"-라" meaning in Korean

See -라 in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Particle

IPA: [ɾa̠] [SK-Standard, Seoul] Forms: [canonical], -ra [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá), lenited form of 다〮 (Yale: -tá). It is not clear why lenition only occurred at these specific environments. Vovin speculates that lenition occurred at intervocalic environments except at verbal morpheme boundaries when preceded by a "minimal vowel": ㅡ (Yale: u-) or ㆍ (Yale: o-). Hence lenition occurred after 더 (Yale: -te-), but not after ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-). To explain why only the stem 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) triggers lenition and not the many Class H! verbs, all of whose stems end with a non-minimal vowel, Vovin suggests that all Class H! verbs were originally once closed-syllable stems with nasal or liquid finals. However, Vovin's arguments remain for the most part speculative. Etymology templates: {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-라〮|-lá}} 라〮 (Yale: -lá), {{okm-l|-다〮|-tá}} 다〮 (Yale: -tá), {{okm-l|ㅡ|u-}} ㅡ (Yale: u-), {{okm-l|ㆍ|o-}} ㆍ (Yale: o-), {{okm-l|-더-|-te-}} 더 (Yale: -te-), {{okm-l|-ᄂᆞ-|-no-}} ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-), {{okm-l|-이-|-ì-|to be|5=copula}} 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 라 • (-ra)
  1. Short for 라고 (-rago, post-vowel form of 이라고 (-irago, direct quotation marker)). Tags: abbreviation, alt-of Alternative form of: 라고 (extra: (-rago, post-vowel form of 이라고 (-irago, direct quotation marker)))
    Sense id: en--라-ko-particle-dVBO5sDr Categories (other): Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations, Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7 Disambiguation of Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks: 21 19 22 18 6 8 6
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Particle

IPA: [ɾa̠] [SK-Standard, Seoul] Forms: [canonical], -ra [romanization]
Etymology: Compare dialectal 레 (-re) and 리 (-ri). Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 라 • (-ra)
  1. (Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon) suffix used after words ending with a vowel. Tags: Gangwon, Northern Synonyms: -가 (english: Standard Korean)
    Sense id: en--라-ko-particle-TFDxAP2W Categories (other): Gangwon Korean, Hwanghae Korean, Pyongan Korean
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 4

Suffix

IPA: [ɾa̠] [SK-Standard, Seoul] Forms: [canonical], -ra [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá), lenited form of 다〮 (Yale: -tá). It is not clear why lenition only occurred at these specific environments. Vovin speculates that lenition occurred at intervocalic environments except at verbal morpheme boundaries when preceded by a "minimal vowel": ㅡ (Yale: u-) or ㆍ (Yale: o-). Hence lenition occurred after 더 (Yale: -te-), but not after ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-). To explain why only the stem 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) triggers lenition and not the many Class H! verbs, all of whose stems end with a non-minimal vowel, Vovin suggests that all Class H! verbs were originally once closed-syllable stems with nasal or liquid finals. However, Vovin's arguments remain for the most part speculative. Etymology templates: {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-라〮|-lá}} 라〮 (Yale: -lá), {{okm-l|-다〮|-tá}} 다〮 (Yale: -tá), {{okm-l|ㅡ|u-}} ㅡ (Yale: u-), {{okm-l|ㆍ|o-}} ㆍ (Yale: o-), {{okm-l|-더-|-te-}} 더 (Yale: -te-), {{okm-l|-ᄂᆞ-|-no-}} ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-), {{okm-l|-이-|-ì-|to be|5=copula}} 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 라 • (-ra)
  1. Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:
    Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):
    Used in all indirect quotes (either explicit or implicit), before markers such as 고 (-go), 니 (-ni), 면 (-myeon), etc.
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-5gPOfRTC Categories (other): Korean links with manual fragments, Korean links with redundant alt parameters, Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations, Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7 Disambiguation of Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks: 21 19 22 18 6 8 6
  2. Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:
    Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):
    (colloquial) Short for 라고 (-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally.
    Tags: abbreviation, alt-of, colloquial, morpheme Alternative form of: 라고 (extra: (-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally)
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-rbAu2J~R Categories (other): Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations, Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7 Disambiguation of Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks: 21 19 22 18 6 8 6
  3. Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:
    Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):
    (dated, dialectal or very literary) Used directly after the stem in all environments. This was historically obligatory but is now dated.
    Tags: dated, morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-VpxXopk3 Categories (other): Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations, Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7 Disambiguation of Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks: 21 19 22 18 6 8 6
  4. Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:
    After 더 (-deo-, retrospective suffix), as 더라 (-deora).
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-naCc8pid
  5. Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:
    Optionally after 으리 (-euri-, prospective suffix), as 으리라 (-eurira).
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-7VSKG97B
  6. Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:
    Used in 느니라 (-neunira).
    Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-QqQ65Pq3
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Suffix

IPA: [ɾa̠] [SK-Standard, Seoul] Forms: [canonical], -ra [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá). Etymology templates: {{anchor|after copula}}, {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-라〮|-lá}} 라〮 (Yale: -lá) Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 라 • (-ra)
  1. because, since; used directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”). It is the equivalent of the infinitive 어 (-eo) for other stems. Tags: morpheme Synonyms: -라서
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-wd~f9bzu
  2. Only used in 아니라 (anira, “but rather”). Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-KdxSIQ~K
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Suffix

IPA: [ɾa̠] [SK-Standard, Seoul] Forms: [canonical], -ra [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá); see the main entry for more. Etymology templates: {{anchor|으라}}, {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-라〮|-lá}} 라〮 (Yale: -lá) Head templates: {{ko-pos|suffix}} 라 • (-ra)
  1. Post-vowel and post-liquid allomorphic form of 으라 (-eura, imperative suffix). Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--라-ko-suffix-YFbVA-aw
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 3

Download JSON data for -라 meaning in Korean (16.9kB)

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-다〮",
        "2": "-tá"
      },
      "expansion": "다〮 (Yale: -tá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㅡ",
        "2": "u-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㅡ (Yale: u-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㆍ",
        "2": "o-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㆍ (Yale: o-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-더-",
        "2": "-te-"
      },
      "expansion": "더 (Yale: -te-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-ᄂᆞ-",
        "2": "-no-"
      },
      "expansion": "ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-이-",
        "2": "-ì-",
        "3": "to be",
        "5": "copula"
      },
      "expansion": "이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá), lenited form of 다〮 (Yale: -tá).\nIt is not clear why lenition only occurred at these specific environments. Vovin speculates that lenition occurred at intervocalic environments except at verbal morpheme boundaries when preceded by a \"minimal vowel\": ㅡ (Yale: u-) or ㆍ (Yale: o-). Hence lenition occurred after 더 (Yale: -te-), but not after ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-). To explain why only the stem 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) triggers lenition and not the many Class H! verbs, all of whose stems end with a non-minimal vowel, Vovin suggests that all Class H! verbs were originally once closed-syllable stems with nasal or liquid finals. However, Vovin's arguments remain for the most part speculative.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean links with manual fragments",
          "parents": [
            "Links with manual fragments",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean links with redundant alt parameters",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant alt parameters",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "21 19 22 18 6 8 6",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "What did you say?",
          "roman": "Mwo-ra-go?",
          "text": "뭐라고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Who did you say he was?",
          "roman": "Jae-ga nugu-ra-go?",
          "text": "쟤가 누구라고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "This isn't it?",
          "roman": "Ige ani-ra-go?",
          "text": "이게 아니라고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "That's a person? What do you mean?",
          "roman": "Jeoge saram-i-ra-ni, mwon mar-iya?",
          "text": "저게 사람이라니, 뭔 말이야?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "They say a sponge is also an animal.",
          "roman": "Seupeonji-do dongmur-i-ra-go geuraesseo.",
          "text": "스펀지도 동물이라고 그랬어.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I said that it wasn't me.",
          "roman": "Na-neun ani-ra-go geuraesseo.",
          "text": "나는 아니라고 그랬어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "Used in all indirect quotes (either explicit or implicit), before markers such as 고 (-go), 니 (-ni), 면 (-myeon), etc."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-5gPOfRTC",
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "고",
          "-고#quorative"
        ],
        [
          "니",
          "-니#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "면",
          "-면#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "(-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally",
          "word": "라고"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "21 19 22 18 6 8 6",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "They say a sponge is also an animal.",
          "roman": "Seupeonji-do dongmur-i-ra geuraesseo.",
          "text": "스펀지도 동물이라 그랬어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "Short for 라고 (-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-rbAu2J~R",
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "라",
          "-라#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "고",
          "-고#quorative"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "(colloquial) Short for 라고 (-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "colloquial",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "21 19 22 18 6 8 6",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "This is not a filial son.",
          "roman": "I-neun hyoja-ga ani-ra.",
          "text": "이는 효자가 아니라.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "If a man knows not the Way, he too is a beast.",
          "roman": "Do-reul moreu-geodeun saram-do geumsu-ra.",
          "text": "도를 모르거든 사람도 금수라.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "Used directly after the stem in all environments. This was historically obligatory but is now dated."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-VpxXopk3",
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "dialectal or very literary",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "(dated, dialectal or very literary) Used directly after the stem in all environments. This was historically obligatory but is now dated."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "dated",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "After 더 (-deo-, retrospective suffix), as 더라 (-deora)."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-naCc8pid",
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "더",
          "-더-#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "더라",
          "-더라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Optionally after 으리 (-euri-, prospective suffix), as 으리라 (-eurira)."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-7VSKG97B",
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "으리",
          "-으리-#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "으리라",
          "-으리라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Used in 느니라 (-neunira)."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-QqQ65Pq3",
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "느니라",
          "-느니라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-다〮",
        "2": "-tá"
      },
      "expansion": "다〮 (Yale: -tá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㅡ",
        "2": "u-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㅡ (Yale: u-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㆍ",
        "2": "o-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㆍ (Yale: o-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-더-",
        "2": "-te-"
      },
      "expansion": "더 (Yale: -te-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-ᄂᆞ-",
        "2": "-no-"
      },
      "expansion": "ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-이-",
        "2": "-ì-",
        "3": "to be",
        "5": "copula"
      },
      "expansion": "이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá), lenited form of 다〮 (Yale: -tá).\nIt is not clear why lenition only occurred at these specific environments. Vovin speculates that lenition occurred at intervocalic environments except at verbal morpheme boundaries when preceded by a \"minimal vowel\": ㅡ (Yale: u-) or ㆍ (Yale: o-). Hence lenition occurred after 더 (Yale: -te-), but not after ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-). To explain why only the stem 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) triggers lenition and not the many Class H! verbs, all of whose stems end with a non-minimal vowel, Vovin suggests that all Class H! verbs were originally once closed-syllable stems with nasal or liquid finals. However, Vovin's arguments remain for the most part speculative.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "(-rago, post-vowel form of 이라고 (-irago, direct quotation marker))",
          "word": "라고"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "16 6 16 16 14 5 7 5 7 2 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 5 15 16 13 6 7 6 6 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "13 6 14 15 13 6 8 6 7 4 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 5 15 16 14 5 8 5 7 3 7",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "21 19 22 18 6 8 6",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks",
          "parents": [
            "Links with redundant wikilinks",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Short for 라고 (-rago, post-vowel form of 이라고 (-irago, direct quotation marker))."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-particle-dVBO5sDr",
      "links": [
        [
          "라고",
          "-라고#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이라고",
          "-이라고#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "after copula"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "It's very expensive, maybe because it's organic.",
          "roman": "Yuginong-i-ra geureonji mani bissada.",
          "text": "유기농이라 그런지 많이 비싸다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "because, since; used directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”). It is the equivalent of the infinitive 어 (-eo) for other stems."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-wd~f9bzu",
      "links": [
        [
          "because",
          "because"
        ],
        [
          "since",
          "since"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "어",
          "-어#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-라서"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Only used in 아니라 (anira, “but rather”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-KdxSIQ~K",
      "links": [
        [
          "아니라",
          "아니라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "으라"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá); see the main entry for more.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Post-vowel and post-liquid allomorphic form of 으라 (-eura, imperative suffix)."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-suffix-YFbVA-aw",
      "links": [
        [
          "vowel",
          "vowel"
        ],
        [
          "liquid",
          "liquid"
        ],
        [
          "allomorph",
          "allomorph"
        ],
        [
          "으라",
          "-으라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_text": "Compare dialectal 레 (-re) and 리 (-ri).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gangwon Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Hwanghae Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Pyongan Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Is someone there?",
          "ref": "2007, 황대화 [hwangdaehwa], 황해도 방언 연구 [hwanghaedo bang'eon yeon'gu, Study of the Hwanghae dialect], (북한) 강원도 이천군 [(bukhan) gang'wondo icheon'gun]: 한국 문화사",
          "roman": "Nugura eom-ni?",
          "text": "누구라 없니?",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "suffix used after words ending with a vowel."
      ],
      "id": "en--라-ko-particle-TFDxAP2W",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon) suffix used after words ending with a vowel."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "english": "Standard Korean",
          "word": "-가"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gangwon",
        "Northern"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-다〮",
        "2": "-tá"
      },
      "expansion": "다〮 (Yale: -tá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㅡ",
        "2": "u-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㅡ (Yale: u-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㆍ",
        "2": "o-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㆍ (Yale: o-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-더-",
        "2": "-te-"
      },
      "expansion": "더 (Yale: -te-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-ᄂᆞ-",
        "2": "-no-"
      },
      "expansion": "ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-이-",
        "2": "-ì-",
        "3": "to be",
        "5": "copula"
      },
      "expansion": "이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá), lenited form of 다〮 (Yale: -tá).\nIt is not clear why lenition only occurred at these specific environments. Vovin speculates that lenition occurred at intervocalic environments except at verbal morpheme boundaries when preceded by a \"minimal vowel\": ㅡ (Yale: u-) or ㆍ (Yale: o-). Hence lenition occurred after 더 (Yale: -te-), but not after ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-). To explain why only the stem 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) triggers lenition and not the many Class H! verbs, all of whose stems end with a non-minimal vowel, Vovin suggests that all Class H! verbs were originally once closed-syllable stems with nasal or liquid finals. However, Vovin's arguments remain for the most part speculative.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean links with manual fragments",
        "Korean links with redundant alt parameters",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "What did you say?",
          "roman": "Mwo-ra-go?",
          "text": "뭐라고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Who did you say he was?",
          "roman": "Jae-ga nugu-ra-go?",
          "text": "쟤가 누구라고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "This isn't it?",
          "roman": "Ige ani-ra-go?",
          "text": "이게 아니라고?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "That's a person? What do you mean?",
          "roman": "Jeoge saram-i-ra-ni, mwon mar-iya?",
          "text": "저게 사람이라니, 뭔 말이야?",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "They say a sponge is also an animal.",
          "roman": "Seupeonji-do dongmur-i-ra-go geuraesseo.",
          "text": "스펀지도 동물이라고 그랬어.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I said that it wasn't me.",
          "roman": "Na-neun ani-ra-go geuraesseo.",
          "text": "나는 아니라고 그랬어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "Used in all indirect quotes (either explicit or implicit), before markers such as 고 (-go), 니 (-ni), 면 (-myeon), etc."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "고",
          "-고#quorative"
        ],
        [
          "니",
          "-니#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "면",
          "-면#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "(-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally",
          "word": "라고"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Korean colloquialisms",
        "Korean short forms",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "They say a sponge is also an animal.",
          "roman": "Seupeonji-do dongmur-i-ra geuraesseo.",
          "text": "스펀지도 동물이라 그랬어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "Short for 라고 (-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "라",
          "-라#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "고",
          "-고#quorative"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "(colloquial) Short for 라고 (-ra-go, alternative form of 다고 (-da-go) for the copulative stems), when not used sentence-finally."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of",
        "colloquial",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean dated terms",
        "Korean dialectal terms",
        "Korean literary terms",
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "This is not a filial son.",
          "roman": "I-neun hyoja-ga ani-ra.",
          "text": "이는 효자가 아니라.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "If a man knows not the Way, he too is a beast.",
          "roman": "Do-reul moreu-geodeun saram-do geumsu-ra.",
          "text": "도를 모르거든 사람도 금수라.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "Used directly after the stem in all environments. This was historically obligatory but is now dated."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "qualifier": "dialectal or very literary",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”):",
        "(dated, dialectal or very literary) Used directly after the stem in all environments. This was historically obligatory but is now dated."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "dated",
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "After 더 (-deo-, retrospective suffix), as 더라 (-deora)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "더",
          "-더-#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "더라",
          "-더라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Optionally after 으리 (-euri-, prospective suffix), as 으리라 (-eurira)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "으리",
          "-으리-#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "으리라",
          "-으리라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative form of 다 (-da, declarative suffix), found in the following environments:",
        "Used in 느니라 (-neunira)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "다",
          "-다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "느니라",
          "-느니라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
    "Middle Korean links with redundant wikilinks"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-다〮",
        "2": "-tá"
      },
      "expansion": "다〮 (Yale: -tá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㅡ",
        "2": "u-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㅡ (Yale: u-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ㆍ",
        "2": "o-"
      },
      "expansion": "ㆍ (Yale: o-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-더-",
        "2": "-te-"
      },
      "expansion": "더 (Yale: -te-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-ᄂᆞ-",
        "2": "-no-"
      },
      "expansion": "ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-이-",
        "2": "-ì-",
        "3": "to be",
        "5": "copula"
      },
      "expansion": "이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá), lenited form of 다〮 (Yale: -tá).\nIt is not clear why lenition only occurred at these specific environments. Vovin speculates that lenition occurred at intervocalic environments except at verbal morpheme boundaries when preceded by a \"minimal vowel\": ㅡ (Yale: u-) or ㆍ (Yale: o-). Hence lenition occurred after 더 (Yale: -te-), but not after ᄂᆞ (Yale: -no-). To explain why only the stem 이 (Yale: -ì-, “to be”, copula) triggers lenition and not the many Class H! verbs, all of whose stems end with a non-minimal vowel, Vovin suggests that all Class H! verbs were originally once closed-syllable stems with nasal or liquid finals. However, Vovin's arguments remain for the most part speculative.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "(-rago, post-vowel form of 이라고 (-irago, direct quotation marker))",
          "word": "라고"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        "Korean short forms"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Short for 라고 (-rago, post-vowel form of 이라고 (-irago, direct quotation marker))."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "라고",
          "-라고#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "이라고",
          "-이라고#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "abbreviation",
        "alt-of"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "after copula"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "It's very expensive, maybe because it's organic.",
          "roman": "Yuginong-i-ra geureonji mani bissada.",
          "text": "유기농이라 그런지 많이 비싸다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "because, since; used directly after the stem of 이다 (-ida, “to be”, copula), whether present or elided, and its negative 아니다 (anida, “to not be”). It is the equivalent of the infinitive 어 (-eo) for other stems."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "because",
          "because"
        ],
        [
          "since",
          "since"
        ],
        [
          "이다",
          "-이다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "아니다",
          "아니다#Korean"
        ],
        [
          "어",
          "-어#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-라서"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Only used in 아니라 (anira, “but rather”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "아니라",
          "아니라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean suffixes",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 3,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "으라"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "anchor"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-라〮",
        "2": "-lá"
      },
      "expansion": "라〮 (Yale: -lá)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 라〮 (Yale: -lá); see the main entry for more.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Post-vowel and post-liquid allomorphic form of 으라 (-eura, imperative suffix)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "vowel",
          "vowel"
        ],
        [
          "liquid",
          "liquid"
        ],
        [
          "allomorph",
          "allomorph"
        ],
        [
          "으라",
          "-으라#Korean"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 4,
  "etymology_text": "Compare dialectal 레 (-re) and 리 (-ri).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "라",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-ra",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "라 • (-ra)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gangwon Korean",
        "Hwanghae Korean",
        "Korean terms with quotations",
        "Pyongan Korean"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Is someone there?",
          "ref": "2007, 황대화 [hwangdaehwa], 황해도 방언 연구 [hwanghaedo bang'eon yeon'gu, Study of the Hwanghae dialect], (북한) 강원도 이천군 [(bukhan) gang'wondo icheon'gun]: 한국 문화사",
          "roman": "Nugura eom-ni?",
          "text": "누구라 없니?",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "suffix used after words ending with a vowel."
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon) suffix used after words ending with a vowel."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "english": "Standard Korean",
          "word": "-가"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gangwon",
        "Northern"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɾa̠]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[라]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-라"
}
{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon",
  "path": [
    "-라"
  ],
  "section": "Korean",
  "subsection": "particle",
  "title": "-라",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon",
  "path": [
    "-라"
  ],
  "section": "Korean",
  "subsection": "particle",
  "title": "-라",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon",
  "path": [
    "-라"
  ],
  "section": "Korean",
  "subsection": "particle",
  "title": "-라",
  "trace": ""
}

{
  "called_from": "form_descriptions/1831",
  "msg": "unrecognized sense qualifier: Hwanghae, Pyongan, Northern Gangwon",
  "path": [
    "-라"
  ],
  "section": "Korean",
  "subsection": "particle",
  "title": "-라",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Korean dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-04 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (e9e0a99 and db5a844). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.