"-lós" meaning in Proto-Indo-European

See -lós in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Suffix

Head templates: {{head|ine-pro|suffix|cat2=noun-forming suffixes|head=*(Ø)-lós}} *(Ø)-lós Inflection templates: {{ine-decl-noun-mf|(Ø)-ló}} Forms: (Ø)-lós [canonical], no-table-tags [table-tags], -lós [nominative, singular], Ø-lós [nominative, singular], -lóh₁ [dual, nominative], Ø-lóh₁ [dual, nominative], -lóes [nominative, plural], Ø-lóes [nominative, plural], -lé [singular, vocative], Ø-lé [singular, vocative], -lóh₁ [dual, vocative], Ø-lóh₁ [dual, vocative], -lóes [plural, vocative], Ø-lóes [plural, vocative], -lóm [accusative, singular], Ø-lóm [accusative, singular], -lóh₁ [accusative, dual], Ø-lóh₁ [accusative, dual], -lóms [accusative, plural], Ø-lóms [accusative, plural], -lósyo [genitive, singular], Ø-lósyo [genitive, singular], - [dual, genitive], -lóHom [genitive, plural], Ø-lóHom [genitive, plural], -léad [ablative, singular], Ø-léad [ablative, singular], - [ablative, dual], -lómos [ablative, plural], Ø-lómos [ablative, plural], -lóey [dative, singular], Ø-lóey [dative, singular], - [dative, dual], -lómos [dative, plural], Ø-lómos [dative, plural], -léy [locative, singular], Ø-léy [locative, singular], -lóy [locative, singular], Ø-lóy [locative, singular], - [dual, locative], -lóysu [locative, plural], Ø-lóysu [locative, plural], -lóh₁ [instrumental, singular], Ø-lóh₁ [instrumental, singular], - [dual, instrumental], -lṓys [instrumental, plural], Ø-lṓys [instrumental, plural]
  1. Forms agent nouns from verbal roots. Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en--lós-ine-pro-suffix-yhNQ2bTO
  2. Forms diminutive nouns from noun stems. Tags: morpheme, reconstruction Derived forms (Proto-Iranian: *-ulah, *-urah (diminutive suffix)): ⇒ Proto-Iranian: *-urahakah
    Sense id: en--lós-ine-pro-suffix-lKKdzZLp Disambiguation of 'Proto-Iranian: *-ulah, *-urah (diminutive suffix)': 21 58 21
  3. Forms adjectives with the sense “pertaining to …” (alternative form of *-rós). Tags: morpheme, reconstruction Synonyms: *-nós, *-rós, *-yós
    Sense id: en--lós-ine-pro-suffix-poW~2NUi Derived forms (*-e-lós (also *-o-lós?)): -elos, -ilaz (english: see there for further descendants) Derived forms (*-eh₂-lós): -ālos (english: see there for further descendants) Derived forms (>? Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-ilás): >? Proto-Slavic: *-ьlъ (english: see there for further descendants) Derived forms (>? Proto-Hellenic: *-ālos): >? Ancient Greek: -ηλος (-ēlos), ⇒? -ήλας (-ḗlas) Derived forms (>? Proto-Hellenic: *-ēlos): >? Ancient Greek: -ηλος (-ēlos), ⇒? -ήλας (-ḗlas) Derived forms (Proto-Albanian: *-ula; Albanian): -ull Derived forms (Proto-Hellenic: *-elós): -ηλος (-ēlos) [Ancient-Greek], ⇒? -ήλας (-ḗlas) [Ancient-Greek] Derived forms (Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos): -𐌄𐌋𐌏𐌔 (-elos), -ulus [Latin], ⇒? -ilis (i-stem) (english: see there for further descendants) [Latin] Derived forms (Proto-Italic: *-ēlos): ⇒ Latin: -ēla [feminine] Derived forms (⇒? *-u-los): >? Proto-Germanic: *-ulaz (english: see there for further descendants) Disambiguation of '*-e-lós (also *-o-lós?)': 0 0 100 Disambiguation of '*-eh₂-lós': 0 0 100 Disambiguation of '>? Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-ilás': 28 24 48 Disambiguation of '>? Proto-Hellenic: *-ālos': 35 20 45 Disambiguation of '>? Proto-Hellenic: *-ēlos': 35 20 45 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Albanian: *-ula; Albanian': 33 21 45 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Hellenic: *-elós': 19 12 69 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos': 28 21 50 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Italic: *-ēlos': 29 22 49 Disambiguation of '⇒? *-u-los': 22 22 56
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms (Classical Persian: ـوله (-ûla)): ـوله (ûle) [Iranian-Persian] Derived forms (Kurdish; Central Kurdish): ـوول (-ûl) Derived forms (Kurdish; Northern Kurdish): -ûl Derived forms (Proto-Armenian: *-ilos; Old Armenian): -իլ (-il), -իղ (-ił) Derived forms (Proto-Balto-Slavic): -ъlъ [Proto-Slavic], -ьlъ (english: see there for further descendants) [Proto-Slavic], -ělъ [Proto-Slavic] Derived forms (⇒? *-i-los (or perhaps originally thematicized from an old suffix *-yl̥)): ⇒ *h₂eḱilo- Related terms: -l̥, -ōl, -rós
Disambiguation of 'Classical Persian: ـوله (-ûla)': 41 33 26 Disambiguation of 'Kurdish; Central Kurdish': 36 37 27 Disambiguation of 'Kurdish; Northern Kurdish': 37 38 25 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Armenian: *-ilos; Old Armenian': 38 25 37 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Balto-Slavic': 40 34 26 Disambiguation of '⇒? *-i-los (or perhaps originally thematicized from an old suffix *-yl̥)': 44 40 16

Download JSON data for -lós meaning in Proto-Indo-European (10.5kB)

{
  "categories": [],
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "40 34 26",
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "-ъlъ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "40 34 26",
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "-ьlъ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "40 34 26",
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "-ělъ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "44 40 16",
      "sense": "⇒? *-i-los (or perhaps originally thematicized from an old suffix *-yl̥)",
      "word": "⇒ *h₂eḱilo-"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "38 25 37",
      "roman": "-il",
      "sense": "Proto-Armenian: *-ilos; Old Armenian",
      "word": "-իլ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "38 25 37",
      "roman": "-ił",
      "sense": "Proto-Armenian: *-ilos; Old Armenian",
      "word": "-իղ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "36 37 27",
      "roman": "-ûl",
      "sense": "Kurdish; Central Kurdish",
      "word": "ـوول"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "37 38 25",
      "sense": "Kurdish; Northern Kurdish",
      "word": "-ûl"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "41 33 26",
      "roman": "ûle",
      "sense": "Classical Persian: ـوله (-ûla)",
      "tags": [
        "Iranian-Persian"
      ],
      "word": "ـوله"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*-lás",
            "3": "*-las"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-lás, *-las",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-lás, *-las"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*-lъ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *-lъ",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *-lъ (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*-los"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *-los",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *-los"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*-laz"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *-laz",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *-laz"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*-lós",
            "3": "*-los"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *-lós, *-los",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *-lós, *-los"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "-λός",
            "3": "-λος"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: -λός (-lós), -λος (-los)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: -λός (-lós), -λος (-los)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*-lás",
            "3": "*-las",
            "4": "*-rás",
            "5": "*-ras"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*-lás",
            "3": "*-las",
            "4": "*-rás",
            "5": "*-ras"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "-ल",
            "3": "-र"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: -ल (-la), -र (-ra)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: -ल (-la), -र (-ra)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*láh",
            "3": "*-lah",
            "4": "*-ráh",
            "5": "*-rah"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *láh, *-lah, *-ráh, *-rah",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *láh, *-lah, *-ráh, *-rah"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*-los"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *-los",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *-los"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "-lus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: -lus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: -lus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-toc-pro",
            "2": "*-le"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Tocharian: *-le",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Tocharian: *-le"
    },
    {
      "depth": 0,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Notes"
    }
  ],
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "(Ø)-lós",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ine-decl-noun-mf",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lós",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lós",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lé",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lé",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóms",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóms",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lósyo",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lósyo",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-léad",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-léad",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-léy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-léy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "locative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóysu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóysu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "instrumental"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lṓys",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lṓys",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "noun-forming suffixes",
        "head": "*(Ø)-lós"
      },
      "expansion": "*(Ø)-lós",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "(Ø)-ló"
      },
      "name": "ine-decl-noun-mf"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-lós",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "-l̥"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "-ōl"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "-rós"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Forms agent nouns from verbal roots."
      ],
      "id": "en--lós-ine-pro-suffix-yhNQ2bTO",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "derived": [
        {
          "_dis1": "21 58 21",
          "sense": "Proto-Iranian: *-ulah, *-urah (diminutive suffix)",
          "word": "⇒ Proto-Iranian: *-urahakah"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms diminutive nouns from noun stems."
      ],
      "id": "en--lós-ine-pro-suffix-lKKdzZLp",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "derived": [
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 100",
          "sense": "*-e-lós (also *-o-lós?)",
          "word": "-elos"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 100",
          "english": "see there for further descendants",
          "sense": "*-e-lós (also *-o-lós?)",
          "word": "-ilaz"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 12 69",
          "roman": "-ēlos",
          "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *-elós",
          "tags": [
            "Ancient-Greek"
          ],
          "word": "-ηλος"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "19 12 69",
          "roman": "-ḗlas",
          "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *-elós",
          "tags": [
            "Ancient-Greek"
          ],
          "word": "⇒? -ήλας"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "28 21 50",
          "roman": "-elos",
          "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos",
          "word": "-𐌄𐌋𐌏𐌔"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "28 21 50",
          "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos",
          "tags": [
            "Latin"
          ],
          "word": "-ulus"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "28 21 50",
          "english": "see there for further descendants",
          "roman": "i-stem",
          "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos",
          "tags": [
            "Latin"
          ],
          "word": "⇒? -ilis"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "35 20 45",
          "roman": "-ēlos",
          "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ēlos",
          "word": ">? Ancient Greek: -ηλος"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "35 20 45",
          "roman": "-ḗlas",
          "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ēlos",
          "word": "⇒? -ήλας"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "29 22 49",
          "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-ēlos",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "⇒ Latin: -ēla"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "0 0 100",
          "english": "see there for further descendants",
          "sense": "*-eh₂-lós",
          "word": "-ālos"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "35 20 45",
          "roman": "-ēlos",
          "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ālos",
          "word": ">? Ancient Greek: -ηλος"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "35 20 45",
          "roman": "-ḗlas",
          "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ālos",
          "word": "⇒? -ήλας"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "28 24 48",
          "english": "see there for further descendants",
          "sense": ">? Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-ilás",
          "word": ">? Proto-Slavic: *-ьlъ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "33 21 45",
          "sense": "Proto-Albanian: *-ula; Albanian",
          "word": "-ull"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "22 22 56",
          "english": "see there for further descendants",
          "sense": "⇒? *-u-los",
          "word": ">? Proto-Germanic: *-ulaz"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms adjectives with the sense “pertaining to …” (alternative form of *-rós)."
      ],
      "id": "en--lós-ine-pro-suffix-poW~2NUi",
      "links": [
        [
          "*-rós",
          "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-rós"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*-nós"
        },
        {
          "word": "*-rós"
        },
        {
          "word": "*-yós"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Karl Brugmann",
    "Robert Seymour Conway",
    "W. H. D. Rouse",
    "de:Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen"
  ],
  "word": "-lós"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Indo-European lemmas",
    "Proto-Indo-European noun-forming suffixes",
    "Proto-Indo-European suffixes",
    "Proto-Indo-European thematic o-stem nouns"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "-ъlъ"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "-ьlъ"
    },
    {
      "sense": "*-e-lós (also *-o-lós?)",
      "word": "-elos"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "*-e-lós (also *-o-lós?)",
      "word": "-ilaz"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ēlos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *-elós",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "-ηλος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ḗlas",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *-elós",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "⇒? -ήλας"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-elos",
      "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos",
      "word": "-𐌄𐌋𐌏𐌔"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos",
      "tags": [
        "Latin"
      ],
      "word": "-ulus"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "roman": "i-stem",
      "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-elos, *-olos",
      "tags": [
        "Latin"
      ],
      "word": "⇒? -ilis"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "-ělъ"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ēlos",
      "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ēlos",
      "word": ">? Ancient Greek: -ηλος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ḗlas",
      "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ēlos",
      "word": "⇒? -ήλας"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Italic: *-ēlos",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "⇒ Latin: -ēla"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "*-eh₂-lós",
      "word": "-ālos"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ēlos",
      "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ālos",
      "word": ">? Ancient Greek: -ηλος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ḗlas",
      "sense": ">? Proto-Hellenic: *-ālos",
      "word": "⇒? -ήλας"
    },
    {
      "sense": "⇒? *-i-los (or perhaps originally thematicized from an old suffix *-yl̥)",
      "word": "⇒ *h₂eḱilo-"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-il",
      "sense": "Proto-Armenian: *-ilos; Old Armenian",
      "word": "-իլ"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ił",
      "sense": "Proto-Armenian: *-ilos; Old Armenian",
      "word": "-իղ"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": ">? Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-ilás",
      "word": ">? Proto-Slavic: *-ьlъ"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Albanian: *-ula; Albanian",
      "word": "-ull"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "⇒? *-u-los",
      "word": ">? Proto-Germanic: *-ulaz"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Iranian: *-ulah, *-urah (diminutive suffix)",
      "word": "⇒ Proto-Iranian: *-urahakah"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-ûl",
      "sense": "Kurdish; Central Kurdish",
      "word": "ـوول"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Kurdish; Northern Kurdish",
      "word": "-ûl"
    },
    {
      "roman": "ûle",
      "sense": "Classical Persian: ـوله (-ûla)",
      "tags": [
        "Iranian-Persian"
      ],
      "word": "ـوله"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*-lás",
            "3": "*-las"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-lás, *-las",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *-lás, *-las"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*-lъ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *-lъ",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *-lъ (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*-los"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *-los",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *-los"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*-laz"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *-laz",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *-laz"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*-lós",
            "3": "*-los"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *-lós, *-los",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *-lós, *-los"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "-λός",
            "3": "-λος"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: -λός (-lós), -λος (-los)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: -λός (-lós), -λος (-los)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*-lás",
            "3": "*-las",
            "4": "*-rás",
            "5": "*-ras"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*-lás",
            "3": "*-las",
            "4": "*-rás",
            "5": "*-ras"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *-lás, *-las, *-rás, *-ras"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "-ल",
            "3": "-र"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: -ल (-la), -र (-ra)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: -ल (-la), -र (-ra)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*láh",
            "3": "*-lah",
            "4": "*-ráh",
            "5": "*-rah"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *láh, *-lah, *-ráh, *-rah",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *láh, *-lah, *-ráh, *-rah"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*-los"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *-los",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *-los"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "-lus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: -lus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: -lus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-toc-pro",
            "2": "*-le"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Tocharian: *-le",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Tocharian: *-le"
    },
    {
      "depth": 0,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Notes"
    }
  ],
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "(Ø)-lós",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ine-decl-noun-mf",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lós",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lós",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lé",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lé",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóes",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóms",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóms",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lósyo",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lósyo",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-léad",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-léad",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lómos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-léy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-léy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "locative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóysu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóysu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "instrumental"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-lṓys",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Ø-lṓys",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "suffix",
        "cat2": "noun-forming suffixes",
        "head": "*(Ø)-lós"
      },
      "expansion": "*(Ø)-lós",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "(Ø)-ló"
      },
      "name": "ine-decl-noun-mf"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-lós",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "-l̥"
    },
    {
      "word": "-ōl"
    },
    {
      "word": "-rós"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Forms agent nouns from verbal roots."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Forms diminutive nouns from noun stems."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Forms adjectives with the sense “pertaining to …” (alternative form of *-rós)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "*-rós",
          "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/-rós"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*-nós"
        },
        {
          "word": "*-rós"
        },
        {
          "word": "*-yós"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Karl Brugmann",
    "Robert Seymour Conway",
    "W. H. D. Rouse",
    "de:Grundriß der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen"
  ],
  "word": "-lós"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Indo-European dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (ee658f9 and be4df6b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.