"bullǭ" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See bullǭ in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: /ˈbul.lɔ̃ː/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *bʰln-, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell, bubble”). Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*bʰel-|id=blow}}, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro||*bʰln-}} Proto-Indo-European *bʰln-, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*bʰel-|id=blow|t=to blow, inflate, swell, bubble}} Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell, bubble”) Inflection templates: {{gem-decl-noun}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], bullǭ [nominative, singular], bullōniz [nominative, plural], bullǭ [singular, vocative], bullōniz [plural, vocative], bullōnų [accusative, singular], bullōnunz [accusative, plural], bullōniz [genitive, singular], bullōnǫ̂ [genitive, plural], bullōni [dative, singular], bullōmaz [dative, plural], bullōnē [instrumental, singular], bullōmiz [instrumental, plural]
  1. round object, ball Tags: feminine, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-bullǭ-gem-pro-noun-2kgLaBG7 Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header: 74 26
  2. round vessel, bowl Tags: feminine, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-bullǭ-gem-pro-noun-YKgJvKNx
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: bullô

Download JSON data for bullǭ meaning in Proto-Germanic (6.5kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*bollā"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *bollā\nOld English: bolle\nMiddle English: bolle\nScots: boll, bol, bow\nEnglish: bowl\n→ Middle French: bolle\nFrench: bol\n→ Greek: μπολ (bol)\nOld Frisian: bolla\nSaterland Frisian: Boolje, Bol\nWest Frisian: bol\nOld Saxon: *bolla, bollo\nMiddle Low German: bolle, bole\nGerman Low German: Boll, Bolle\n⇒ Low German: Bolltje\n→ Danish: bolsje\n→ German: Bollchen\nOld Dutch: *bollo\nMiddle Dutch: bolle m\nDutch: bol\nAfrikaans: bol\nLimburgish: ból\nOld High German: bolla\nMiddle High German: bolle\nAlemannic German: Bölle, Belle, Böle\nGerman: Bolle\nLuxembourgish: Boll; Bull (latter uncertain)\n→ Vulgar Latin: *bolla (merger with Latin bulla)\nItalo-Dalmatian\nItalian: bolla\nOïl\nOld French: bolle, bole\nMiddle French: boule\nFrench: boule\n→ English: boule\nNorman: bolle, boule\n→ Middle English: bowle, boule\nEnglish: bowl (“lawn bowl, ball”)\nPicard Old French: *boule\n⇒ Picard Old French: boulenc\n→ Old French: bolengier, boulanger\nGallo: boulangier\nMiddle French: boulanger\nFrench: boulanger\nNorman: boulandgi (Jèrriais)\nWalloon: boledjî\nOld Occitan: bolla, bola\nOccitan: bòla\nCatalan: bolla, bola\nPortuguese: bola\n→ Spanish: bola\nOld Spanish:\nSpanish: bolla",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *bollā\nOld English: bolle\nMiddle English: bolle\nScots: boll, bol, bow\nEnglish: bowl\n→ Middle French: bolle\nFrench: bol\n→ Greek: μπολ (bol)\nOld Frisian: bolla\nSaterland Frisian: Boolje, Bol\nWest Frisian: bol\nOld Saxon: *bolla, bollo\nMiddle Low German: bolle, bole\nGerman Low German: Boll, Bolle\n⇒ Low German: Bolltje\n→ Danish: bolsje\n→ German: Bollchen\nOld Dutch: *bollo\nMiddle Dutch: bolle m\nDutch: bol\nAfrikaans: bol\nLimburgish: ból\nOld High German: bolla\nMiddle High German: bolle\nAlemannic German: Bölle, Belle, Böle\nGerman: Bolle\nLuxembourgish: Boll; Bull (latter uncertain)\n→ Vulgar Latin: *bolla (merger with Latin bulla)\nItalo-Dalmatian\nItalian: bolla\nOïl\nOld French: bolle, bole\nMiddle French: boule\nFrench: boule\n→ English: boule\nNorman: bolle, boule\n→ Middle English: bowle, boule\nEnglish: bowl (“lawn bowl, ball”)\nPicard Old French: *boule\n⇒ Picard Old French: boulenc\n→ Old French: bolengier, boulanger\nGallo: boulangier\nMiddle French: boulanger\nFrench: boulanger\nNorman: boulandgi (Jèrriais)\nWalloon: boledjî\nOld Occitan: bolla, bola\nOccitan: bòla\nCatalan: bolla, bola\nPortuguese: bola\n→ Spanish: bola\nOld Spanish:\nSpanish: bolla"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "bolli"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: bolli",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: bolli"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "bolli"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: bolli",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: bolli"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fo",
            "2": "bolli"
          },
          "expansion": "Faroese: bolli",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Faroese: bolli"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "no",
            "2": "-"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian: bolle"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-osw",
            "2": "bolle",
            "3": "bulle"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Swedish: bolle, bulle",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Swedish: bolle, bulle"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "bulle"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: bulle\n→ Finnish: pulla\n→ English: pulla\n→ Finnish: pullo",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: bulle\n→ Finnish: pulla\n→ English: pulla\n→ Finnish: pullo"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-oda",
            "2": "bollæ",
            "3": "bullæ"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Danish: bollæ, bullæ",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Danish: bollæ, bullæ"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "bolle"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: bolle",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: bolle"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*bʰel-",
        "id": "blow"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*bʰln-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *bʰln-",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*bʰel-",
        "id": "blow",
        "t": "to blow, inflate, swell, bubble"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell, bubble”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *bʰln-, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell, bubble”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ōn-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/bullǭ",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "bullô"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "74 26",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "round object, ball"
      ],
      "id": "en-bullǭ-gem-pro-noun-2kgLaBG7",
      "links": [
        [
          "ball",
          "ball"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "round vessel, bowl"
      ],
      "id": "en-bullǭ-gem-pro-noun-YKgJvKNx",
      "links": [
        [
          "round",
          "round"
        ],
        [
          "bowl",
          "bowl"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈbul.lɔ̃ː/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "bullǭ"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
    "Proto-Germanic feminine nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic nouns",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *bʰel- (blow)",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Proto-Germanic ōn-stem nouns"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*bollā"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *bollā\nOld English: bolle\nMiddle English: bolle\nScots: boll, bol, bow\nEnglish: bowl\n→ Middle French: bolle\nFrench: bol\n→ Greek: μπολ (bol)\nOld Frisian: bolla\nSaterland Frisian: Boolje, Bol\nWest Frisian: bol\nOld Saxon: *bolla, bollo\nMiddle Low German: bolle, bole\nGerman Low German: Boll, Bolle\n⇒ Low German: Bolltje\n→ Danish: bolsje\n→ German: Bollchen\nOld Dutch: *bollo\nMiddle Dutch: bolle m\nDutch: bol\nAfrikaans: bol\nLimburgish: ból\nOld High German: bolla\nMiddle High German: bolle\nAlemannic German: Bölle, Belle, Böle\nGerman: Bolle\nLuxembourgish: Boll; Bull (latter uncertain)\n→ Vulgar Latin: *bolla (merger with Latin bulla)\nItalo-Dalmatian\nItalian: bolla\nOïl\nOld French: bolle, bole\nMiddle French: boule\nFrench: boule\n→ English: boule\nNorman: bolle, boule\n→ Middle English: bowle, boule\nEnglish: bowl (“lawn bowl, ball”)\nPicard Old French: *boule\n⇒ Picard Old French: boulenc\n→ Old French: bolengier, boulanger\nGallo: boulangier\nMiddle French: boulanger\nFrench: boulanger\nNorman: boulandgi (Jèrriais)\nWalloon: boledjî\nOld Occitan: bolla, bola\nOccitan: bòla\nCatalan: bolla, bola\nPortuguese: bola\n→ Spanish: bola\nOld Spanish:\nSpanish: bolla",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *bollā\nOld English: bolle\nMiddle English: bolle\nScots: boll, bol, bow\nEnglish: bowl\n→ Middle French: bolle\nFrench: bol\n→ Greek: μπολ (bol)\nOld Frisian: bolla\nSaterland Frisian: Boolje, Bol\nWest Frisian: bol\nOld Saxon: *bolla, bollo\nMiddle Low German: bolle, bole\nGerman Low German: Boll, Bolle\n⇒ Low German: Bolltje\n→ Danish: bolsje\n→ German: Bollchen\nOld Dutch: *bollo\nMiddle Dutch: bolle m\nDutch: bol\nAfrikaans: bol\nLimburgish: ból\nOld High German: bolla\nMiddle High German: bolle\nAlemannic German: Bölle, Belle, Böle\nGerman: Bolle\nLuxembourgish: Boll; Bull (latter uncertain)\n→ Vulgar Latin: *bolla (merger with Latin bulla)\nItalo-Dalmatian\nItalian: bolla\nOïl\nOld French: bolle, bole\nMiddle French: boule\nFrench: boule\n→ English: boule\nNorman: bolle, boule\n→ Middle English: bowle, boule\nEnglish: bowl (“lawn bowl, ball”)\nPicard Old French: *boule\n⇒ Picard Old French: boulenc\n→ Old French: bolengier, boulanger\nGallo: boulangier\nMiddle French: boulanger\nFrench: boulanger\nNorman: boulandgi (Jèrriais)\nWalloon: boledjî\nOld Occitan: bolla, bola\nOccitan: bòla\nCatalan: bolla, bola\nPortuguese: bola\n→ Spanish: bola\nOld Spanish:\nSpanish: bolla"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "bolli"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: bolli",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: bolli"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "bolli"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: bolli",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: bolli"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fo",
            "2": "bolli"
          },
          "expansion": "Faroese: bolli",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Faroese: bolli"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "no",
            "2": "-"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian: bolle"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-osw",
            "2": "bolle",
            "3": "bulle"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Swedish: bolle, bulle",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Swedish: bolle, bulle"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "bulle"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: bulle\n→ Finnish: pulla\n→ English: pulla\n→ Finnish: pullo",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: bulle\n→ Finnish: pulla\n→ English: pulla\n→ Finnish: pullo"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-oda",
            "2": "bollæ",
            "3": "bullæ"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Danish: bollæ, bullæ",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Danish: bollæ, bullæ"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "bolle"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: bolle",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: bolle"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*bʰel-",
        "id": "blow"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*bʰln-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *bʰln-",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*bʰel-",
        "id": "blow",
        "t": "to blow, inflate, swell, bubble"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell, bubble”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *bʰln-, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (“to blow, inflate, swell, bubble”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-decl-noun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ōn-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnų",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnunz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōniz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnǫ̂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōni",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōnē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bullōmiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {},
      "name": "gem-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/bullǭ",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "bullô"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "round object, ball"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "ball",
          "ball"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "round vessel, bowl"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "round",
          "round"
        ],
        [
          "bowl",
          "bowl"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈbul.lɔ̃ː/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "bullǭ"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.