"beithir" meaning in Old Irish

See beithir in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: [ˈbʲeθʲirʲ]
Etymology: Possibly from Proto-Celtic *betrixs. The sense of “bear”, according to MacBain, was undoubtedly influenced by or borrowed from Proto-Germanic *berô, but the word also had the sense of “wild beast, serpent, monster”, and the like, which could be a Celtic descendant of the source of Latin bēstia (“wild beast”), itself of uncertain origin Etymology templates: {{inh|sga|cel-pro|*betrixs}} Proto-Celtic *betrixs, {{m-g|bear}} “bear”, {{der|sga|gem-pro|*berô}} Proto-Germanic *berô, {{m-g|wild beast, serpent, monster}} “wild beast, serpent, monster”, {{der|sga|cel|-}} Celtic, {{cog|la|bēstia|t=wild beast}} Latin bēstia (“wild beast”) Head templates: {{head|sga|noun|||genitive|bethrach|or|beithre||||||{{{3}}}||{{{pl2}}}||{{{pl3}}}|cat2=|g=f|g2=m|g3=|head=|sort=}} beithir f or m (genitive bethrach or beithre), {{sga-noun|f|bethrach|g2=m|gen2=beithre}} beithir f or m (genitive bethrach or beithre) Inflection templates: {{sga-decl-k&g|k|bethraig|bethrach|g=f}}, {{sga-decl-noun|acc_du=bethraig+L|acc_du2=|acc_du3=|acc_pl=bethracha|acc_pl2=|acc_pl3=|acc_sg=bethraig+N|acc_sg2=|acc_sg3=|class=k-f|dat_du=bethrachaib|dat_du2=|dat_du3=|dat_pl=bethrachaib|dat_pl2=|dat_pl3=|dat_sg=bethraig+L|dat_sg2=|dat_sg3=|gen_du=bethrach|gen_du2=|gen_du3=|gen_pl=bethrach+N|gen_pl2=|gen_pl3=|gen_sg=bethrach|gen_sg2=|gen_sg3=|n=|nom_du=bethraig+L|nom_du2=|nom_du3=|nom_pl=bethraig|nom_pl2=|nom_pl3=|nom_sg=beithir|nom_sg2=|nom_sg3=|voc_du=bethraig+L|voc_du2=|voc_du3=|voc_pl=bethracha|voc_pl2=|voc_pl3=|voc_sg=beithir|voc_sg2=|voc_sg3=}}, {{sga-mutation|b|eithir}} Forms: bethrach [genitive], beithre [genitive], no-table-tags [table-tags], beithir [nominative, singular], bethraig [dual, nominative], bethraig [nominative, plural], beithir [singular, vocative], bethraig [dual, vocative], bethracha [plural, vocative], bethraig [accusative, singular], bethraig [accusative, dual], bethracha [accusative, plural], bethrach [genitive, singular], bethrach [dual, genitive], bethrach [genitive, plural], bethraig [dative, singular], bethrachaib [dative, dual], bethrachaib [dative, plural], no-table-tags [table-tags], beithir [mutation, mutation-radical], beithir [mutation, mutation-nasal], mbeithir [mutation]
  1. bear Tags: feminine, masculine Categories (lifeform): Ursids
    Sense id: en-beithir-sga-noun-vJi7UOgJ Disambiguation of Ursids: 69 31
  2. warrior, hero Tags: feminine, masculine Categories (topical): People
    Sense id: en-beithir-sga-noun-ZFlGnfjl Disambiguation of People: 0 100 Categories (other): Old Irish entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Old Irish entries with incorrect language header: 15 85

Download JSONL data for beithir meaning in Old Irish (5.5kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*betrixs"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *betrixs",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "bear"
      },
      "expansion": "“bear”",
      "name": "m-g"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*berô"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *berô",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "wild beast, serpent, monster"
      },
      "expansion": "“wild beast, serpent, monster”",
      "name": "m-g"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Celtic",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "bēstia",
        "t": "wild beast"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin bēstia (“wild beast”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly from Proto-Celtic *betrixs. The sense of “bear”, according to MacBain, was undoubtedly influenced by or borrowed from Proto-Germanic *berô, but the word also had the sense of “wild beast, serpent, monster”, and the like, which could be a Celtic descendant of the source of Latin bēstia (“wild beast”), itself of uncertain origin",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithre",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-k&g",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "k-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Feminine k-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethracha",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethracha",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrachaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrachaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-mutation",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-nasal"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "mbeithir",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "",
        "14": "{{{3}}}",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "noun",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "genitive",
        "6": "bethrach",
        "7": "or",
        "8": "beithre",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "",
        "g": "f",
        "g2": "m",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "beithir f or m (genitive bethrach or beithre)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "f",
        "2": "bethrach",
        "g2": "m",
        "gen2": "beithre"
      },
      "expansion": "beithir f or m (genitive bethrach or beithre)",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "k",
        "2": "bethraig",
        "3": "bethrach",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-k&g"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "bethraig+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_pl": "bethracha",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "bethraig+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "k-f",
        "dat_du": "bethrachaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "bethrachaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "bethraig+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "bethrach",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "bethrach+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "bethrach",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "",
        "nom_du": "bethraig+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_pl": "bethraig",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "beithir",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "bethraig+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_pl": "bethracha",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "beithir",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "b",
        "2": "eithir"
      },
      "name": "sga-mutation"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "69 31",
          "kind": "lifeform",
          "langcode": "sga",
          "name": "Ursids",
          "orig": "sga:Ursids",
          "parents": [
            "Carnivores",
            "Mammals",
            "Vertebrates",
            "Chordates",
            "Animals",
            "Lifeforms",
            "All topics",
            "Life",
            "Fundamental",
            "Nature"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "bear"
      ],
      "id": "en-beithir-sga-noun-vJi7UOgJ",
      "links": [
        [
          "bear",
          "bear"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "masculine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "15 85",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "0 100",
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "sga",
          "name": "People",
          "orig": "sga:People",
          "parents": [
            "Human",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "warrior, hero"
      ],
      "id": "en-beithir-sga-noun-ZFlGnfjl",
      "links": [
        [
          "warrior",
          "warrior"
        ],
        [
          "hero",
          "hero"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈbʲeθʲirʲ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "beithir"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old Irish feminine nouns",
    "Old Irish k-stem nouns",
    "Old Irish lemmas",
    "Old Irish masculine nouns",
    "Old Irish nouns",
    "Old Irish nouns with multiple genders",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Celtic languages",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Germanic",
    "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "gd-noun 2",
    "gd:Snakes",
    "gd:Ursids",
    "sga:People",
    "sga:Ursids"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*betrixs"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *betrixs",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "bear"
      },
      "expansion": "“bear”",
      "name": "m-g"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "gem-pro",
        "3": "*berô"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Germanic *berô",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "wild beast, serpent, monster"
      },
      "expansion": "“wild beast, serpent, monster”",
      "name": "m-g"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Celtic",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "bēstia",
        "t": "wild beast"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin bēstia (“wild beast”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly from Proto-Celtic *betrixs. The sense of “bear”, according to MacBain, was undoubtedly influenced by or borrowed from Proto-Germanic *berô, but the word also had the sense of “wild beast, serpent, monster”, and the like, which could be a Celtic descendant of the source of Latin bēstia (“wild beast”), itself of uncertain origin",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithre",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-k&g",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "k-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Feminine k-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethracha",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethracha",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrach",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethraig",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrachaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "bethrachaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-mutation",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "beithir",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-nasal"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "mbeithir",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "",
        "14": "{{{3}}}",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "noun",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "genitive",
        "6": "bethrach",
        "7": "or",
        "8": "beithre",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "",
        "g": "f",
        "g2": "m",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "beithir f or m (genitive bethrach or beithre)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "f",
        "2": "bethrach",
        "g2": "m",
        "gen2": "beithre"
      },
      "expansion": "beithir f or m (genitive bethrach or beithre)",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "k",
        "2": "bethraig",
        "3": "bethrach",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-k&g"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "bethraig+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_pl": "bethracha",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "bethraig+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "k-f",
        "dat_du": "bethrachaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "bethrachaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "bethraig+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "bethrach",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "bethrach+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "bethrach",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "",
        "nom_du": "bethraig+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_pl": "bethraig",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "beithir",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "bethraig+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_pl": "bethracha",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "beithir",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "b",
        "2": "eithir"
      },
      "name": "sga-mutation"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "bear"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "bear",
          "bear"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "masculine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "warrior, hero"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "warrior",
          "warrior"
        ],
        [
          "hero",
          "hero"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ˈbʲeθʲirʲ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "beithir"
}
{
  "called_from": "inflection/2466",
  "msg": "accepted heuristic header: table cell identified as header and given candidate status, AND the cleaned text is in LANGUAGES_WITH_CELLS_AS_HEADERS[Old Irish]; cleaned text: Initial mutations of a following adjective: *ᴴ = triggers aspiration *ᴸ = triggers lenition *ᴺ = triggers nasalization",
  "path": [
    "beithir"
  ],
  "section": "Old Irish",
  "subsection": "noun",
  "title": "beithir",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Old Irish dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-07-22 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-07-20 using wiktextract (0af6c06 and 6aeea9b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.