"knukô" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See knukô in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: /ˈknu.kɔːː/
Etymology: Probably from a Proto-Indo-European *ģnu-gon-, itself potentially related to *ǵónu (“knee”). The nature of the relation of the root to Lithuanian gniáužti (“to close one's hand”) is unclear. Older theories derived the root from Proto-Indo-European *gnew- (“a bundle; knot”), extended from the root *gen- (“to pinch; clench; ball up”), with the suffix *-kô used in some names of body parts, and compared with Ancient Greek κονδός (kondós), Ancient Greek κόνδυλος (kóndulos), Sanskrit कन्द (kanda). In any case, compare Italian gnocco. Etymology templates: {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro||*ģnu-gon-}} Proto-Indo-European *ģnu-gon-, {{cog|lt|gniáužti|t=to close one's hand}} Lithuanian gniáužti (“to close one's hand”), {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*gnew-||a bundle; knot}} Proto-Indo-European *gnew- (“a bundle; knot”), {{af|gem-pro|*-kô}} *-kô, {{cog|grc|κονδός}} Ancient Greek κονδός (kondós), {{cog|grc|κόνδυλος}} Ancient Greek κόνδυλος (kóndulos), {{cog|sa|कन्द}} Sanskrit कन्द (kanda), {{cog|it|gnocco}} Italian gnocco Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-noun|g=m}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], knukô [nominative, singular], knukaniz [nominative, plural], knukô [singular, vocative], knukaniz [plural, vocative], knukanų [accusative, singular], knukanunz [accusative, plural], knukiniz [genitive, singular], knukanǫ̂ [genitive, plural], knukini [dative, singular], knukammaz [dative, plural], knukinē [instrumental, singular], knukammiz [instrumental, plural]
  1. joint, bone Wikipedia link: Brill Publishers Tags: masculine, reconstruction Derived forms: knukilaz (english: knuckle, knot, bump), knukōną (english: to knock, strike)
    Sense id: en-knukô-gem-pro-noun-veIuMras Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header, Proto-Germanic terms suffixed with *-kô

Download JSON data for knukô meaning in Proto-Germanic (5.8kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*knokō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *knokō, *knokā f (Elbe Germanic)\nOld Frisian: *knuko, *knoko\nNorth Frisian: knook, knooke, knaake, knååke\nSaterland Frisian: Knoke\nOld Saxon: *knuko\nMiddle Low German: *knocke\nPlautdietsch: Knoaken\n→ Norwegian: knoke\nOld Dutch: *knuko\nMiddle Dutch: cnoke\nDutch: knook\nOld High German: knohha\nMiddle High German: knoche\nAlemannic German: Chnoche\nCentral Franconian:\nHunsrik: Knoche\nKölsch: Knoche\nLuxembourgish: Knachen\nGerman: Knochen\n→ Emilian: gnôc, gnòc\n→ Italian: nocca\n→ Venetian: gnoco\n→ Italian: gnocco",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *knokō, *knokā f (Elbe Germanic)\nOld Frisian: *knuko, *knoko\nNorth Frisian: knook, knooke, knaake, knååke\nSaterland Frisian: Knoke\nOld Saxon: *knuko\nMiddle Low German: *knocke\nPlautdietsch: Knoaken\n→ Norwegian: knoke\nOld Dutch: *knuko\nMiddle Dutch: cnoke\nDutch: knook\nOld High German: knohha\nMiddle High German: knoche\nAlemannic German: Chnoche\nCentral Franconian:\nHunsrik: Knoche\nKölsch: Knoche\nLuxembourgish: Knachen\nGerman: Knochen\n→ Emilian: gnôc, gnòc\n→ Italian: nocca\n→ Venetian: gnoco\n→ Italian: gnocco"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "knúi",
            "t": "knuckle"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: knúi (“knuckle”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: knúi (“knuckle”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "kjúka"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: kjúka",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "(Icelandic: kjúka)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-osw",
            "2": "knōe",
            "3": "knōghe"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Swedish: knōe, knōghe",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Swedish: knōe, knōghe"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "knoge"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: knoge",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: knoge"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "kno"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: kno",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: kno"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-gut",
            "2": "knoke",
            "3": "knoka",
            "4": "knokå"
          },
          "expansion": "Gutnish: knoke, knoka, knokå",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gutnish: knoke, knoka, knokå"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*ģnu-gon-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ģnu-gon-",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lt",
        "2": "gniáužti",
        "t": "to close one's hand"
      },
      "expansion": "Lithuanian gniáužti (“to close one's hand”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*gnew-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "a bundle; knot"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *gnew- (“a bundle; knot”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*-kô"
      },
      "expansion": "*-kô",
      "name": "af"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κονδός"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κονδός (kondós)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κόνδυλος"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κόνδυλος (kóndulos)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sa",
        "2": "कन्द"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit कन्द (kanda)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "it",
        "2": "gnocco"
      },
      "expansion": "Italian gnocco",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Probably from a Proto-Indo-European *ģnu-gon-, itself potentially related to *ǵónu (“knee”). The nature of the relation of the root to Lithuanian gniáužti (“to close one's hand”) is unclear.\nOlder theories derived the root from Proto-Indo-European *gnew- (“a bundle; knot”), extended from the root *gen- (“to pinch; clench; ball up”), with the suffix *-kô used in some names of body parts, and compared with Ancient Greek κονδός (kondós), Ancient Greek κόνδυλος (kóndulos), Sanskrit कन्द (kanda).\nIn any case, compare Italian gnocco.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "an-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "g": "m"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/knukô",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic terms suffixed with *-kô",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "english": "knuckle, knot, bump",
          "word": "knukilaz"
        },
        {
          "english": "to knock, strike",
          "word": "knukōną"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "joint, bone"
      ],
      "id": "en-knukô-gem-pro-noun-veIuMras",
      "links": [
        [
          "joint",
          "joint"
        ],
        [
          "bone",
          "bone"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ],
      "wikipedia": [
        "Brill Publishers"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈknu.kɔːː/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "knukô"
}
{
  "derived": [
    {
      "english": "knuckle, knot, bump",
      "word": "knukilaz"
    },
    {
      "english": "to knock, strike",
      "word": "knukōną"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*knokō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *knokō, *knokā f (Elbe Germanic)\nOld Frisian: *knuko, *knoko\nNorth Frisian: knook, knooke, knaake, knååke\nSaterland Frisian: Knoke\nOld Saxon: *knuko\nMiddle Low German: *knocke\nPlautdietsch: Knoaken\n→ Norwegian: knoke\nOld Dutch: *knuko\nMiddle Dutch: cnoke\nDutch: knook\nOld High German: knohha\nMiddle High German: knoche\nAlemannic German: Chnoche\nCentral Franconian:\nHunsrik: Knoche\nKölsch: Knoche\nLuxembourgish: Knachen\nGerman: Knochen\n→ Emilian: gnôc, gnòc\n→ Italian: nocca\n→ Venetian: gnoco\n→ Italian: gnocco",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *knokō, *knokā f (Elbe Germanic)\nOld Frisian: *knuko, *knoko\nNorth Frisian: knook, knooke, knaake, knååke\nSaterland Frisian: Knoke\nOld Saxon: *knuko\nMiddle Low German: *knocke\nPlautdietsch: Knoaken\n→ Norwegian: knoke\nOld Dutch: *knuko\nMiddle Dutch: cnoke\nDutch: knook\nOld High German: knohha\nMiddle High German: knoche\nAlemannic German: Chnoche\nCentral Franconian:\nHunsrik: Knoche\nKölsch: Knoche\nLuxembourgish: Knachen\nGerman: Knochen\n→ Emilian: gnôc, gnòc\n→ Italian: nocca\n→ Venetian: gnoco\n→ Italian: gnocco"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "knúi",
            "t": "knuckle"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: knúi (“knuckle”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: knúi (“knuckle”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "kjúka"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: kjúka",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "(Icelandic: kjúka)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-osw",
            "2": "knōe",
            "3": "knōghe"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Swedish: knōe, knōghe",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Swedish: knōe, knōghe"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "knoge"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: knoge",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: knoge"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "kno"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: kno",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: kno"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-gut",
            "2": "knoke",
            "3": "knoka",
            "4": "knokå"
          },
          "expansion": "Gutnish: knoke, knoka, knokå",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gutnish: knoke, knoka, knokå"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*ģnu-gon-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ģnu-gon-",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lt",
        "2": "gniáužti",
        "t": "to close one's hand"
      },
      "expansion": "Lithuanian gniáužti (“to close one's hand”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*gnew-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "a bundle; knot"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *gnew- (“a bundle; knot”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*-kô"
      },
      "expansion": "*-kô",
      "name": "af"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κονδός"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κονδός (kondós)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κόνδυλος"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κόνδυλος (kóndulos)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sa",
        "2": "कन्द"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit कन्द (kanda)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "it",
        "2": "gnocco"
      },
      "expansion": "Italian gnocco",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Probably from a Proto-Indo-European *ģnu-gon-, itself potentially related to *ǵónu (“knee”). The nature of the relation of the root to Lithuanian gniáužti (“to close one's hand”) is unclear.\nOlder theories derived the root from Proto-Indo-European *gnew- (“a bundle; knot”), extended from the root *gen- (“to pinch; clench; ball up”), with the suffix *-kô used in some names of body parts, and compared with Ancient Greek κονδός (kondós), Ancient Greek κόνδυλος (kóndulos), Sanskrit कन्द (kanda).\nIn any case, compare Italian gnocco.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "an-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukô",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukaniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukanų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukanunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukiniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukanǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukini",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukammaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukinē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "knukammiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "g": "m"
      },
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/knukô",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic an-stem nouns",
        "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
        "Proto-Germanic masculine nouns",
        "Proto-Germanic nouns",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms suffixed with *-kô",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "gem-pro:Bones"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "joint, bone"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "joint",
          "joint"
        ],
        [
          "bone",
          "bone"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ],
      "wikipedia": [
        "Brill Publishers"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈknu.kɔːː/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "knukô"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-23 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-20 using wiktextract (1b9bfc5 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

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