"-ōną" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See -ōną in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Verb

IPA: /ɔː.nɑ̃/
Etymology: From two sources, both reflecting earlier *-ōjaną: * From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-éh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix) + *-yéti (denominative suffix). These were originally formed as denominative verbs from ō-stem nouns. When attached to thematic (a-stem) nouns, the thematic vowel was also retained, but the resulting compound suffix *-eyé- became part of the first weak class instead. * From Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix) which was originally athematic, but later extended with the thematic present suffix *-yéti. Cognates include Latin -āre (first conjugation), Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb), Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati), Proto-Slavic *-ati. Etymology templates: {{m|gem-pro||*-ōjaną}} *-ōjaną, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*-eh₂yéti}} Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti, {{m|ine-pro|*-éh₂|pos=eh₂-stem noun suffix}} *-éh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix), {{m|ine-pro|*-yéti|pos=denominative suffix}} *-yéti (denominative suffix), {{l|en|thematic}} thematic, {{m|ine-pro||*-eyé-}} *-eyé-, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*-h₂yéti|*-(e)h₂yéti}} Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti, {{m|ine-pro|*-h₂ti|*-(e)h₂ti|pos=factitive verb suffix}} *-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix), {{m|ine-pro|*-yéti}} *-yéti, {{cog|la|-āre|pos=first conjugation}} Latin -āre (first conjugation), {{cog|grc|-άω|pos=contracted verb}} Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb), {{cog|sa|-आयति|tr=-ā́yati}} Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati), {{cog|sla-pro|*-ati}} Proto-Slavic *-ati Inflection templates: {{gem-conj-wk2|-}} Forms: weak [table-tags], -ō [active, first-person, indicative, singular], [active, first-person, singular, subjunctive], - [active, first-person, imperative, singular], -ōi [first-person, indicative, passive, singular], - [first-person, passive, singular, subjunctive], -ōsi [active, indicative, second-person, singular], -ōs [active, second-person, singular, subjunctive], -ō [active, imperative, second-person, singular], -ōsai [indicative, passive, second-person, singular], -ōsau [passive, second-person, singular, subjunctive], -ōþi [active, indicative, singular, third-person], -ō [active, singular, subjunctive, third-person], -ōþau [active, imperative, singular, third-person], -ōþai [indicative, passive, singular, third-person], -ōþau [passive, singular, subjunctive, third-person], -ōs [active, dual, first-person, indicative], -ōw [active, dual, first-person, subjunctive], - [active, dual, first-person, imperative], - [dual, first-person, indicative, passive], - [dual, first-person, passive, subjunctive], -ōþiz [active, dual, indicative, second-person], -ōþiz [active, dual, second-person, subjunctive], -ōþiz [active, dual, imperative, second-person], - [dual, indicative, passive, second-person], - [dual, passive, second-person, subjunctive], -ōmaz [active, first-person, indicative, plural], -ōm [active, first-person, plural, subjunctive], - [active, first-person, imperative, plural], -ōnþai [first-person, indicative, passive, plural], -ōnþau [first-person, passive, plural, subjunctive], -ōþ [active, indicative, plural, second-person], -ōþ [active, plural, second-person, subjunctive], -ōþ [active, imperative, plural, second-person], -ōnþai [indicative, passive, plural, second-person], -ōnþau [passive, plural, second-person, subjunctive], -ōnþi [active, indicative, plural, third-person], -ōn [active, plural, subjunctive, third-person], -ōnþau [active, imperative, plural, third-person], -ōnþai [indicative, passive, plural, third-person], -ōnþau [passive, plural, subjunctive, third-person], -ōdǭ [active, first-person, indicative, singular], -ōdēdį̄ [active, first-person, singular, subjunctive], -ōdēz [active, indicative, second-person, singular], -ōdēdīz [active, second-person, singular, subjunctive], -ōdē [active, indicative, singular, third-person], -ōdēdī [active, singular, subjunctive, third-person], -ōdēdū [active, dual, first-person, indicative], -ōdēdīw [active, dual, first-person, subjunctive], -ōdēdudiz [active, dual, indicative, second-person], -ōdēdīdiz [active, dual, second-person, subjunctive], -ōdēdum [active, first-person, indicative, plural], -ōdēdīm [active, first-person, plural, subjunctive], -ōdēdud [active, indicative, plural, second-person], -ōdēdīd [active, plural, second-person, subjunctive], -ōdēdun [active, indicative, plural, third-person], -ōdēdīn [active, plural, subjunctive, third-person], -ōndz [active, participle, present], -ōdaz [active, participle, past, subjunctive]
  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns. Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: -ōną-gem-pro-verb-zo9PAbF4
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives. Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: -ōną-gem-pro-verb-eLffOAzD
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms: -ōniz

Download JSON data for -ōną meaning in Proto-Germanic (10.7kB)

{
  "categories": [],
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "-ōniz"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*-ōn"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *-ōn\nOld English: -ian\nMiddle English: -ien, -en\nScots: -e (obsolete)\nEnglish: -en, -e (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: -ia\nNorth Frisian: -je\nSaterland Frisian: -je\nWest Frisian: -je\nOld Saxon: -ōn, -oian\nMiddle Low German: -en\nLow German: -en\nOld Dutch: -on\nMiddle Dutch: -en\nDutch: -en\nOld High German: -ōn\nMiddle High German: -en\nGerman: -en",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *-ōn\nOld English: -ian\nMiddle English: -ien, -en\nScots: -e (obsolete)\nEnglish: -en, -e (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: -ia\nNorth Frisian: -je\nSaterland Frisian: -je\nWest Frisian: -je\nOld Saxon: -ōn, -oian\nMiddle Low German: -en\nLow German: -en\nOld Dutch: -on\nMiddle Dutch: -en\nDutch: -en\nOld High German: -ōn\nMiddle High German: -en\nGerman: -en"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": ""
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "-a",
            "noalts": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: -a\nDanish: -e\nIcelandic: -a\nFaroese: -a\nNorwegian:\nNorwegian Nynorsk: -e, -a\nOld Swedish: -a\nSwedish: -a",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: -a\nDanish: -e\nIcelandic: -a\nFaroese: -a\nNorwegian:\nNorwegian Nynorsk: -e, -a\nOld Swedish: -a\nSwedish: -a"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "-𐍉𐌽"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: -𐍉𐌽 (-ōn)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: -𐍉𐌽 (-ōn)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*-ōjaną"
      },
      "expansion": "*-ōjaną",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-eh₂yéti"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-éh₂",
        "pos": "eh₂-stem noun suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-éh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-yéti",
        "pos": "denominative suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-yéti (denominative suffix)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "thematic"
      },
      "expansion": "thematic",
      "name": "l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*-eyé-"
      },
      "expansion": "*-eyé-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-h₂yéti",
        "4": "*-(e)h₂yéti"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-h₂ti",
        "3": "*-(e)h₂ti",
        "pos": "factitive verb suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-yéti"
      },
      "expansion": "*-yéti",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "-āre",
        "pos": "first conjugation"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -āre (first conjugation)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "-άω",
        "pos": "contracted verb"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sa",
        "2": "-आयति",
        "tr": "-ā́yati"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sla-pro",
        "2": "*-ati"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Slavic *-ati",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From two sources, both reflecting earlier *-ōjaną:\n* From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-éh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix) + *-yéti (denominative suffix). These were originally formed as denominative verbs from ō-stem nouns. When attached to thematic (a-stem) nouns, the thematic vowel was also retained, but the resulting compound suffix *-eyé- became part of the first weak class instead.\n* From Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix) which was originally athematic, but later extended with the thematic present suffix *-yéti.\nCognates include Latin -āre (first conjugation), Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb), Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati), Proto-Slavic *-ati.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "weak",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-conj-wk2",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "2",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "passive",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōsi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōsai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōsau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "indicative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōw",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "imperative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "passive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "passive",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "indicative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "imperative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "passive",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōn",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdį̄",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdī",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdū",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "indicative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīw",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdudiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "indicative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīdiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdum",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdud",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīd",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīn",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōndz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "participle",
        "present"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-"
      },
      "name": "gem-conj-wk2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/-ōną",
  "pos": "verb",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Creates denominative verbs from nouns."
      ],
      "id": "-ōną-gem-pro-verb-zo9PAbF4",
      "links": [
        [
          "denominative",
          "denominative#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Creates factitive verbs from adjectives."
      ],
      "id": "-ōną-gem-pro-verb-eLffOAzD",
      "links": [
        [
          "factitive",
          "factitive#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɔː.nɑ̃/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-ōną"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic suffixes",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Proto-Germanic verb-forming suffixes"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "-ōniz"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*-ōn"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *-ōn\nOld English: -ian\nMiddle English: -ien, -en\nScots: -e (obsolete)\nEnglish: -en, -e (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: -ia\nNorth Frisian: -je\nSaterland Frisian: -je\nWest Frisian: -je\nOld Saxon: -ōn, -oian\nMiddle Low German: -en\nLow German: -en\nOld Dutch: -on\nMiddle Dutch: -en\nDutch: -en\nOld High German: -ōn\nMiddle High German: -en\nGerman: -en",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *-ōn\nOld English: -ian\nMiddle English: -ien, -en\nScots: -e (obsolete)\nEnglish: -en, -e (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: -ia\nNorth Frisian: -je\nSaterland Frisian: -je\nWest Frisian: -je\nOld Saxon: -ōn, -oian\nMiddle Low German: -en\nLow German: -en\nOld Dutch: -on\nMiddle Dutch: -en\nDutch: -en\nOld High German: -ōn\nMiddle High German: -en\nGerman: -en"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": ""
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "-a",
            "noalts": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: -a\nDanish: -e\nIcelandic: -a\nFaroese: -a\nNorwegian:\nNorwegian Nynorsk: -e, -a\nOld Swedish: -a\nSwedish: -a",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: -a\nDanish: -e\nIcelandic: -a\nFaroese: -a\nNorwegian:\nNorwegian Nynorsk: -e, -a\nOld Swedish: -a\nSwedish: -a"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "-𐍉𐌽"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: -𐍉𐌽 (-ōn)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: -𐍉𐌽 (-ōn)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*-ōjaną"
      },
      "expansion": "*-ōjaną",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-eh₂yéti"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-éh₂",
        "pos": "eh₂-stem noun suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-éh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-yéti",
        "pos": "denominative suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-yéti (denominative suffix)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "thematic"
      },
      "expansion": "thematic",
      "name": "l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*-eyé-"
      },
      "expansion": "*-eyé-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-h₂yéti",
        "4": "*-(e)h₂yéti"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-h₂ti",
        "3": "*-(e)h₂ti",
        "pos": "factitive verb suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-yéti"
      },
      "expansion": "*-yéti",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "-āre",
        "pos": "first conjugation"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -āre (first conjugation)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "-άω",
        "pos": "contracted verb"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sa",
        "2": "-आयति",
        "tr": "-ā́yati"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sla-pro",
        "2": "*-ati"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Slavic *-ati",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From two sources, both reflecting earlier *-ōjaną:\n* From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-éh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix) + *-yéti (denominative suffix). These were originally formed as denominative verbs from ō-stem nouns. When attached to thematic (a-stem) nouns, the thematic vowel was also retained, but the resulting compound suffix *-eyé- became part of the first weak class instead.\n* From Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix) which was originally athematic, but later extended with the thematic present suffix *-yéti.\nCognates include Latin -āre (first conjugation), Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb), Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati), Proto-Slavic *-ati.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "weak",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "gem-conj-wk2",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "2",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "passive",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōsi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōsai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōsau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ō",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōs",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "indicative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōw",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "imperative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "passive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "passive",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "indicative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "imperative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "passive",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōmaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "imperative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "first-person",
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōþ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōn",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "imperative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþai",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "indicative",
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōnþau",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "passive",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdǭ",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdį̄",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "second-person",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "second-person",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdē",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "singular",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdī",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "singular",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdū",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "indicative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīw",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "first-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdudiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "indicative",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīdiz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "dual",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdum",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "indicative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "first-person",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdud",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "second-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīd",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "second-person",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdun",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "indicative",
        "plural",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdēdīn",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "plural",
        "subjunctive",
        "third-person"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōndz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "participle",
        "present"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ōdaz",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "active",
        "participle",
        "past",
        "subjunctive"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-"
      },
      "name": "gem-conj-wk2"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/-ōną",
  "pos": "verb",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Creates denominative verbs from nouns."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "denominative",
          "denominative#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Creates factitive verbs from adjectives."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "factitive",
          "factitive#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ɔː.nɑ̃/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-ōną"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.