"liudiz" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See liudiz in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: /ˈliu̯.ðiz/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *h₁léwdʰis (“people”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (“to grow (up)”). Doublet of *lūdiz. Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₁lewdʰ-}}, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₁léwdʰis|t=people}} Proto-Indo-European *h₁léwdʰis (“people”), {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₁lewdʰ-|t=to grow (up)}} Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (“to grow (up)”), {{doublet|gem-pro|*lūdiz}} Doublet of *lūdiz Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-noun}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], liudiz [nominative, singular], liudīz [nominative, plural], liudi [singular, vocative], liudīz [plural, vocative], liudį [accusative, singular], liudinz [accusative, plural], liudīz [genitive, singular], liudijǫ̂ [genitive, plural], liudī [dative, singular], liudimaz [dative, plural], liudī [instrumental, singular], liudimiz [instrumental, plural]
  1. (in the singular) man, person Tags: feminine, masculine, reconstruction, singular
    Sense id: en-liudiz-gem-pro-noun-SwBpDXcD
  2. (in the plural) men, people Tags: feminine, in-plural, masculine, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-liudiz-gem-pro-noun-yOg9eecK Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header: 12 88
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms (German: Leopold): → English: Leopold Derived forms (German: Luther): → English: Luther Related terms: laudaz, leudaną
Disambiguation of 'German: Leopold': 0 100 Disambiguation of 'German: Luther': 50 50

Download JSON data for liudiz meaning in Proto-Germanic (10.1kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 100",
      "sense": "German: Leopold",
      "word": "→ English: Leopold"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "50 50",
      "sense": "German: Luther",
      "word": "→ English: Luther"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*liudi"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *liudi",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *liudi"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "lēod"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: lēod",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: lēod"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "lēode",
            "3": "lēoda",
            "der": "1",
            "g2": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Old English: lēode, lēoda m",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Old English: lēode, lēoda m"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "enm",
            "2": "lede",
            "3": "leed",
            "4": "leod",
            "5": "leode"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle English: lede, leed, leod, leode",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle English: lede, leed, leod, leode"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "lede",
            "qq": "obsolete"
          },
          "expansion": "English: lede (obsolete)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "English: lede (obsolete)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sco-smi",
            "2": "leid"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Scots: leid",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Scots: leid"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "liōd",
            "3": "liūde",
            "4": "liōde",
            "g3": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: liōd, liūde, liōde m",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: liōd, liūde, liōde m"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "ljode"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: ljode",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: ljode"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "Ljuude"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: Ljuude",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: Ljuude"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "lie",
            "3": "lju",
            "4": "ljuwe"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: lie, lju, ljuwe",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: lie, lju, ljuwe"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "liud",
            "3": "liudi",
            "g2": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: liud, liudi m",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: liud, liudi m"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "lüde",
            "3": "luede",
            "4": "luide"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: lüde, luede, luide",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: lüde, luede, luide"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "lüüd",
            "3": "lüüt"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: lüüd, lüüt",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: lüüd, lüüt"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds-de",
            "2": "Lühde",
            "3": "Lühd",
            "4": "Lüüde",
            "5": "Lüüd",
            "6": "Lüü",
            "g": "p",
            "g2": "p",
            "g3": "p",
            "g4": "p",
            "g5": "p"
          },
          "expansion": "German Low German: Lühde pl, Lühd pl, Lüüde pl, Lüüd pl, Lüü pl",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German Low German: Lühde pl, Lühd pl, Lüüde pl, Lüüd pl, Lüü pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 6,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Westphalian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 7,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Paderbornisch: Luie pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "liut"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: liut\nMiddle Dutch: liede\nDutch: lieden",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: liut\nMiddle Dutch: liede\nDutch: lieden"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ML.",
            "2": "leodēs",
            "3": "leudēs",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Medieval Latin: leodēs, leudēs",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Medieval Latin: leodēs, leudēs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fr",
            "2": "leude",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ French: leude",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ French: leude"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "leud",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ English: leud",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ English: leud"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "liut",
            "g": "m,f,n"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: liut m or f or n",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: liut m or f or n, liuti m pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmh",
            "2": "liut"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle High German: liut",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle High German: liut"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gsw",
            "2": "Lüüte"
          },
          "expansion": "Alemannic German: Lüüte",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Alemannic German: Lüüte"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-cfr",
            "2": "Löck",
            "alts": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Central Franconian: Löck, Lück; Lüü; Lie; Leit",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Central Franconian: Löck, Lück; Lüü; Lie; Leit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "de",
            "2": "Leute",
            "g": "p"
          },
          "expansion": "German: Leute pl",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German: Leute pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hrx",
            "2": "Leit"
          },
          "expansion": "Hunsrik: Leit",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Hunsrik: Leit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lb",
            "2": "Leit"
          },
          "expansion": "Luxembourgish: Leit",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Luxembourgish: Leit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "wym",
            "2": "łaojt"
          },
          "expansion": "Vilamovian: łaojt",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Vilamovian: łaojt"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "yi",
            "2": "לײַט"
          },
          "expansion": "Yiddish: לײַט (layt)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Yiddish: לײַט (layt)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "lýðr",
            "g": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: lýðr m\nIcelandic: ljóður, lýður\nFaroese: -lýður (in borgarlýður, kirkjulýður, undirlýður), lýð- (in lýðveldi)\nNorn: lø\nNorwegian Nynorsk: lyd\nOld Swedish: lyþir m pl\nOld Gutnish: lyþir m pl\nGutnish: löid\n→ Middle English: lith, lyth\nScots: lythe\nEnglish: lith",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: lýðr m\nIcelandic: ljóður, lýður\nFaroese: -lýður (in borgarlýður, kirkjulýður, undirlýður), lýð- (in lýðveldi)\nNorn: lø\nNorwegian Nynorsk: lyd\nOld Swedish: lyþir m pl\nOld Gutnish: lyþir m pl\nGutnish: löid\n→ Middle English: lith, lyth\nScots: lythe\nEnglish: lith"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "*𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃",
            "3": "*𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌴𐌹𐍃"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃 (*liuþs), *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌴𐌹𐍃 (*liudeis)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃 (*liuþs), *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌴𐌹𐍃 (*liudeis)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "leodes",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Latin: leodes",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "in the Lex Visigothorum"
          },
          "expansion": "(in the Lex Visigothorum)",
          "name": "q"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "possibly"
          },
          "expansion": "(possibly)",
          "name": "i"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Latin: leodes (in the Lex Visigothorum), leudes (possibly)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "leud",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ English: leud",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ English: leud"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fr",
            "2": "leude",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ French: leude",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ French: leude"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "urj-fin-pro",
            "2": "*liuta",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Proto-Finnic: *liuta",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Proto-Finnic: *liuta (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁lewdʰ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁léwdʰis",
        "t": "people"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁léwdʰis (“people”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁lewdʰ-",
        "t": "to grow (up)"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (“to grow (up)”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*lūdiz"
      },
      "expansion": "Doublet of *lūdiz",
      "name": "doublet"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₁léwdʰis (“people”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (“to grow (up)”). Doublet of *lūdiz.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "i-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudį",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudinz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudijǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudī",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudī",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/liudiz",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "laudaz"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "leudaną"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "man, person"
      ],
      "id": "en-liudiz-gem-pro-noun-SwBpDXcD",
      "links": [
        [
          "singular",
          "singular"
        ],
        [
          "man",
          "man"
        ],
        [
          "person",
          "person"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(in the singular) man, person"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "12 88",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "men, people"
      ],
      "id": "en-liudiz-gem-pro-noun-yOg9eecK",
      "links": [
        [
          "men",
          "men"
        ],
        [
          "people",
          "people"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(in the plural) men, people"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "in-plural",
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈliu̯.ðiz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "liudiz"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic doublets",
    "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
    "Proto-Germanic feminine nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic i-stem nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic masculine nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic nouns with multiple genders",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *h₁lewdʰ-",
    "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "gem-pro:People"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "sense": "German: Leopold",
      "word": "→ English: Leopold"
    },
    {
      "sense": "German: Luther",
      "word": "→ English: Luther"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*liudi"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *liudi",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *liudi"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "lēod"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: lēod",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: lēod"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "lēode",
            "3": "lēoda",
            "der": "1",
            "g2": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Old English: lēode, lēoda m",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Old English: lēode, lēoda m"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "enm",
            "2": "lede",
            "3": "leed",
            "4": "leod",
            "5": "leode"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle English: lede, leed, leod, leode",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle English: lede, leed, leod, leode"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "lede",
            "qq": "obsolete"
          },
          "expansion": "English: lede (obsolete)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "English: lede (obsolete)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sco-smi",
            "2": "leid"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Scots: leid",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Scots: leid"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "liōd",
            "3": "liūde",
            "4": "liōde",
            "g3": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: liōd, liūde, liōde m",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: liōd, liūde, liōde m"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "ljode"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: ljode",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: ljode"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "Ljuude"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: Ljuude",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: Ljuude"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "lie",
            "3": "lju",
            "4": "ljuwe"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: lie, lju, ljuwe",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: lie, lju, ljuwe"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "liud",
            "3": "liudi",
            "g2": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: liud, liudi m",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: liud, liudi m"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "lüde",
            "3": "luede",
            "4": "luide"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: lüde, luede, luide",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: lüde, luede, luide"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "lüüd",
            "3": "lüüt"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: lüüd, lüüt",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: lüüd, lüüt"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds-de",
            "2": "Lühde",
            "3": "Lühd",
            "4": "Lüüde",
            "5": "Lüüd",
            "6": "Lüü",
            "g": "p",
            "g2": "p",
            "g3": "p",
            "g4": "p",
            "g5": "p"
          },
          "expansion": "German Low German: Lühde pl, Lühd pl, Lüüde pl, Lüüd pl, Lüü pl",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German Low German: Lühde pl, Lühd pl, Lüüde pl, Lüüd pl, Lüü pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 6,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Westphalian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 7,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Paderbornisch: Luie pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "liut"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: liut\nMiddle Dutch: liede\nDutch: lieden",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: liut\nMiddle Dutch: liede\nDutch: lieden"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ML.",
            "2": "leodēs",
            "3": "leudēs",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Medieval Latin: leodēs, leudēs",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Medieval Latin: leodēs, leudēs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fr",
            "2": "leude",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ French: leude",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ French: leude"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "leud",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ English: leud",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ English: leud"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "liut",
            "g": "m,f,n"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: liut m or f or n",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: liut m or f or n, liuti m pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmh",
            "2": "liut"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle High German: liut",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle High German: liut"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gsw",
            "2": "Lüüte"
          },
          "expansion": "Alemannic German: Lüüte",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Alemannic German: Lüüte"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-cfr",
            "2": "Löck",
            "alts": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Central Franconian: Löck, Lück; Lüü; Lie; Leit",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Central Franconian: Löck, Lück; Lüü; Lie; Leit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "de",
            "2": "Leute",
            "g": "p"
          },
          "expansion": "German: Leute pl",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German: Leute pl"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hrx",
            "2": "Leit"
          },
          "expansion": "Hunsrik: Leit",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Hunsrik: Leit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lb",
            "2": "Leit"
          },
          "expansion": "Luxembourgish: Leit",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Luxembourgish: Leit"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "wym",
            "2": "łaojt"
          },
          "expansion": "Vilamovian: łaojt",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Vilamovian: łaojt"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "yi",
            "2": "לײַט"
          },
          "expansion": "Yiddish: לײַט (layt)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Yiddish: לײַט (layt)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "lýðr",
            "g": "m"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: lýðr m\nIcelandic: ljóður, lýður\nFaroese: -lýður (in borgarlýður, kirkjulýður, undirlýður), lýð- (in lýðveldi)\nNorn: lø\nNorwegian Nynorsk: lyd\nOld Swedish: lyþir m pl\nOld Gutnish: lyþir m pl\nGutnish: löid\n→ Middle English: lith, lyth\nScots: lythe\nEnglish: lith",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: lýðr m\nIcelandic: ljóður, lýður\nFaroese: -lýður (in borgarlýður, kirkjulýður, undirlýður), lýð- (in lýðveldi)\nNorn: lø\nNorwegian Nynorsk: lyd\nOld Swedish: lyþir m pl\nOld Gutnish: lyþir m pl\nGutnish: löid\n→ Middle English: lith, lyth\nScots: lythe\nEnglish: lith"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "*𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃",
            "3": "*𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌴𐌹𐍃"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃 (*liuþs), *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌴𐌹𐍃 (*liudeis)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌸𐍃 (*liuþs), *𐌻𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌴𐌹𐍃 (*liudeis)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "leodes",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Latin: leodes",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "in the Lex Visigothorum"
          },
          "expansion": "(in the Lex Visigothorum)",
          "name": "q"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "possibly"
          },
          "expansion": "(possibly)",
          "name": "i"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Latin: leodes (in the Lex Visigothorum), leudes (possibly)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "leud",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ English: leud",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ English: leud"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fr",
            "2": "leude",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ French: leude",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ French: leude"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "urj-fin-pro",
            "2": "*liuta",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Proto-Finnic: *liuta",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Proto-Finnic: *liuta (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁lewdʰ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁léwdʰis",
        "t": "people"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁léwdʰis (“people”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁lewdʰ-",
        "t": "to grow (up)"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (“to grow (up)”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*lūdiz"
      },
      "expansion": "Doublet of *lūdiz",
      "name": "doublet"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₁léwdʰis (“people”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (“to grow (up)”). Doublet of *lūdiz.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "i-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudį",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudinz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudijǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudī",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudimaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudī",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liudimiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/liudiz",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "laudaz"
    },
    {
      "word": "leudaną"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "man, person"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "singular",
          "singular"
        ],
        [
          "man",
          "man"
        ],
        [
          "person",
          "person"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(in the singular) man, person"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "men, people"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "men",
          "men"
        ],
        [
          "people",
          "people"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(in the plural) men, people"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "in-plural",
        "masculine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈliu̯.ðiz/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "liudiz"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-21 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-06 using wiktextract (6c02f21 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.