (\"scent\"), poy-ka (\"boat\");\n# Since the mid-18th century: used after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,\n#: e.g. ca-ka (\"one who\"), soyngswo-ka, nwongso-ka (\"farm work\");\n# During the end of the 18th century: used briefly in the form of double particle -i/yka after nouns ending in vowels/semivowels other than -i,\n#: e.g. to-yka (\"road\"), inkwu-yka (\"population\"), nwongso-yka (\"farm work\").\nVarious theories exist regarding its origin:\n# Developed from the interrogative particle <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">가</i> (-ga);\n# Developed from the vocative case particle <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">하</i> (-ha)/<i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">아</i> (-a);\n# Developed from the connective ending <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">다가</i> (-daga);\n# Developed from the verb <i class=\"Kore mention\" lang=\"ko\">가</i> (ga-, “to go”);\n# Borrowed from the Japanese nominative particle <i class=\"Jpan mention\" lang=\"ja\">が</i> (ga).",
        "2": "Click for etymological details",
        "bg": "#FFFFFF"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "collapse"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Uncertain. It was not attested in texts from the 15ᵗʰ century, and its first attestation has been variously placed at 1572 CE or mid-17ᵗʰ century.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with audio links",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I said it.",
          "roman": "Nae-ga malhaetjana.",
          "text": "내가 말했잖아.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Which place is best?",
          "roman": "Eodi-ga jo'eulkka?",
          "text": "어디가 좋을까?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Audio: (file)",
          "text": "의자가 있다. ― Uija-ga itda. ― There is a chair.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Synonym of 이 (-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "이",
          "-이#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "extra": "(-i, nominative case marker) used after words ending with a vowel",
          "tags": [
            "synonym",
            "synonym-of"
          ],
          "word": "이"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-가〮",
        "2": "-ká"
      },
      "expansion": "가〮 (Yale: -ká)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "去",
        "tr": "*-ka"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 去 (*-ka)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean 去 (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for yes-no questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for yes-no questions); see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "tags": [
        "-na"
      ],
      "word": "나"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-neun'ga",
      "word": "는가"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-deon'ga",
      "word": "던가"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-seumnikka",
      "word": "습니까"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-eulkka",
      "word": "을까"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gyeongsang Korean",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Isn't it?",
          "roman": "Ai-ga?",
          "text": "아이가?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Is this your name?",
          "roman": "Igi ni ireum-i-ga?",
          "text": "이기 니 이름이가?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Are you brothers?",
          "roman": "Neugeu-deur-i seongje-ga?",
          "text": "느그들이 성제가?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking yes-no questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plain style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Haera-che"
        ],
        [
          "yes-no question",
          "yes-no question#English"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아이다",
          "아이다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking yes-no questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-가〮",
        "2": "-ká"
      },
      "expansion": "가〮 (Yale: -ká)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "去",
        "tr": "*-ka"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 去 (*-ka)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 가〮 (Yale: -ká), from Old Korean 去 (*-ka). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for yes-no questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the Old Korean nominalized forms of verbs, whence ㄴ가 (-n'ga) and ㄹ까 (-lkka).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation (nor reserved for yes-no questions); see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gyeongsang Korean",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Is this your name?",
          "roman": "Igi ni ireum-ga?",
          "text": "이기 니 이름가?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "Yukjin"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "果",
        "tr": "*-kwa"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 果 (*-kwa)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Old Korean 果 (*-kwa). Unlike Middle Korean and most other dialects, Yukjin was apparently unaffected by the lenition to 와 (-wa) in intervocalic environments. Until the early twentieth century, the pronunciation was still 과 (-gwa), but it has since shifted.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "가",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ga",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "가 • (-ga)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "-gwa, “with, and”",
          "word": "과"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Koryo-mar",
        "Yukjin Korean"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Yukjin and Russia form of 과 (-gwa, “with, and”)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "과",
          "-과#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Russia",
        "Yukjin",
        "alt-of"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "-wa, “with, and”",
          "word": "와"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with quotations",
        "Korean terms with usage examples",
        "Koryo-mar",
        "Yukjin Korean"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "In a neighbourhood lived a lady with a man.\nExcerpt of the folk tale, 'The Foolish Husband who Caught a Bear with his Wife's Wisdom'.",
          "ref": "한 동네에 여자가 남자 살았지. (Koryo-mar, Shymkent)",
          "text": "Han dongne-e yeojaga namja saratji.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "You and I are in a relationship where we don't use honorifics.",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Nae-ga neo-neu yadyahaneun cheoji-da.",
          "text": "내가 너느 야댜하는 쳐지다. (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "english": "A leopard cat and a fox are different.",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Seulgi-ga yeokki ttada.",
          "text": "슬기가 여끼 따다. (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Yukjin and Russia form of 와 (-wa, “with, and”)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "와",
          "-와#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Russia",
        "Yukjin",
        "alt-of"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I spoke to my friend.",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Dongmi-ga malhaetji.",
          "text": "동미가 말했지. (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "english": "What were they asking [to] you?",
          "ref": "2019, 곽충구 [gwakchunggu, Kwak Chung-gu], 두만강 유역의 조선어 방언 사전 [duman'gang yuyeogui joseoneo bang'eon sajeon, Dictionary of Korean Dialects of the Tumen River Area], volume II, Taehaksa, page 3717",
          "roman": "Ne-ga museugeo mureo-bodeoya?",
          "text": "네가 무스거 물어보더야? (Yukjin)",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "to",
          "to"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(for a verb of speech) to"
      ],
      "raw_tags": [
        "for a verb of speech"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɡá]",
      "tags": [
        "Yukjin"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-가"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Korean dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-23 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-20 using wiktextract (1b9bfc5 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.