"-고" meaning in Korean

See -고 in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Particle

Forms: [canonical], -go [romanization]
Etymology: Contracted from 하고 (hago, “that”, used to quote speech, literally “[one] said, and...”), hence formally identical to the connective suffix above. First attested widely in the Ildong Jang'yu-ga (日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가), 1763, and other mid-eighteenth-century works. Etymology templates: {{anchor|quotative}}, {{lang|ko|日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가}} 日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가 Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 고 • (-go)
  1. that; quotative particle marking indirect quotes. Attaches to mood-marking verb-final suffixes of the "plain style".
    Sense id: en--고-ko-particle-T9t0loVv
  2. In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to request confirmation of what the speaker has just heard; by extension, can express surprise about what they have just heard.
    Sense id: en--고-ko-particle-oJA4Ndgv Categories (other): Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5
  3. In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to emphasize that the speaker is repeating something they have just said; by extension, can be used to express emphasis or annoyance even if one is not actually repeating something. Synonyms: -으니까
    Sense id: en--고-ko-particle-35LFsqgG Categories (other): Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 4 16 21 7 15 3 1 15 8 1 3 3 4
  4. Used with the declarative in certain constructions as 다고 (-dago); see there for more.
    Sense id: en--고-ko-particle-sd04GXlE
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: (-gu) [dialectal], endearing slang Derived forms: 냐고 (-nyago), 다고 (-dago), 라고 (-rago), 이라고 (-irago), 자고 (-jago)
Etymology number: 2

Particle

Forms: [canonical], -go [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 고 (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean 古 (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko). In the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see "Related terms" below. Etymology templates: {{anchor|interrogative}}, {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-고|-kwó}} 고 (Yale: -kwó), {{inh|ko|oko|古|tr=*-kwo}} Old Korean 古 (*-kwo) Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 고 • (-go)
  1. (Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language. Tags: Gyeongsang
    Sense id: en--고-ko-particle-vHLrYHrz Categories (other): Gyeongsang Korean, Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 4

Suffix

Forms: [canonical], -go [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), probably from Old Korean 遣, although the phonology is potentially problematic. While Old Korean 遣 corresponds exactly to Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó) in terms of grammar, the Middle Chinese pronunciation is 遣 (MC khjienX|khjienH), which does not sound like 고〮 (Yale: -kwó). In any case, Old Korean 古 (*-kwo) is also, albeit rarely, attested as a connective suffix; either 遣 and 古 are different orthographies of the same suffix (more likely), or the latter subsumed the role of the former. In Middle Korean Idu script, 遣 always denotes 고〮 (Yale: -kwó). Etymology templates: {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-고〮|-kwó}} 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), {{inh|ko|oko|遣}} Old Korean 遣, {{lang|ko|김지오}} 김지오, {{cog|oko|遣}} Old Korean 遣, {{cog|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-고〮|-kwó}} 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), {{ltc-l|遣}} 遣 (MC khjienX|khjienH), {{okm-l|-고〮|-kwó}} 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), {{cog|oko|古|tr=*-kwo}} Old Korean 古 (*-kwo), {{okm-l|-고〮|-kwó}} 고〮 (Yale: -kwó) Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 고 • (-go)
  1. and then, after...; marks successive action. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-htWhdSPd
  2. and; connects two clauses together. Tags: morpheme Synonyms: -으며
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-oVID7mRO
  3. Used for the main verb to join it to certain auxiliaries. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-G7ilMRxi Categories (other): Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5
  4. In the intimate style, used to ask confirmatory questions; by extension, can have nuances of denial or sarcasm. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-jJpLeg-U
  5. In the intimate style, used in polite requests. Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-kIRbowl1
  6. In the intimate style, used to present additional information, typically with the nominal particle 도 (-do, “also, too”). Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-vrBLv-vE
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: (-gu) [dialectal], endearing slang Derived forms: 갖고 (gatgo), 고 있다 (-go itda), 그리고 (geurigo), 말고 (malgo), 보고 (-bogo), 치고 (chigo), 하고 (-hago)
Etymology number: 1

Suffix

Forms: [canonical], -go [romanization]
Etymology: Shortened from Middle Korean 고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent), perhaps under the influence of the auxiliary-joining suffix. This resulted in a change of the primary meaning of 싶다 (sipda), from "to seem to be about to do" to "to want". Etymology templates: {{okm-l|-고〮져〮|-kwócyé|5=verbal suffix expressing intent}} 고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent), {{lang|ko|한국문화}} 한국문화 Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 고 • (-go)
  1. Used to join the verb expressing the desired action to 싶다 (sipda, “to want”). Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-7KZTQtNo
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Suffix

Forms: [canonical], -go [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 고 (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean 古 (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko). In the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see "Related terms" below. Etymology templates: {{anchor|interrogative}}, {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-고|-kwó}} 고 (Yale: -kwó), {{inh|ko|oko|古|tr=*-kwo}} Old Korean 古 (*-kwo) Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 고 • (-go)
  1. (Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking wh-word questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”). Tags: Gyeongsang, morpheme Related terms: (-no), 는고 (-neun'go), 던고 (-deon'go), 을꼬 (-eulkko)
    Sense id: en--고-ko-suffix-604kMVy6 Categories (other): Gyeongsang Korean
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 4

Download JSON data for -고 meaning in Korean (17.3kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "gatgo",
      "word": "갖고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-go itda",
      "word": "고 있다"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "geurigo",
      "word": "그리고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "malgo",
      "word": "말고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-bogo",
      "word": "보고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "chigo",
      "word": "치고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-hago",
      "word": "하고"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "遣"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 遣",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "김지오"
      },
      "expansion": "김지오",
      "name": "lang"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "oko",
        "2": "遣"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 遣",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "okm",
        "2": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "遣"
      },
      "expansion": "遣 (MC khjienX|khjienH)",
      "name": "ltc-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "oko",
        "2": "古",
        "tr": "*-kwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 古 (*-kwo)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), probably from Old Korean 遣, although the phonology is potentially problematic. While Old Korean 遣 corresponds exactly to Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó) in terms of grammar, the Middle Chinese pronunciation is 遣 (MC khjienX|khjienH), which does not sound like 고〮 (Yale: -kwó).\nIn any case, Old Korean 古 (*-kwo) is also, albeit rarely, attested as a connective suffix; either 遣 and 古 are different orthographies of the same suffix (more likely), or the latter subsumed the role of the former. In Middle Korean Idu script, 遣 always denotes 고〮 (Yale: -kwó).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "You should play after studying.",
          "roman": "Gongbu-hago nor-ayaji.",
          "text": "공부하고 놀아야지.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I'll go after eating.",
          "roman": "Bab-eul meokgo galge-yo.",
          "text": "밥을 먹고 갈게요.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "and then, after...; marks successive action."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-htWhdSPd",
      "links": [
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ],
        [
          "then",
          "then"
        ],
        [
          "after",
          "after"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "[He] exercises, and does work too.",
          "roman": "Undong-do hago il-do handa.",
          "text": "운동도 하고 일도 한다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I've arrived; it's him who hasn't come.",
          "roman": "Na-neun dochakhaetgo gyae-ga an on geo-ya.",
          "text": "나는 도착했고 걔가 안 온 거야.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "and; connects two clauses together."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-oVID7mRO",
      "links": [
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-으며"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "to be doing",
          "roman": "hago itda",
          "text": "하고 있다",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "누가 자전거를 타고 있습니까? ― Nuga jajeon'georeul tago itseumnikka? ― Who is riding a bicycle?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "now that it's been done",
          "roman": "hago na-ni",
          "text": "하고 나니",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "to do fiercely",
          "roman": "hago deulda",
          "text": "하고 들다",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "now that I've done it, [I feel...]",
          "roman": "hago bo-ni",
          "text": "하고 보니",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I ended up doing it.",
          "roman": "Hago mar-at-da.",
          "text": "하고 말았다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used for the main verb to join it to certain auxiliaries."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-G7ilMRxi",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "So, did you have breakfast?",
          "roman": "Achim-eun meog-eot-go?",
          "text": "아침은 먹었고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Did you think I was an idiot like you?",
          "roman": "Nae-ga neo-cheoreom babon jul al-go?",
          "text": "내가 너처럼 바본 줄 알고?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, used to ask confirmatory questions; by extension, can have nuances of denial or sarcasm."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-jJpLeg-U",
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Folks over there, please come quickly.",
          "roman": "Geujjok bun-deul eoseo o-si-go-yo.",
          "text": "그쪽 분들 어서 오시고요.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, used in polite requests."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-kIRbowl1",
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "The weather was really nice, I saw. — Oh, really? — Yeah. No people outside, too.",
          "roman": "Nalssi doege joteonde. - A, geurae? - Eo. Bakk-e saram-do eop-go.",
          "text": "날씨 되게 좋던데. — 아, 그래? — 어. 밖에 사람도 없고.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, used to present additional information, typically with the nominal particle 도 (-do, “also, too”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-vrBLv-vE",
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ],
        [
          "도",
          "-도#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-gu",
      "tags": [
        "dialectal"
      ],
      "word": "구"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "endearing slang"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Idu script"
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-nyago",
      "word": "냐고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-dago",
      "word": "다고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-rago",
      "word": "라고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-irago",
      "word": "이라고"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-jago",
      "word": "자고"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "quotative"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가"
      },
      "expansion": "日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가",
      "name": "lang"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Contracted from 하고 (hago, “that”, used to quote speech, literally “[one] said, and...”), hence formally identical to the connective suffix above. First attested widely in the Ildong Jang'yu-ga (日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가), 1763, and other mid-eighteenth-century works.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "He said that he ate it.",
          "roman": "Jagi-ga meog-eot-da-go geuraetda.",
          "text": "자기가 먹었다고 그랬다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "He asked where I was going.",
          "roman": "Nae-ga eodi ga-nya-go mureotda.",
          "text": "내가 어디 가냐고 물었다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "He said that we should go there.",
          "roman": "Geogi-ro ga-ja-go malhaetda.",
          "text": "거기로 가자고 말했다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "The king commanded the minister to take his own life.",
          "roman": "Wang-eun sinha-ege jagyeolha-ra-go myeongnyeong-haetda.",
          "text": "왕은 신하에게 자결하라고 명령했다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "that; quotative particle marking indirect quotes. Attaches to mood-marking verb-final suffixes of the \"plain style\"."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-particle-T9t0loVv",
      "links": [
        [
          "that",
          "that"
        ],
        [
          "\"plain style\"",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Haera-che"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Did you say I ate it?",
          "roman": "Nae-ga meog-eot-da-go?",
          "text": "내가 먹었다고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Did you ask if I went too?",
          "roman": "Na-do gan-nya-go?",
          "text": "나도 갔냐고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Did you say we should go there?",
          "roman": "Geogi-ro ga-ja-go-yo?",
          "text": "거기로 가자고요?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Where did you say I should go?",
          "roman": "Eodi ga-ra-go-yo?",
          "text": "어디 가라고요?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to request confirmation of what the speaker has just heard; by extension, can express surprise about what they have just heard."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-particle-oJA4Ndgv",
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 16 21 7 15 3 1 15 8 1 3 3 4",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I said, it was me who won the medal.",
          "roman": "Nae-ga medar-eul ttat-da-go.",
          "text": "내가 메달을 땄다고.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I asked, did you like it too?",
          "roman": "Neo-do jo-an-nya-go.",
          "text": "너도 좋았냐고.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I said, let's leave as soon as possible.",
          "roman": "Eolleun ga-ja-go.",
          "text": "얼른 가자고.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I said, leave quickly.",
          "roman": "Ppalli naga-ra-go-yo.",
          "text": "빨리 나가라고요.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to emphasize that the speaker is repeating something they have just said; by extension, can be used to express emphasis or annoyance even if one is not actually repeating something."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-particle-35LFsqgG",
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-으니까"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used with the declarative in certain constructions as 다고 (-dago); see there for more."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-particle-sd04GXlE",
      "links": [
        [
          "다고",
          "-다고#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-gu",
      "tags": [
        "dialectal"
      ],
      "word": "구"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "endearing slang"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮져〮",
        "2": "-kwócyé",
        "5": "verbal suffix expressing intent"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "한국문화"
      },
      "expansion": "한국문화",
      "name": "lang"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Shortened from Middle Korean 고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent), perhaps under the influence of the auxiliary-joining suffix. This resulted in a change of the primary meaning of 싶다 (sipda), from \"to seem to be about to do\" to \"to want\".",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "to want to do",
          "roman": "hago sipda",
          "text": "하고 싶다",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I want to die",
          "roman": "jukgo sipda",
          "text": "죽고 싶다",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to join the verb expressing the desired action to 싶다 (sipda, “to want”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-7KZTQtNo",
      "links": [
        [
          "싶다",
          "싶다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "interrogative"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "古",
        "tr": "*-kwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 古 (*-kwo)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 고 (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean 古 (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gyeongsang Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking wh-word questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-suffix-604kMVy6",
      "links": [
        [
          "plain style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Haera-che"
        ],
        [
          "wh-word",
          "wh-word#English"
        ],
        [
          "question",
          "question#English"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아이다",
          "아이다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking wh-word questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "roman": "-no",
          "word": "노"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-neun'go",
          "word": "는고"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-deon'go",
          "word": "던고"
        },
        {
          "roman": "-eulkko",
          "word": "을꼬"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "interrogative"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "古",
        "tr": "*-kwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 古 (*-kwo)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 고 (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean 古 (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gyeongsang Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 17 15 8 17 1 1 19 8 1 2 2 4",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "10 20 19 4 13 2 1 13 6 1 7 2 3",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "4 16 16 7 16 3 1 14 8 2 4 4 5",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "What is this?",
          "roman": "I mwot-go?",
          "text": "이 뭣고? (a Buddhist koan)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "id": "en--고-ko-particle-vHLrYHrz",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "roman": "gatgo",
      "word": "갖고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-go itda",
      "word": "고 있다"
    },
    {
      "roman": "geurigo",
      "word": "그리고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "malgo",
      "word": "말고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-bogo",
      "word": "보고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "chigo",
      "word": "치고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-hago",
      "word": "하고"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "遣"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 遣",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "김지오"
      },
      "expansion": "김지오",
      "name": "lang"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "oko",
        "2": "遣"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 遣",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "okm",
        "2": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "遣"
      },
      "expansion": "遣 (MC khjienX|khjienH)",
      "name": "ltc-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "oko",
        "2": "古",
        "tr": "*-kwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 古 (*-kwo)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), probably from Old Korean 遣, although the phonology is potentially problematic. While Old Korean 遣 corresponds exactly to Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó) in terms of grammar, the Middle Chinese pronunciation is 遣 (MC khjienX|khjienH), which does not sound like 고〮 (Yale: -kwó).\nIn any case, Old Korean 古 (*-kwo) is also, albeit rarely, attested as a connective suffix; either 遣 and 古 are different orthographies of the same suffix (more likely), or the latter subsumed the role of the former. In Middle Korean Idu script, 遣 always denotes 고〮 (Yale: -kwó).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "You should play after studying.",
          "roman": "Gongbu-hago nor-ayaji.",
          "text": "공부하고 놀아야지.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I'll go after eating.",
          "roman": "Bab-eul meokgo galge-yo.",
          "text": "밥을 먹고 갈게요.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "and then, after...; marks successive action."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ],
        [
          "then",
          "then"
        ],
        [
          "after",
          "after"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "[He] exercises, and does work too.",
          "roman": "Undong-do hago il-do handa.",
          "text": "운동도 하고 일도 한다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I've arrived; it's him who hasn't come.",
          "roman": "Na-neun dochakhaetgo gyae-ga an on geo-ya.",
          "text": "나는 도착했고 걔가 안 온 거야.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "and; connects two clauses together."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-으며"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "to be doing",
          "roman": "hago itda",
          "text": "하고 있다",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "누가 자전거를 타고 있습니까? ― Nuga jajeon'georeul tago itseumnikka? ― Who is riding a bicycle?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "now that it's been done",
          "roman": "hago na-ni",
          "text": "하고 나니",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "to do fiercely",
          "roman": "hago deulda",
          "text": "하고 들다",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "now that I've done it, [I feel...]",
          "roman": "hago bo-ni",
          "text": "하고 보니",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I ended up doing it.",
          "roman": "Hago mar-at-da.",
          "text": "하고 말았다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used for the main verb to join it to certain auxiliaries."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "So, did you have breakfast?",
          "roman": "Achim-eun meog-eot-go?",
          "text": "아침은 먹었고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Did you think I was an idiot like you?",
          "roman": "Nae-ga neo-cheoreom babon jul al-go?",
          "text": "내가 너처럼 바본 줄 알고?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, used to ask confirmatory questions; by extension, can have nuances of denial or sarcasm."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Folks over there, please come quickly.",
          "roman": "Geujjok bun-deul eoseo o-si-go-yo.",
          "text": "그쪽 분들 어서 오시고요.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, used in polite requests."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "The weather was really nice, I saw. — Oh, really? — Yeah. No people outside, too.",
          "roman": "Nalssi doege joteonde. - A, geurae? - Eo. Bakk-e saram-do eop-go.",
          "text": "날씨 되게 좋던데. — 아, 그래? — 어. 밖에 사람도 없고.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, used to present additional information, typically with the nominal particle 도 (-do, “also, too”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ],
        [
          "도",
          "-도#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "roman": "-gu",
      "tags": [
        "dialectal"
      ],
      "word": "구"
    },
    {
      "word": "endearing slang"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Idu script"
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "roman": "-nyago",
      "word": "냐고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-dago",
      "word": "다고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-rago",
      "word": "라고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-irago",
      "word": "이라고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-jago",
      "word": "자고"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "quotative"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가"
      },
      "expansion": "日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가",
      "name": "lang"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Contracted from 하고 (hago, “that”, used to quote speech, literally “[one] said, and...”), hence formally identical to the connective suffix above. First attested widely in the Ildong Jang'yu-ga (日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가), 1763, and other mid-eighteenth-century works.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "He said that he ate it.",
          "roman": "Jagi-ga meog-eot-da-go geuraetda.",
          "text": "자기가 먹었다고 그랬다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "He asked where I was going.",
          "roman": "Nae-ga eodi ga-nya-go mureotda.",
          "text": "내가 어디 가냐고 물었다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "He said that we should go there.",
          "roman": "Geogi-ro ga-ja-go malhaetda.",
          "text": "거기로 가자고 말했다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "The king commanded the minister to take his own life.",
          "roman": "Wang-eun sinha-ege jagyeolha-ra-go myeongnyeong-haetda.",
          "text": "왕은 신하에게 자결하라고 명령했다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "that; quotative particle marking indirect quotes. Attaches to mood-marking verb-final suffixes of the \"plain style\"."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "that",
          "that"
        ],
        [
          "\"plain style\"",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Haera-che"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Did you say I ate it?",
          "roman": "Nae-ga meog-eot-da-go?",
          "text": "내가 먹었다고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Did you ask if I went too?",
          "roman": "Na-do gan-nya-go?",
          "text": "나도 갔냐고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Did you say we should go there?",
          "roman": "Geogi-ro ga-ja-go-yo?",
          "text": "거기로 가자고요?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Where did you say I should go?",
          "roman": "Eodi ga-ra-go-yo?",
          "text": "어디 가라고요?",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to request confirmation of what the speaker has just heard; by extension, can express surprise about what they have just heard."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I said, it was me who won the medal.",
          "roman": "Nae-ga medar-eul ttat-da-go.",
          "text": "내가 메달을 땄다고.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I asked, did you like it too?",
          "roman": "Neo-do jo-an-nya-go.",
          "text": "너도 좋았냐고.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I said, let's leave as soon as possible.",
          "roman": "Eolleun ga-ja-go.",
          "text": "얼른 가자고.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I said, leave quickly.",
          "roman": "Ppalli naga-ra-go-yo.",
          "text": "빨리 나가라고요.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to emphasize that the speaker is repeating something they have just said; by extension, can be used to express emphasis or annoyance even if one is not actually repeating something."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "intimate style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Hae-che"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-으니까"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used with the declarative in certain constructions as 다고 (-dago); see there for more."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다고",
          "-다고#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "roman": "-gu",
      "tags": [
        "dialectal"
      ],
      "word": "구"
    },
    {
      "word": "endearing slang"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고〮져〮",
        "2": "-kwócyé",
        "5": "verbal suffix expressing intent"
      },
      "expansion": "고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "한국문화"
      },
      "expansion": "한국문화",
      "name": "lang"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Shortened from Middle Korean 고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent), perhaps under the influence of the auxiliary-joining suffix. This resulted in a change of the primary meaning of 싶다 (sipda), from \"to seem to be about to do\" to \"to want\".",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "to want to do",
          "roman": "hago sipda",
          "text": "하고 싶다",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I want to die",
          "roman": "jukgo sipda",
          "text": "죽고 싶다",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to join the verb expressing the desired action to 싶다 (sipda, “to want”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "싶다",
          "싶다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "interrogative"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "古",
        "tr": "*-kwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 古 (*-kwo)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 고 (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean 古 (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "related": [
    {
      "roman": "-no",
      "word": "노"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-neun'go",
      "word": "는고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-deon'go",
      "word": "던고"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-eulkko",
      "word": "을꼬"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gyeongsang Korean"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking wh-word questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "plain style",
          "w:Korean speech levels#Haera-che"
        ],
        [
          "wh-word",
          "wh-word#English"
        ],
        [
          "question",
          "question#English"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아이다",
          "아이다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking wh-word questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, “to be”) and 아이다 (aida, “to not be”)."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Korean terms without ko-IPA template"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "interrogative"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-고",
        "2": "-kwó"
      },
      "expansion": "고 (Yale: -kwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "古",
        "tr": "*-kwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 古 (*-kwo)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 고 (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean 古 (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko).\nIn the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see \"Related terms\" below.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "고",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-go",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "고 • (-go)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gyeongsang Korean",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "What is this?",
          "roman": "I mwot-go?",
          "text": "이 뭣고? (a Buddhist koan)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-고"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Korean dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-21 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-06 using wiktextract (6c02f21 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.