"-tu" meaning in Old Irish

See -tu in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Suffix

Etymology: From Proto-Celtic *-tūts (stem *-tūt-; compare Welsh -tid), from Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (whence Latin -tūs and Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs)). Etymology templates: {{inh|sga|cel-pro|*-tūts}} Proto-Celtic *-tūts, {{cog|cy|-tid}} Welsh -tid, {{inh|sga|ine-pro|*-tuHts}} Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts, {{cog|la|-tūs|id=abstract noun}} Latin -tūs, {{cog|got|-𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃|tr=-dūþs}} Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs) Head templates: {{head|sga|suffix||||{{{2}}}||||||||{{{3}}}||{{{pl2}}}||{{{pl3}}}|cat2=noun-forming suffixes|g=m|g2=|g3=|head=|sort=}} -tu m, {{sga-noun|m|suff=1}} -tu m Inflection templates: {{sga-decl-t&d|d|-taid|-tad|g=m|n=s}}, {{sga-decl-noun|acc_du=-taid+L|acc_du2=-tu|acc_du3=|acc_du4=|acc_pl=-tada|acc_pl2=|acc_pl3=|acc_sg=-taid+N|acc_sg2=|acc_sg3=|class=d-m|dat_du=-tadaib|dat_du2=|dat_du3=|dat_pl=-tadaib|dat_pl2=|dat_pl3=|dat_sg=-taid+L|dat_sg2=|dat_sg3=|gen_du=-tad|gen_du2=|gen_du3=|gen_pl=-tad+N|gen_pl2=|gen_pl3=|gen_sg=-tad|gen_sg2=|gen_sg3=|n=s|nom_du=-taid+L|nom_du2=-tu|nom_du3=|nom_du4=|nom_pl=-taid|nom_pl2=|nom_pl3=|nom_sg=-tu|nom_sg2=|nom_sg3=|voc_du=-taid+L|voc_du2=-tu|voc_du3=|voc_du4=|voc_pl=-tada|voc_pl2=|voc_pl3=|voc_sg=-tu|voc_sg2=|voc_sg3=}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], -tu [nominative, singular], - [dual, nominative], - [nominative, plural], -tu [singular, vocative], - [dual, vocative], - [plural, vocative], -taid [accusative, singular], - [accusative, dual], - [accusative, plural], -tad [genitive, singular], - [dual, genitive], - [genitive, plural], -taid [dative, singular], - [dative, dual], - [dative, plural]
  1. -ness, -ity Tags: masculine, morpheme Synonyms: -atu, -etu, -thu, -tiu

Download JSON data for -tu meaning in Old Irish (4.2kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*-tūts"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *-tūts",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "-tid"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh -tid",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-tuHts"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "-tūs",
        "id": "abstract noun"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -tūs",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "-𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃",
        "tr": "-dūþs"
      },
      "expansion": "Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Celtic *-tūts (stem *-tūt-; compare Welsh -tid), from Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (whence Latin -tūs and Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs)).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-t&d",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "d-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine d-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-tu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-tu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-taid",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-tad",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-taid",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "",
        "14": "{{{3}}}",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "{{{2}}}",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "noun-forming suffixes",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-tu m",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "suff": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "-tu m",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "d",
        "2": "-taid",
        "3": "-tad",
        "g": "m",
        "n": "s"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-t&d"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "-taid+L",
        "acc_du2": "-tu",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_du4": "",
        "acc_pl": "-tada",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "-taid+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "d-m",
        "dat_du": "-tadaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "-tadaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "-taid+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "-tad",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "-tad+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "-tad",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "s",
        "nom_du": "-taid+L",
        "nom_du2": "-tu",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_du4": "",
        "nom_pl": "-taid",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "-tu",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "-taid+L",
        "voc_du2": "-tu",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_du4": "",
        "voc_pl": "-tada",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "-tu",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gothic terms with non-redundant manual transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with non-redundant manual transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "-ness, -ity"
      ],
      "id": "en--tu-sga-suffix-GYoW3VVX",
      "links": [
        [
          "-ness",
          "-ness"
        ],
        [
          "-ity",
          "-ity"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-atu"
        },
        {
          "word": "-etu"
        },
        {
          "word": "-thu"
        },
        {
          "word": "-tiu"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-tu"
}
{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*-tūts"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *-tūts",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "-tid"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh -tid",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-tuHts"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "-tūs",
        "id": "abstract noun"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin -tūs",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "got",
        "2": "-𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃",
        "tr": "-dūþs"
      },
      "expansion": "Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Celtic *-tūts (stem *-tūt-; compare Welsh -tid), from Proto-Indo-European *-tuHts (whence Latin -tūs and Gothic -𐌳𐌿𐌸𐍃 (-dūþs)).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-t&d",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "d-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine d-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-tu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-tu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-taid",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-tad",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-taid",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "",
        "14": "{{{3}}}",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "suffix",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "",
        "6": "{{{2}}}",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "noun-forming suffixes",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "-tu m",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "suff": "1"
      },
      "expansion": "-tu m",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "d",
        "2": "-taid",
        "3": "-tad",
        "g": "m",
        "n": "s"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-t&d"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "-taid+L",
        "acc_du2": "-tu",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_du4": "",
        "acc_pl": "-tada",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "-taid+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "d-m",
        "dat_du": "-tadaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "-tadaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "-taid+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "-tad",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "-tad+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "-tad",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "s",
        "nom_du": "-taid+L",
        "nom_du2": "-tu",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_du4": "",
        "nom_pl": "-taid",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "-tu",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "-taid+L",
        "voc_du2": "-tu",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_du4": "",
        "voc_pl": "-tada",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "-tu",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gothic terms with non-redundant manual transliterations",
        "Old Irish d-stem nouns",
        "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
        "Old Irish lemmas",
        "Old Irish masculine suffixes",
        "Old Irish noun-forming suffixes",
        "Old Irish suffixes",
        "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Celtic",
        "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Celtic",
        "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Old Irish uncountable nouns"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "-ness, -ity"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "-ness",
          "-ness"
        ],
        [
          "-ity",
          "-ity"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "-atu"
    },
    {
      "word": "-etu"
    },
    {
      "word": "-thu"
    },
    {
      "word": "-tiu"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-tu"
}
{
  "called_from": "inflection/2466",
  "msg": "accepted heuristic header: table cell identified as header and given candidate status, AND the cleaned text is in LANGUAGES_WITH_CELLS_AS_HEADERS[Old Irish]; cleaned text: Initial mutations of a following adjective: *ᴴ = triggers aspiration *ᴸ = triggers lenition *ᴺ = triggers nasalization",
  "path": [
    "-tu"
  ],
  "section": "Old Irish",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-tu",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Old Irish dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.