"duine" meaning in Old Irish

See duine in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: [ˈdunʲe]
Etymology: From Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (“human, person”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (“earthling, human”), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (“earth”) (whence also dú (“place, spot”)). Akin to Breton den (“man”) and Welsh dyn (“man”). For the parallel semantic development of the noun for "man, human" from the cognate nominal stem for "earth", compare Latin homō (“man, person”), Old Lithuanian žmuõ (“man”) and Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma). The plural doíni is suppletive, coming from a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (“to die”) generally reconstructed as Proto-Celtic *dowenis. Etymology templates: {{inh|sga|cel-pro|*gdonyos||human, person}} Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (“human, person”), {{der|sga|ine-pro|*dʰǵʰm̥mō||earthling, human}} Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (“earthling, human”), {{cog|br|den||man}} Breton den (“man”), {{cog|cy|dyn||man}} Welsh dyn (“man”), {{cog|la|homō||man, person}} Latin homō (“man, person”), {{cog|olt|žmuõ||man}} Old Lithuanian žmuõ (“man”), {{cog|got|𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰}} Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma), {{noncog|ine-pro|*dʰew-|t=to die}} Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (“to die”), {{der|sga|cel-pro|*dowenis}} Proto-Celtic *dowenis Head templates: {{head|sga|noun|||genitive|duini|||||||nominative plural|doíni||{{{pl2}}}||{{{pl3}}}|cat2=|g=m|g2=|g3=|head=|sort=}} duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni), {{sga-noun|m|duini|doíni}} duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni) Inflection templates: {{sga-decl-noun|acc_pl=doíni+H|acc_sg=duine+N|class=io-m|class2=i-m|dat_pl=doínib|dat_sg=duiniu+L|gen_pl=doíne+N|gen_sg=duini+L|n=sp|nom_pl=doíni+H|nom_sg=duine|voc_pl=doíni+H|voc_sg=duini+L}}, {{sga-mutation|d|uine}} Forms: duini [genitive], doíni [nominative, plural], no-table-tags [table-tags], duine [nominative, singular], - [dual, nominative], doíni [nominative, plural], duini [singular, vocative], - [dual, vocative], doíni [plural, vocative], duine [accusative, singular], - [accusative, dual], doíni [accusative, plural], duini [genitive, singular], - [dual, genitive], doíne [genitive, plural], duiniu [dative, singular], - [dative, dual], doínib [dative, plural], no-table-tags [table-tags], duine [mutation, mutation-radical], duine [mutation, mutation-nasal], nduine [mutation]
  1. person. human being Tags: masculine Categories (topical): Human
    Sense id: en-duine-sga-noun-TMmi8nJb Categories (other): Old Irish entries with incorrect language header

Inflected forms

Download JSONL data for duine meaning in Old Irish (6.1kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "mga",
            "2": "duine"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Irish: duine\nIrish: duine\nManx: dooinney\nScottish Gaelic: duine",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Irish: duine\nIrish: duine\nManx: dooinney\nScottish Gaelic: duine"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*gdonyos",
        "4": "",
        "5": "human, person"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (“human, person”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*dʰǵʰm̥mō",
        "4": "",
        "5": "earthling, human"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (“earthling, human”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "br",
        "2": "den",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man"
      },
      "expansion": "Breton den (“man”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "dyn",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh dyn (“man”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "homō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man, person"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin homō (“man, person”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "olt",
        "2": "žmuõ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Lithuanian žmuõ (“man”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰"
      },
      "expansion": "Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*dʰew-",
        "t": "to die"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (“to die”)",
      "name": "noncog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*dowenis"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *dowenis",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (“human, person”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (“earthling, human”), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (“earth”) (whence also dú (“place, spot”)).\nAkin to Breton den (“man”) and Welsh dyn (“man”). For the parallel semantic development of the noun for \"man, human\" from the cognate nominal stem for \"earth\", compare Latin homō (“man, person”), Old Lithuanian žmuõ (“man”) and Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma).\nThe plural doíni is suppletive, coming from a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (“to die”) generally reconstructed as Proto-Celtic *dowenis.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "duini",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-noun\n",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "io-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "i-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine io-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "masculine i-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíne",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duiniu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doínib",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-mutation",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-nasal"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "nduine",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "nominative plural",
        "14": "doíni",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "noun",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "genitive",
        "6": "duini",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "2": "duini",
        "3": "doíni"
      },
      "expansion": "duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_pl": "doíni+H",
        "acc_sg": "duine+N",
        "class": "io-m",
        "class2": "i-m",
        "dat_pl": "doínib",
        "dat_sg": "duiniu+L",
        "gen_pl": "doíne+N",
        "gen_sg": "duini+L",
        "n": "sp",
        "nom_pl": "doíni+H",
        "nom_sg": "duine",
        "voc_pl": "doíni+H",
        "voc_sg": "duini+L"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "d",
        "2": "uine"
      },
      "name": "sga-mutation"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "sga",
          "name": "Human",
          "orig": "sga:Human",
          "parents": [
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "that he should not suppose that I am a human but a god",
          "text": "arná{m}·tomnad námmin duine sed deus",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "english": "You will bind, i.e. you will restrain the evil people, O God, from their iniquity, for their iniquity is prosperous if they are not restrained by God.",
          "text": "Ɔ·riris-siu .i. ar·troídfe{a}-siu inna droch daíni, a Dǽ, dia n‑anduch, air is fechtnach a n‑andach mani erthroítar húa Día.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "person. human being"
      ],
      "id": "en-duine-sga-noun-TMmi8nJb",
      "links": [
        [
          "person",
          "person"
        ],
        [
          "human being",
          "human being"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈdunʲe]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "duine"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "gd-noun 2",
    "gd:Male",
    "gd:Male family members",
    "gd:People"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "mga",
            "2": "duine"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Irish: duine\nIrish: duine\nManx: dooinney\nScottish Gaelic: duine",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Irish: duine\nIrish: duine\nManx: dooinney\nScottish Gaelic: duine"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*gdonyos",
        "4": "",
        "5": "human, person"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (“human, person”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*dʰǵʰm̥mō",
        "4": "",
        "5": "earthling, human"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (“earthling, human”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "br",
        "2": "den",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man"
      },
      "expansion": "Breton den (“man”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "dyn",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh dyn (“man”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "homō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man, person"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin homō (“man, person”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "olt",
        "2": "žmuõ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "man"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Lithuanian žmuõ (“man”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰"
      },
      "expansion": "Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*dʰew-",
        "t": "to die"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (“to die”)",
      "name": "noncog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*dowenis"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *dowenis",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Celtic *gdonyos (“human, person”), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm̥mō (“earthling, human”), a derivation of *dʰéǵʰōm (“earth”) (whence also dú (“place, spot”)).\nAkin to Breton den (“man”) and Welsh dyn (“man”). For the parallel semantic development of the noun for \"man, human\" from the cognate nominal stem for \"earth\", compare Latin homō (“man, person”), Old Lithuanian žmuõ (“man”) and Gothic 𐌲𐌿𐌼𐌰 (guma).\nThe plural doíni is suppletive, coming from a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *dʰew- (“to die”) generally reconstructed as Proto-Celtic *dowenis.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "duini",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-noun\n",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "io-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "i-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine io-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "masculine i-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíni",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doíne",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duiniu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "doínib",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-mutation",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "duine",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-nasal"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "nduine",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "nominative plural",
        "14": "doíni",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "noun",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "genitive",
        "6": "duini",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "2": "duini",
        "3": "doíni"
      },
      "expansion": "duine m (genitive duini, nominative plural doíni)",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_pl": "doíni+H",
        "acc_sg": "duine+N",
        "class": "io-m",
        "class2": "i-m",
        "dat_pl": "doínib",
        "dat_sg": "duiniu+L",
        "gen_pl": "doíne+N",
        "gen_sg": "duini+L",
        "n": "sp",
        "nom_pl": "doíni+H",
        "nom_sg": "duine",
        "voc_pl": "doíni+H",
        "voc_sg": "duini+L"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "d",
        "2": "uine"
      },
      "name": "sga-mutation"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
        "Old Irish lemmas",
        "Old Irish masculine io-stem nouns",
        "Old Irish masculine nouns",
        "Old Irish masculine or feminine i-stem nouns",
        "Old Irish nouns",
        "Old Irish suppletive nouns",
        "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Celtic",
        "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Celtic",
        "Old Irish terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "Old Irish terms with quotations",
        "sga:Human"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "that he should not suppose that I am a human but a god",
          "text": "arná{m}·tomnad námmin duine sed deus",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "english": "You will bind, i.e. you will restrain the evil people, O God, from their iniquity, for their iniquity is prosperous if they are not restrained by God.",
          "text": "Ɔ·riris-siu .i. ar·troídfe{a}-siu inna droch daíni, a Dǽ, dia n‑anduch, air is fechtnach a n‑andach mani erthroítar húa Día.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "person. human being"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "person",
          "person"
        ],
        [
          "human being",
          "human being"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈdunʲe]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "duine"
}
{
  "called_from": "inflection/2466",
  "msg": "accepted heuristic header: table cell identified as header and given candidate status, AND the cleaned text is in LANGUAGES_WITH_CELLS_AS_HEADERS[Old Irish]; cleaned text: Initial mutations of a following adjective: *ᴴ = triggers aspiration *ᴸ = triggers lenition *ᴺ = triggers nasalization",
  "path": [
    "duine"
  ],
  "section": "Old Irish",
  "subsection": "noun",
  "title": "duine",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Old Irish dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-07-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-07-01 using wiktextract (f8674bc and 7cfad79). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.