"auk" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See auk in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adverb

IPA: /ɑu̯k/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”) + *ge (intensifier); compare Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), also found as Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge). But compare also Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-. Etymology templates: {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂ew||away, again}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”), {{m|ine-pro|*ge|pos=intensifier}} *ge (intensifier), {{cog|grc|αὖ||again}} Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), {{m|grc|γε||at least, at any rate}} γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), {{cog|grc|αὖγε}} Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge), {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂ewg-}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-
  1. also, too Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: auk-gem-pro-adv-gfFjydy1
  2. furthermore, in addition Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: auk-gem-pro-adv-YZJDmxrq
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: aukaną

Conjunction

IPA: /ɑu̯k/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”) + *ge (intensifier); compare Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), also found as Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge). But compare also Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-. Etymology templates: {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂ew||away, again}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”), {{m|ine-pro|*ge|pos=intensifier}} *ge (intensifier), {{cog|grc|αὖ||again}} Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), {{m|grc|γε||at least, at any rate}} γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), {{cog|grc|αὖγε}} Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge), {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂ewg-}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-
  1. and Tags: reconstruction Synonyms: *andi, *jahw
    Sense id: auk-gem-pro-conj-YgERG4Og
  2. but also Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: auk-gem-pro-conj-UYKcJVvb
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: ak

Download JSON data for auk meaning in Proto-Germanic (5.9kB)

{
  "categories": [],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*auk"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *auk\nOld English: ēac, ek, ec\nMiddle English: ek, eek, eke\nScots: eik, ek\nEnglish: eke\n⇒ Middle English: ekename\n⇒ English: nickname (via rebracketing)\nOld Frisian: āk\nNorth Frisian:\nFöhr-Amrum: uk\nSaterland Frisian: uk, ook\nWest Frisian: ek\nOld Saxon: ōk\nMiddle Low German: ôk\nDutch Low Saxon: ok, ook\nGerman Low German: ok, auk, ock, ohk, ook\nPlautdietsch: uk\nOld Dutch: ōk, ouk, ouch\nMiddle Dutch: ooc\nDutch: ook\nAfrikaans: ook\nBerbice Creole Dutch: oko\nJersey Dutch: ôk\nNegerhollands: ook\nPetjo: ook\nSkepi Creole Dutch: oak\nWest Flemish: wok\nOld High German: ouh\nMiddle High German: ouch\nAlemannic German: au\nAlemannic German: ou\nCimbrian: òch\nGerman: auch\nLuxembourgish: och\nHunsrik: aach\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אויך (oykh)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *auk\nOld English: ēac, ek, ec\nMiddle English: ek, eek, eke\nScots: eik, ek\nEnglish: eke\n⇒ Middle English: ekename\n⇒ English: nickname (via rebracketing)\nOld Frisian: āk\nNorth Frisian:\nFöhr-Amrum: uk\nSaterland Frisian: uk, ook\nWest Frisian: ek\nOld Saxon: ōk\nMiddle Low German: ôk\nDutch Low Saxon: ok, ook\nGerman Low German: ok, auk, ock, ohk, ook\nPlautdietsch: uk\nOld Dutch: ōk, ouk, ouch\nMiddle Dutch: ooc\nDutch: ook\nAfrikaans: ook\nBerbice Creole Dutch: oko\nJersey Dutch: ôk\nNegerhollands: ook\nPetjo: ook\nSkepi Creole Dutch: oak\nWest Flemish: wok\nOld High German: ouh\nMiddle High German: ouch\nAlemannic German: au\nAlemannic German: ou\nCimbrian: òch\nGerman: auch\nLuxembourgish: och\nHunsrik: aach\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אויך (oykh)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "auk"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: auk, ok\nIcelandic: auk, og\nFaroese: og\nNorwegian Nynorsk: og, au, aug; (dialectal) ok, auk, ug\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: au\nJamtish: og\nElfdalian: og\nOld Swedish: ok, oc, och, ogh\nSwedish: och, ock\nOld Danish: oc\nDanish: og\nNorwegian Bokmål: og\n→ Middle English: oc, ok\n⇒ Scots: okname, ockname",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: auk, ok\nIcelandic: auk, og\nFaroese: og\nNorwegian Nynorsk: og, au, aug; (dialectal) ok, auk, ug\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: au\nJamtish: og\nElfdalian: og\nOld Swedish: ok, oc, och, ogh\nSwedish: och, ock\nOld Danish: oc\nDanish: og\nNorwegian Bokmål: og\n→ Middle English: oc, ok\n⇒ Scots: okname, ockname"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌰𐌿𐌺"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌿𐌺 (auk)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌿𐌺 (auk)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ew",
        "4": "",
        "5": "away, again"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ge",
        "pos": "intensifier"
      },
      "expansion": "*ge (intensifier)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "again"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "γε",
        "3": "",
        "4": "at least, at any rate"
      },
      "expansion": "γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖγε"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ewg-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”) + *ge (intensifier); compare Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), also found as Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge). But compare also Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/auk",
  "pos": "adv",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "aukaną"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "also, too"
      ],
      "id": "auk-gem-pro-adv-gfFjydy1",
      "links": [
        [
          "also",
          "also"
        ],
        [
          "too",
          "too"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "furthermore, in addition"
      ],
      "id": "auk-gem-pro-adv-YZJDmxrq",
      "links": [
        [
          "furthermore",
          "furthermore"
        ],
        [
          "in addition",
          "in addition"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɑu̯k/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "auk"
}

{
  "categories": [],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ew",
        "4": "",
        "5": "away, again"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ge",
        "pos": "intensifier"
      },
      "expansion": "*ge (intensifier)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "again"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "γε",
        "3": "",
        "4": "at least, at any rate"
      },
      "expansion": "γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖγε"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ewg-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”) + *ge (intensifier); compare Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), also found as Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge). But compare also Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/auk",
  "pos": "conj",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "ak"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "and"
      ],
      "id": "auk-gem-pro-conj-YgERG4Og",
      "links": [
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*andi"
        },
        {
          "word": "*jahw"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "but also"
      ],
      "id": "auk-gem-pro-conj-UYKcJVvb",
      "links": [
        [
          "but",
          "but"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɑu̯k/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "auk"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic conjunctions",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*auk"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *auk\nOld English: ēac, ek, ec\nMiddle English: ek, eek, eke\nScots: eik, ek\nEnglish: eke\n⇒ Middle English: ekename\n⇒ English: nickname (via rebracketing)\nOld Frisian: āk\nNorth Frisian:\nFöhr-Amrum: uk\nSaterland Frisian: uk, ook\nWest Frisian: ek\nOld Saxon: ōk\nMiddle Low German: ôk\nDutch Low Saxon: ok, ook\nGerman Low German: ok, auk, ock, ohk, ook\nPlautdietsch: uk\nOld Dutch: ōk, ouk, ouch\nMiddle Dutch: ooc\nDutch: ook\nAfrikaans: ook\nBerbice Creole Dutch: oko\nJersey Dutch: ôk\nNegerhollands: ook\nPetjo: ook\nSkepi Creole Dutch: oak\nWest Flemish: wok\nOld High German: ouh\nMiddle High German: ouch\nAlemannic German: au\nAlemannic German: ou\nCimbrian: òch\nGerman: auch\nLuxembourgish: och\nHunsrik: aach\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אויך (oykh)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *auk\nOld English: ēac, ek, ec\nMiddle English: ek, eek, eke\nScots: eik, ek\nEnglish: eke\n⇒ Middle English: ekename\n⇒ English: nickname (via rebracketing)\nOld Frisian: āk\nNorth Frisian:\nFöhr-Amrum: uk\nSaterland Frisian: uk, ook\nWest Frisian: ek\nOld Saxon: ōk\nMiddle Low German: ôk\nDutch Low Saxon: ok, ook\nGerman Low German: ok, auk, ock, ohk, ook\nPlautdietsch: uk\nOld Dutch: ōk, ouk, ouch\nMiddle Dutch: ooc\nDutch: ook\nAfrikaans: ook\nBerbice Creole Dutch: oko\nJersey Dutch: ôk\nNegerhollands: ook\nPetjo: ook\nSkepi Creole Dutch: oak\nWest Flemish: wok\nOld High German: ouh\nMiddle High German: ouch\nAlemannic German: au\nAlemannic German: ou\nCimbrian: òch\nGerman: auch\nLuxembourgish: och\nHunsrik: aach\nRhine Franconian:\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אויך (oykh)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "auk"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: auk, ok\nIcelandic: auk, og\nFaroese: og\nNorwegian Nynorsk: og, au, aug; (dialectal) ok, auk, ug\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: au\nJamtish: og\nElfdalian: og\nOld Swedish: ok, oc, och, ogh\nSwedish: och, ock\nOld Danish: oc\nDanish: og\nNorwegian Bokmål: og\n→ Middle English: oc, ok\n⇒ Scots: okname, ockname",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: auk, ok\nIcelandic: auk, og\nFaroese: og\nNorwegian Nynorsk: og, au, aug; (dialectal) ok, auk, ug\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: au\nJamtish: og\nElfdalian: og\nOld Swedish: ok, oc, och, ogh\nSwedish: och, ock\nOld Danish: oc\nDanish: og\nNorwegian Bokmål: og\n→ Middle English: oc, ok\n⇒ Scots: okname, ockname"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌰𐌿𐌺"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌿𐌺 (auk)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌿𐌺 (auk)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ew",
        "4": "",
        "5": "away, again"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ge",
        "pos": "intensifier"
      },
      "expansion": "*ge (intensifier)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "again"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "γε",
        "3": "",
        "4": "at least, at any rate"
      },
      "expansion": "γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖγε"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ewg-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”) + *ge (intensifier); compare Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), also found as Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge). But compare also Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/auk",
  "pos": "adv",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "aukaną"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "also, too"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "also",
          "also"
        ],
        [
          "too",
          "too"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "furthermore, in addition"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "furthermore",
          "furthermore"
        ],
        [
          "in addition",
          "in addition"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɑu̯k/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "auk"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic conjunctions",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ew",
        "4": "",
        "5": "away, again"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ge",
        "pos": "intensifier"
      },
      "expansion": "*ge (intensifier)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "again"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "γε",
        "3": "",
        "4": "at least, at any rate"
      },
      "expansion": "γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "αὖγε"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ewg-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂ew (“away, again”) + *ge (intensifier); compare Ancient Greek αὖ (aû, “again”), γε (ge, “at least, at any rate”), also found as Ancient Greek αὖγε (aûge). But compare also Proto-Indo-European *h₂ewg-.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/auk",
  "pos": "conj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "ak"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "and"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "*andi"
        },
        {
          "word": "*jahw"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "but also"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "but",
          "but"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɑu̯k/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "auk"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.