"-em" meaning in Old Irish

See -em in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Suffix

IPA: [eṽ]
Etymology: table From Proto-Celtic *-mū, from Proto-Indo-European *-mō. Etymology templates: {{etymid|sga|occupational}} table, {{inh|sga|cel-pro|*-mū}} Proto-Celtic *-mū, {{inh|sga|ine-pro|*-mō}} Proto-Indo-European *-mō Head templates: {{head|sga|suffix|g=m}} -em m Inflection templates: {{sga-decl-n-mf|-emain|-eman|g=m}}, {{sga-decl-noun|acc_du=-emain+L|acc_du2=|acc_du3=|acc_du4=|acc_pl=-emna+H|acc_pl2=|acc_pl3=|acc_sg=-emain+N|acc_sg2=|acc_sg3=|acc_sg4=|acc_sg5=|class=n-m|dat_du=-emnaib|dat_du2=|dat_du3=|dat_pl=-emnaib|dat_pl2=|dat_pl3=|dat_sg=-emain+L|dat_sg2=-em+L|dat_sg3=|dat_sg4=|dat_sg5=|dat_sg6=|gen_du=-eman+L|gen_du2=|gen_du3=|gen_pl=-eman+N|gen_pl2=|gen_pl3=|gen_sg=-eman|gen_sg2=|gen_sg3=|n=|nom_du=-emain+L|nom_du2=|nom_du3=|nom_du4=|nom_pl=-emain|nom_pl2=|nom_pl3=|nom_sg=-em|nom_sg2=|nom_sg3=|nom_sg4=|voc_du=-emain+L|voc_du2=|voc_du3=|voc_du4=|voc_pl=-emna+H|voc_pl2=|voc_pl3=|voc_sg=-em|voc_sg2=|voc_sg3=|voc_sg4=}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], -em [nominative, singular], -emain [dual, nominative], -emain [nominative, plural], -em [singular, vocative], -emain [dual, vocative], -emna [plural, vocative], -emain [accusative, singular], -emain [accusative, dual], -emna [accusative, plural], -eman [genitive, singular], -eman [dual, genitive], -eman [genitive, plural], -emain [dative, singular], -em [dative, singular], -emnaib [dative, dual], -emnaib [dative, plural]
  1. Forms occupational nouns. Tags: masculine, morpheme
    Sense id: en--em-sga-suffix-yjl3WcCV
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix

IPA: [eṽ]
Etymology: table From Proto-Celtic *-īmā, a verbal noun suffix for -ī- verbs in Celtic. Cognate with Welsh -i, from Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃. Etymology templates: {{etymid|sga|verbnoun}} table, {{inh|sga|cel-pro|*-īmā}} Proto-Celtic *-īmā, {{cog|cy|-i}} Welsh -i, {{cog|cel-bry-pro|*-iβ̃}} Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃ Head templates: {{head|sga|suffix|g=f}} -em f Inflection templates: {{sga-decl-a-fem|-im|gen_sg=-me|n=s}}, {{sga-decl-noun|acc_du=-im+L|acc_du2=|acc_du3=|acc_pl=-ema+H|acc_pl2=|acc_pl3=|acc_sg=-im+N|acc_sg2=|acc_sg3=|class=ā-f|dat_du=-emaib|dat_du2=|dat_du3=|dat_pl=-emaib|dat_pl2=|dat_pl3=|dat_sg=-im+L|dat_sg2=|dat_sg3=|gen_du=-em+L|gen_du2=|gen_du3=|gen_pl=-em+N|gen_pl2=|gen_pl3=|gen_sg=-me+H|gen_sg2=|gen_sg3=|n=s|nom_du=-im+L|nom_du2=|nom_du3=|nom_pl=-ema+H|nom_pl2=|nom_pl3=|nom_sg=-em+L|nom_sg2=|nom_sg3=|voc_du=-im+L|voc_du2=|voc_du3=|voc_pl=-ema+H|voc_pl2=|voc_pl3=|voc_sg=-em+L|voc_sg2=|voc_sg3=}} Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], -em [nominative, singular], - [dual, nominative], - [nominative, plural], -em [singular, vocative], - [dual, vocative], - [plural, vocative], -im [accusative, singular], - [accusative, dual], - [accusative, plural], -me [genitive, singular], - [dual, genitive], - [genitive, plural], -im [dative, singular], - [dative, dual], - [dative, plural]
  1. Forms verbal nouns of class A II weak verbs with roots ending in dentals. Tags: feminine, morpheme Synonyms: -am (english: after a broad consonant)
    Sense id: en--em-sga-suffix-FQ-0Hjub Categories (other): Old Irish entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Old Irish entries with incorrect language header: 40 60
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Download JSON data for -em meaning in Old Irish (7.6kB)

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "occupational"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*-mū"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *-mū",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-mō"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-mō",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\nFrom Proto-Celtic *-mū, from Proto-Indo-European *-mō.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-n-mf",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "n-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine n-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emna",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emna",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-eman",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-eman",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-eman",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emnaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emnaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "suffix",
        "g": "m"
      },
      "expansion": "-em m",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-emain",
        "2": "-eman",
        "g": "m"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-n-mf"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "-emain+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_du4": "",
        "acc_pl": "-emna+H",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "-emain+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "acc_sg4": "",
        "acc_sg5": "",
        "class": "n-m",
        "dat_du": "-emnaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "-emnaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "-emain+L",
        "dat_sg2": "-em+L",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "dat_sg4": "",
        "dat_sg5": "",
        "dat_sg6": "",
        "gen_du": "-eman+L",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "-eman+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "-eman",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "",
        "nom_du": "-emain+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_du4": "",
        "nom_pl": "-emain",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "-em",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "nom_sg4": "",
        "voc_du": "-emain+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_du4": "",
        "voc_pl": "-emna+H",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "-em",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": "",
        "voc_sg4": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "flaith (“rule”) + -em → flaithem (“ruler”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "breth (“judgement”) + -em → brithem (“judge”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "fíach (“debt”) + -em → féchem (“debtor”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms occupational nouns."
      ],
      "id": "en--em-sga-suffix-yjl3WcCV",
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[eṽ]"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "-em"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ga",
            "2": "-amh"
          },
          "expansion": "Irish: -amh",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Irish: -amh"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gd",
            "2": "-amh"
          },
          "expansion": "Scottish Gaelic: -amh",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scottish Gaelic: -amh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "verbnoun"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*-īmā"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *-īmā",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "-i"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh -i",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cel-bry-pro",
        "2": "*-iβ̃"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\nFrom Proto-Celtic *-īmā, a verbal noun suffix for -ī- verbs in Celtic. Cognate with Welsh -i, from Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-a-fem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ā-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Feminine ā-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-im",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-me",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-im",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "suffix",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "expansion": "-em f",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-im",
        "gen_sg": "-me",
        "n": "s"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-a-fem"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "-im+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_pl": "-ema+H",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "-im+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "ā-f",
        "dat_du": "-emaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "-emaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "-im+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "-em+L",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "-em+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "-me+H",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "s",
        "nom_du": "-im+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_pl": "-ema+H",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "-em+L",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "-im+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_pl": "-ema+H",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "-em+L",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "40 60",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "feithid (“to watch over”) + -em → fethem (“watching over”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "moídid (“to boast”) + -em → moídem (“boasting”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "ad·gládathar (“to converse with”) + -em → acaldam (“conversation”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms verbal nouns of class A II weak verbs with roots ending in dentals."
      ],
      "id": "en--em-sga-suffix-FQ-0Hjub",
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "english": "after a broad consonant",
          "word": "-am"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[eṽ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-em"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old Irish feminine suffixes",
    "Old Irish lemmas",
    "Old Irish masculine or feminine n-stem nouns",
    "Old Irish masculine suffixes",
    "Old Irish suffixes",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old Irish terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Old Irish uncountable nouns",
    "Old Irish ā-stem nouns"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "occupational"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*-mū"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *-mū",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*-mō"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *-mō",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\nFrom Proto-Celtic *-mū, from Proto-Indo-European *-mō.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-n-mf",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "n-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine n-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emna",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emna",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-eman",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-eman",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-eman",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emain",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emnaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-emnaib",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "suffix",
        "g": "m"
      },
      "expansion": "-em m",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-emain",
        "2": "-eman",
        "g": "m"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-n-mf"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "-emain+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_du4": "",
        "acc_pl": "-emna+H",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "-emain+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "acc_sg4": "",
        "acc_sg5": "",
        "class": "n-m",
        "dat_du": "-emnaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "-emnaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "-emain+L",
        "dat_sg2": "-em+L",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "dat_sg4": "",
        "dat_sg5": "",
        "dat_sg6": "",
        "gen_du": "-eman+L",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "-eman+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "-eman",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "",
        "nom_du": "-emain+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_du4": "",
        "nom_pl": "-emain",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "-em",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "nom_sg4": "",
        "voc_du": "-emain+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_du4": "",
        "voc_pl": "-emna+H",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "-em",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": "",
        "voc_sg4": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "flaith (“rule”) + -em → flaithem (“ruler”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "breth (“judgement”) + -em → brithem (“judge”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "fíach (“debt”) + -em → féchem (“debtor”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms occupational nouns."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[eṽ]"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "-em"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old Irish feminine suffixes",
    "Old Irish lemmas",
    "Old Irish suffixes",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms inherited from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Old Irish uncountable nouns",
    "Old Irish ā-stem nouns"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ga",
            "2": "-amh"
          },
          "expansion": "Irish: -amh",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Irish: -amh"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gd",
            "2": "-amh"
          },
          "expansion": "Scottish Gaelic: -amh",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scottish Gaelic: -amh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "verbnoun"
      },
      "expansion": "table",
      "name": "etymid"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*-īmā"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *-īmā",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "-i"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh -i",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cel-bry-pro",
        "2": "*-iβ̃"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "table\nFrom Proto-Celtic *-īmā, a verbal noun suffix for -ī- verbs in Celtic. Cognate with Welsh -i, from Proto-Brythonic *-iβ̃.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-a-fem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ā-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Feminine ā-stem",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-em",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-im",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-me",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-im",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "suffix",
        "g": "f"
      },
      "expansion": "-em f",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-im",
        "gen_sg": "-me",
        "n": "s"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-a-fem"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "-im+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_pl": "-ema+H",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "-im+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "ā-f",
        "dat_du": "-emaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "-emaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "-im+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "-em+L",
        "gen_du2": "",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_pl": "-em+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "-me+H",
        "gen_sg2": "",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "n": "s",
        "nom_du": "-im+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_pl": "-ema+H",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_sg": "-em+L",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "-im+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_pl": "-ema+H",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "-em+L",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "feithid (“to watch over”) + -em → fethem (“watching over”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "moídid (“to boast”) + -em → moídem (“boasting”)",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "ad·gládathar (“to converse with”) + -em → acaldam (“conversation”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms verbal nouns of class A II weak verbs with roots ending in dentals."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "feminine",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[eṽ]"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "english": "after a broad consonant",
      "word": "-am"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-em"
}
{
  "called_from": "inflection/2466",
  "msg": "accepted heuristic header: table cell identified as header and given candidate status, AND the cleaned text is in LANGUAGES_WITH_CELLS_AS_HEADERS[Old Irish]; cleaned text: Initial mutations of a following adjective: *ᴴ = triggers aspiration *ᴸ = triggers lenition *ᴺ = triggers nasalization",
  "path": [
    "-em"
  ],
  "section": "Old Irish",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-em",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "inflection/2466",
  "msg": "accepted heuristic header: table cell identified as header and given candidate status, AND the cleaned text is in LANGUAGES_WITH_CELLS_AS_HEADERS[Old Irish]; cleaned text: Initial mutations of a following adjective: *ᴴ = triggers aspiration *ᴸ = triggers lenition *ᴺ = triggers nasalization",
  "path": [
    "-em"
  ],
  "section": "Old Irish",
  "subsection": "suffix",
  "title": "-em",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Old Irish dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.