"ehþau" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See ehþau in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Conjunction

IPA: /ˈex.θɑu̯/
Etymology: Compound of *eh (“but, except”) + *þau, the former being the only Germanic evidence of Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s). While the Germanic form could theoretically also represent *eþ-þau, the form *eh-þau is required by the Gothic reflex, where expected *𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (*iþþau) is instead 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau), which shows the first consonant must have originally been -𐌷- (-h-), -𐍈- (-ƕ-) or -𐍂- (-r-); and further shows the Proto-Germanic form itself had not yet become *eþþau as it did in the daughter languages. For the semantics, compare Proto-Celtic *extos (“except, but”), Ancient Greek ἐκτός (ektós, “without, outside; except”). Etymology templates: {{m|gem-pro|*eh||but, except}} *eh (“but, except”), {{m|gem-pro|*þau}} *þau, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s)}} Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s), {{m|gem-pro||*eþ-þau}} *eþ-þau, {{m|gem-pro||*eh-þau}} *eh-þau, {{m|got||*𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿}} *𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (*iþþau), {{m|got||𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿}} 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau), {{m|got||-𐌷-}} -𐌷- (-h-), {{m|got||-𐍈-}} -𐍈- (-ƕ-), {{m|got||-𐍂-}} -𐍂- (-r-), {{m|gem-pro||*eþþau}} *eþþau, {{cog|cel-pro|*extos||except, but}} Proto-Celtic *extos (“except, but”), {{cog|grc|ἐκτός||without, outside; except}} Ancient Greek ἐκτός (ektós, “without, outside; except”)
  1. or, otherwise, but if Tags: reconstruction Related terms: efþau (alt: or *ifiþau?), ufþau (alt: or *ufaþau?), uþþau
    Sense id: ehþau-gem-pro-conj-x9AeyiD8

Download JSON data for ehþau meaning in Proto-Germanic (3.5kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "eþþa"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: eþþa",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: eþþa"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "ettha",
            "3": "ettho"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: ettha, ettho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: ettha, ettho"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "eða"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: eða",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: eða"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "eða"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: eða",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: eða"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*eh",
        "3": "",
        "4": "but, except"
      },
      "expansion": "*eh (“but, except”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*þau"
      },
      "expansion": "*þau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s)"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*eþ-þau"
      },
      "expansion": "*eþ-þau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*eh-þau"
      },
      "expansion": "*eh-þau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿"
      },
      "expansion": "*𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (*iþþau)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿"
      },
      "expansion": "𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "-𐌷-"
      },
      "expansion": "-𐌷- (-h-)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "-𐍈-"
      },
      "expansion": "-𐍈- (-ƕ-)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "-𐍂-"
      },
      "expansion": "-𐍂- (-r-)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*eþþau"
      },
      "expansion": "*eþþau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cel-pro",
        "2": "*extos",
        "3": "",
        "4": "except, but"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *extos (“except, but”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἐκτός",
        "3": "",
        "4": "without, outside; except"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἐκτός (ektós, “without, outside; except”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Compound of *eh (“but, except”) + *þau, the former being the only Germanic evidence of Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s). While the Germanic form could theoretically also represent *eþ-þau, the form *eh-þau is required by the Gothic reflex, where expected *𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (*iþþau) is instead 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau), which shows the first consonant must have originally been -𐌷- (-h-), -𐍈- (-ƕ-) or -𐍂- (-r-); and further shows the Proto-Germanic form itself had not yet become *eþþau as it did in the daughter languages. For the semantics, compare Proto-Celtic *extos (“except, but”), Ancient Greek ἐκτός (ektós, “without, outside; except”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/ehþau",
  "pos": "conj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "or, otherwise, but if"
      ],
      "id": "ehþau-gem-pro-conj-x9AeyiD8",
      "links": [
        [
          "or",
          "or"
        ],
        [
          "otherwise",
          "otherwise"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "alt": "or *ifiþau?",
          "word": "efþau"
        },
        {
          "alt": "or *ufaþau?",
          "word": "ufþau"
        },
        {
          "word": "uþþau"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈex.θɑu̯/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ehþau"
}
{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "eþþa"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: eþþa",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: eþþa"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "ettha",
            "3": "ettho"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: ettha, ettho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: ettha, ettho"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "eða"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: eða",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: eða"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "eða"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: eða",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: eða"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*eh",
        "3": "",
        "4": "but, except"
      },
      "expansion": "*eh (“but, except”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*þau"
      },
      "expansion": "*þau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s)"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*eþ-þau"
      },
      "expansion": "*eþ-þau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*eh-þau"
      },
      "expansion": "*eh-þau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿"
      },
      "expansion": "*𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (*iþþau)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿"
      },
      "expansion": "𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "-𐌷-"
      },
      "expansion": "-𐌷- (-h-)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "-𐍈-"
      },
      "expansion": "-𐍈- (-ƕ-)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "",
        "3": "-𐍂-"
      },
      "expansion": "-𐍂- (-r-)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*eþþau"
      },
      "expansion": "*eþþau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cel-pro",
        "2": "*extos",
        "3": "",
        "4": "except, but"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *extos (“except, but”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἐκτός",
        "3": "",
        "4": "without, outside; except"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἐκτός (ektós, “without, outside; except”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Compound of *eh (“but, except”) + *þau, the former being the only Germanic evidence of Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs, *h₁eḱ(s). While the Germanic form could theoretically also represent *eþ-þau, the form *eh-þau is required by the Gothic reflex, where expected *𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (*iþþau) is instead 𐌰𐌹𐌸𐌸𐌰𐌿 (aiþþau), which shows the first consonant must have originally been -𐌷- (-h-), -𐍈- (-ƕ-) or -𐍂- (-r-); and further shows the Proto-Germanic form itself had not yet become *eþþau as it did in the daughter languages. For the semantics, compare Proto-Celtic *extos (“except, but”), Ancient Greek ἐκτός (ektós, “without, outside; except”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/ehþau",
  "pos": "conj",
  "related": [
    {
      "alt": "or *ifiþau?",
      "word": "efþau"
    },
    {
      "alt": "or *ufaþau?",
      "word": "ufþau"
    },
    {
      "word": "uþþau"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic conjunctions",
        "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "or, otherwise, but if"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "or",
          "or"
        ],
        [
          "otherwise",
          "otherwise"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈex.θɑu̯/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ehþau"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.