"an" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See an in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adverb

IPA: /ˈɑn/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages. Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda. Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂en-}}, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂en-|*h₂én|up, on high}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), {{m|gem-pro|*ana}} *ana, {{m|gem-pro||*an}} *an, {{m|gem-pro||*ana}} *ana, {{m|ine-pro||*h₂enh̥₂}} *h₂enh̥₂, {{m|ine-pro|*-o}} *-o, {{m|ine-pro|*-ó}} *-ó, {{m|gem-pro|*anda-|*anda}} *anda
  1. on, onto Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: an-gem-pro-adv-SfFTjxUk
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: ana

Preposition

IPA: /ˈɑn/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages. Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda. Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂en-}}, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂en-|*h₂én|up, on high}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), {{m|gem-pro|*ana}} *ana, {{m|gem-pro||*an}} *an, {{m|gem-pro||*ana}} *ana, {{m|ine-pro||*h₂enh̥₂}} *h₂enh̥₂, {{m|ine-pro|*-o}} *-o, {{m|ine-pro|*-ó}} *-ó, {{m|gem-pro|*anda-|*anda}} *anda
  1. on, upon [+dative] Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: an-gem-pro-prep-djiTgVWK Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 47 53
  2. onto [+accusative] Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: an-gem-pro-prep-a9V7JSEw Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 47 53
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: ana

Inflected forms

Download JSON data for an meaning in Proto-Germanic (7.4kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-",
        "4": "*h₂én",
        "5": "up, on high"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*an"
      },
      "expansion": "*an",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂enh̥₂"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂enh̥₂",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-o"
      },
      "expansion": "*-o",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-ó"
      },
      "expansion": "*-ó",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*anda-",
        "3": "*anda"
      },
      "expansion": "*anda",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages. Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/an",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "47 53",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "on, upon [+dative]",
        "on, upon"
      ],
      "id": "an-gem-pro-prep-djiTgVWK",
      "links": [
        [
          "on",
          "on"
        ],
        [
          "upon",
          "upon"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "on, upon [+dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "47 53",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "onto [+accusative]",
        "onto"
      ],
      "id": "an-gem-pro-prep-a9V7JSEw",
      "links": [
        [
          "onto",
          "onto"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "onto [+accusative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑn/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "ana"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "an"
}

{
  "categories": [],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*an",
            "3": "*ana"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *an, *ana",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *an, *ana"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: an",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "on",
            "noalts": "1",
            "notext": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "on\nMiddle English: an, on, one, onne, hon, ane; an; æn; one, onne, an\nEnglish: on\nScots: an, on\nYola: on",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: an, on\nMiddle English: an, on, one, onne, hon, ane; an; æn; one, onne, an\nEnglish: on\nScots: an, on\nYola: on"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "on",
            "3": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: on, an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: on, an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "frr",
            "2": "a"
          },
          "expansion": "North Frisian: a",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "North Frisian: a"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "an",
            "3": "oun"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: an, oun",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: an, oun"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "oan"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: oan",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: oan"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "ana",
            "3": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: ana, an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: ana, an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "ana",
            "3": "an",
            "4": "in"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: ana, an, in",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: ana, an, in"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dum",
            "2": "āne"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Dutch: āne, āen, an\nDutch: aan, (unstressed pronunciation spelling) an\nAfrikaans: aan\nJersey Dutch: ân\nNegerhollands: aan, an\nSkepi Creole Dutch: an\nLimburgish: aan",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Dutch: āne, āen, an\nDutch: aan, (unstressed pronunciation spelling) an\nAfrikaans: aan\nJersey Dutch: ân\nNegerhollands: aan, an\nSkepi Creole Dutch: an\nLimburgish: aan"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "ana",
            "id": "on"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: ana\nMiddle High German: ane, an\nCimbrian: å\nGerman: an\nHunsrik: aan\nLuxembourgish: un\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אָן (on)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: ana\nMiddle High German: ane, an\nCimbrian: å\nGerman: an\nHunsrik: aan\nLuxembourgish: un\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אָן (on)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": "ᚨᚾ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚾ (an), ᚨᚾᚨ (ana)\nOld Norse: á\nIcelandic: á\nFaroese: á\nNorwegian: å\nElfdalian: ą̊\nOld Swedish: ā\nSwedish: å, a (dialectal)\nOld Danish: ā\nDanish: å (dialectal)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚾ (an), ᚨᚾᚨ (ana)\nOld Norse: á\nIcelandic: á\nFaroese: á\nNorwegian: å\nElfdalian: ą̊\nOld Swedish: ā\nSwedish: å, a (dialectal)\nOld Danish: ā\nDanish: å (dialectal)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌰𐌽𐌰"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-",
        "4": "*h₂én",
        "5": "up, on high"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*an"
      },
      "expansion": "*an",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂enh̥₂"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂enh̥₂",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-o"
      },
      "expansion": "*-o",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-ó"
      },
      "expansion": "*-ó",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*anda-",
        "3": "*anda"
      },
      "expansion": "*anda",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages. Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/an",
  "pos": "adv",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "on, onto"
      ],
      "id": "an-gem-pro-adv-SfFTjxUk",
      "links": [
        [
          "on",
          "on"
        ],
        [
          "onto",
          "onto"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑn/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0",
      "word": "ana"
    }
  ],
  "word": "an"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-",
        "4": "*h₂én",
        "5": "up, on high"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*an"
      },
      "expansion": "*an",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂enh̥₂"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂enh̥₂",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-o"
      },
      "expansion": "*-o",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-ó"
      },
      "expansion": "*-ó",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*anda-",
        "3": "*anda"
      },
      "expansion": "*anda",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages. Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/an",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "on, upon [+dative]",
        "on, upon"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "on",
          "on"
        ],
        [
          "upon",
          "upon"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "on, upon [+dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "onto [+accusative]",
        "onto"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "onto",
          "onto"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "onto [+accusative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑn/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "ana"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "an"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*an",
            "3": "*ana"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *an, *ana",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *an, *ana"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: an",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "on",
            "noalts": "1",
            "notext": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "on\nMiddle English: an, on, one, onne, hon, ane; an; æn; one, onne, an\nEnglish: on\nScots: an, on\nYola: on",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: an, on\nMiddle English: an, on, one, onne, hon, ane; an; æn; one, onne, an\nEnglish: on\nScots: an, on\nYola: on"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "on",
            "3": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: on, an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: on, an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "frr",
            "2": "a"
          },
          "expansion": "North Frisian: a",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "North Frisian: a"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "an",
            "3": "oun"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: an, oun",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: an, oun"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "oan"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: oan",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: oan"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "ana",
            "3": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: ana, an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: ana, an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "an"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: an",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: an"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "ana",
            "3": "an",
            "4": "in"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: ana, an, in",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: ana, an, in"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dum",
            "2": "āne"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Dutch: āne, āen, an\nDutch: aan, (unstressed pronunciation spelling) an\nAfrikaans: aan\nJersey Dutch: ân\nNegerhollands: aan, an\nSkepi Creole Dutch: an\nLimburgish: aan",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Dutch: āne, āen, an\nDutch: aan, (unstressed pronunciation spelling) an\nAfrikaans: aan\nJersey Dutch: ân\nNegerhollands: aan, an\nSkepi Creole Dutch: an\nLimburgish: aan"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "ana",
            "id": "on"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: ana\nMiddle High German: ane, an\nCimbrian: å\nGerman: an\nHunsrik: aan\nLuxembourgish: un\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אָן (on)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: ana\nMiddle High German: ane, an\nCimbrian: å\nGerman: an\nHunsrik: aan\nLuxembourgish: un\nPennsylvania German: aa\nYiddish: אָן (on)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": "ᚨᚾ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚾ (an), ᚨᚾᚨ (ana)\nOld Norse: á\nIcelandic: á\nFaroese: á\nNorwegian: å\nElfdalian: ą̊\nOld Swedish: ā\nSwedish: å, a (dialectal)\nOld Danish: ā\nDanish: å (dialectal)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚾ (an), ᚨᚾᚨ (ana)\nOld Norse: á\nIcelandic: á\nFaroese: á\nNorwegian: å\nElfdalian: ą̊\nOld Swedish: ā\nSwedish: å, a (dialectal)\nOld Danish: ā\nDanish: å (dialectal)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌰𐌽𐌰"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂en-",
        "4": "*h₂én",
        "5": "up, on high"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*an"
      },
      "expansion": "*an",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*ana"
      },
      "expansion": "*ana",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂enh̥₂"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂enh̥₂",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-o"
      },
      "expansion": "*-o",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-ó"
      },
      "expansion": "*-ó",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*anda-",
        "3": "*anda"
      },
      "expansion": "*anda",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (“up, on high”), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages. Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/an",
  "pos": "adv",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "on, onto"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "on",
          "on"
        ],
        [
          "onto",
          "onto"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑn/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "ana"
    }
  ],
  "word": "an"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.