"mirative" meaning in English

See mirative in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adjective

IPA: /ˈmɪɹətɪv/ [General-American, Received-Pronunciation] Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-mirative.wav
Etymology: Possibly from (ad)mirative, from French admiratif (“tending to admire”) (used by French diplomat and scholar Auguste Dozon (1822–1890), imitating the use of the Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”) in a similar context by Albanian translator and scholar Kostandin Kristoforidhi (1826–1895)), from Latin admīrārī, present active infinitive of admīror (“to admire, respect; to be astonished, to be surprised at”), from ad- (“prefix meaning ‘to’”) + mīror (“to admire, marvel at; to be amazed or astonished at”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)). Etymology templates: {{der|en|fr|admiratif||tending to admire}} French admiratif (“tending to admire”), {{noncog|grc|ἀπροσδόκητος||unexpected}} Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”), {{der|en|la|admīrārī}} Latin admīrārī, {{glossary|present}} present, {{glossary|active}} active, {{glossary|infinitive}} infinitive, {{der|en|ine-pro|*smey-||to be glad, laugh}} Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”) Head templates: {{en-adj|-}} mirative (not comparable)
  1. (grammar) Of or relating to the mirative mood. Tags: not-comparable Categories (topical): Grammatical moods Hypernyms: admirative Derived forms: mirativity Translations (of or relating to the mirative mood): miratiivi- (Finnish)
    Sense id: en-mirative-en-adj-CWb5lJgs Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English entries with language name categories using raw markup, English terms suffixed with -ive, Terms with Albanian translations, Terms with Finnish translations, Terms with German translations, Terms with Russian translations, Terms with Swedish translations Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 27 38 35 Disambiguation of English entries with language name categories using raw markup: 32 38 30 Disambiguation of English terms suffixed with -ive: 33 39 28 Disambiguation of Terms with Albanian translations: 33 38 29 Disambiguation of Terms with Finnish translations: 33 38 29 Disambiguation of Terms with German translations: 35 37 29 Disambiguation of Terms with Russian translations: 34 39 27 Disambiguation of Terms with Swedish translations: 33 38 29 Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences

Noun

IPA: /ˈmɪɹətɪv/ [General-American, Received-Pronunciation] Audio: LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-mirative.wav Forms: miratives [plural]
Etymology: Possibly from (ad)mirative, from French admiratif (“tending to admire”) (used by French diplomat and scholar Auguste Dozon (1822–1890), imitating the use of the Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”) in a similar context by Albanian translator and scholar Kostandin Kristoforidhi (1826–1895)), from Latin admīrārī, present active infinitive of admīror (“to admire, respect; to be astonished, to be surprised at”), from ad- (“prefix meaning ‘to’”) + mīror (“to admire, marvel at; to be amazed or astonished at”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)). Etymology templates: {{der|en|fr|admiratif||tending to admire}} French admiratif (“tending to admire”), {{noncog|grc|ἀπροσδόκητος||unexpected}} Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”), {{der|en|la|admīrārī}} Latin admīrārī, {{glossary|present}} present, {{glossary|active}} active, {{glossary|infinitive}} infinitive, {{der|en|ine-pro|*smey-||to be glad, laugh}} Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”) Head templates: {{en-noun|~}} mirative (countable and uncountable, plural miratives)
  1. (uncountable, grammar) A grammatical mood that expresses (surprise at) unexpected revelations or new information. Tags: uncountable Categories (topical): Grammatical moods Translations (grammatical mood): mënyra habitore [feminine] (Albanian), miratiivi (Finnish), Admirativ (German), адмирати́вность (admiratívnostʹ) (Russian), admirativ (Swedish)
    Sense id: en-mirative-en-noun-IOgW5t1H Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English entries with language name categories using raw markup, English terms suffixed with -ive, Terms with Albanian translations, Terms with Finnish translations, Terms with German translations, Terms with Russian translations, Terms with Swedish translations Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 27 38 35 Disambiguation of English entries with language name categories using raw markup: 32 38 30 Disambiguation of English terms suffixed with -ive: 33 39 28 Disambiguation of Terms with Albanian translations: 33 38 29 Disambiguation of Terms with Finnish translations: 33 38 29 Disambiguation of Terms with German translations: 35 37 29 Disambiguation of Terms with Russian translations: 34 39 27 Disambiguation of Terms with Swedish translations: 33 38 29 Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences Disambiguation of 'grammatical mood': 75 25
  2. (countable, grammar) (An instance of) a form of a word which conveys this mood. Tags: countable Categories (topical): Grammatical moods Translations (form of a word which conveys a mirative mood): miratiivi (Finnish)
    Sense id: en-mirative-en-noun-zS1aQp4m Categories (other): English entries with incorrect language header, English entries with language name categories using raw markup, English terms suffixed with -ive, Terms with Albanian translations, Terms with Finnish translations, Terms with German translations, Terms with Russian translations, Terms with Swedish translations Disambiguation of English entries with incorrect language header: 27 38 35 Disambiguation of English entries with language name categories using raw markup: 32 38 30 Disambiguation of English terms suffixed with -ive: 33 39 28 Disambiguation of Terms with Albanian translations: 33 38 29 Disambiguation of Terms with Finnish translations: 33 38 29 Disambiguation of Terms with German translations: 35 37 29 Disambiguation of Terms with Russian translations: 34 39 27 Disambiguation of Terms with Swedish translations: 33 38 29 Topics: grammar, human-sciences, linguistics, sciences Disambiguation of 'form of a word which conveys a mirative mood': 44 56
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: list at admire

Inflected forms

Download JSONL data for mirative meaning in English (16.6kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "fr",
        "3": "admiratif",
        "4": "",
        "5": "tending to admire"
      },
      "expansion": "French admiratif (“tending to admire”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἀπροσδόκητος",
        "3": "",
        "4": "unexpected"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”)",
      "name": "noncog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "admīrārī"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin admīrārī",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "present"
      },
      "expansion": "present",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "active"
      },
      "expansion": "active",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "infinitive"
      },
      "expansion": "infinitive",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*smey-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "to be glad, laugh"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly from (ad)mirative, from French admiratif (“tending to admire”) (used by French diplomat and scholar Auguste Dozon (1822–1890), imitating the use of the Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”) in a similar context by Albanian translator and scholar Kostandin Kristoforidhi (1826–1895)), from Latin admīrārī, present active infinitive of admīror (“to admire, respect; to be astonished, to be surprised at”), from ad- (“prefix meaning ‘to’”) + mīror (“to admire, marvel at; to be amazed or astonished at”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "miratives",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "~"
      },
      "expansion": "mirative (countable and uncountable, plural miratives)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "mi‧rat‧ive"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "list at admire"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammatical moods",
          "orig": "en:Grammatical moods",
          "parents": [
            "Grammar",
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "27 38 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "32 38 30",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 39 28",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English terms suffixed with -ive",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Albanian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Finnish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "35 37 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with German translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "34 39 27",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Russian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Swedish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1986, Wallace [L.] Chafe, Johanna Nichols, editors, Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology, Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, footnote 7, page 8",
          "text": "Although the Maidu 'evidential' -wéw (Shipley 1964:45) might correspond somewhat to the Washo visual, and the (unexemplified) Sierra Miwok 'circumstantial evidence' marker taˀ, tat, ˀiš- (Freeland 1951:169) may correspond to the Washo inferential (mirative).",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2011, Elena Kalinina, “Exclamative Clauses in the Languages of the North Caucasus and the Problem of Finiteness”, in Gilles Authier, Timur Maisak, editors, Tense, Aspect, Modality and Finiteness in East Caucasian Languages (Diversitas Linguarum; 30), Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, →ISSN, pages 197–198",
          "text": "In Archi mirativity is grammaticalized as part of the verbal category of evidentiality, so the study of the mirative in Nakh-Daghestanian languages might help to identify the meaning of exclamatives more precisely.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2013, Willem F. H. Adelaar, “A Quechuan Mirative?”, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, Anne Storch, editors, Perception and Cognition in Language and Culture (Brill’s Studies in Language, Cognition and Culture; 3), Leiden, Boston, Mass.: Brill, →ISSN, section 3 (Meaning and Use), pages 99–100",
          "text": "The Tarms Quechua Mirative often refers to information that is withheld from the addressee until the speaker sees fit to reveal it, a frequent strategy in narratives of which the unexpected outcome is reserved for the end. By consequence, the speaker him/herself need not be under the impact of surprise any longer when using the Mirative. […] Characteristically, actions performed during one's sleep or in a state of unconsciousness are expressed in the Mirative[…]. The Mirative can also be used in recounting dreams[…].",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A grammatical mood that expresses (surprise at) unexpected revelations or new information."
      ],
      "id": "en-mirative-en-noun-IOgW5t1H",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "grammatical mood",
          "grammatical mood"
        ],
        [
          "expresses",
          "express#Verb"
        ],
        [
          "surprise",
          "surprise#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "unexpected",
          "unexpected"
        ],
        [
          "revelation",
          "revelation"
        ],
        [
          "information",
          "information"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(uncountable, grammar) A grammatical mood that expresses (surprise at) unexpected revelations or new information."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "uncountable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "75 25",
          "code": "sq",
          "lang": "Albanian",
          "sense": "grammatical mood",
          "tags": [
            "feminine"
          ],
          "word": "mënyra habitore"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "75 25",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "grammatical mood",
          "word": "miratiivi"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "75 25",
          "code": "de",
          "lang": "German",
          "sense": "grammatical mood",
          "word": "Admirativ"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "75 25",
          "code": "ru",
          "lang": "Russian",
          "roman": "admiratívnostʹ",
          "sense": "grammatical mood",
          "word": "адмирати́вность"
        },
        {
          "_dis1": "75 25",
          "code": "sv",
          "lang": "Swedish",
          "sense": "grammatical mood",
          "word": "admirativ"
        }
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammatical moods",
          "orig": "en:Grammatical moods",
          "parents": [
            "Grammar",
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "27 38 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "32 38 30",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 39 28",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English terms suffixed with -ive",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Albanian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Finnish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "35 37 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with German translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "34 39 27",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Russian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Swedish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "2003, Willem J. de Reuse, “Evidentiality in Western Apache (Athabaskan)”, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, editors, Studies in Evidentiality (Typological Studies in Language; 54), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, section 2.2.1 (The Mirative/Inferential), page 81",
          "text": "[T]he speaker had heard on the radio that a bear had attacked a woman. From the description of her wounds on the radio, he infers, using the mirative/inferential particle lą̄ą̄, that she was dragged by the bear. […] This particle also implies that the speaker was surprised at the event. Bear attacks are uncommon in Arizona, and the woman was someone the speaker was acquainted with. In fact, lą̄ą̄ is more fundamentally a mirative than an inferential, […]",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2018, Gwendolyn Hyslop, “Mirativity and Egophoricity in Kurtöp”, in Simeon Floyd, Elisabeth Norcliffe, Lila San Roque, editors, Egophoricity (Typological Studies in Language; 118), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →DOI, page 117",
          "text": "He [Timothy Jowan Curnow] points out that miratives are very rare with first person, more common with second, and most common with third person. In all cases, however, non-miratives are more common than miratives.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "(An instance of) a form of a word which conveys this mood."
      ],
      "id": "en-mirative-en-noun-zS1aQp4m",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "word",
          "word#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "convey",
          "convey"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(countable, grammar) (An instance of) a form of a word which conveys this mood."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "countable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "_dis1": "44 56",
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "form of a word which conveys a mirative mood",
          "word": "miratiivi"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈmɪɹətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "General-American",
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-mirative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.ogg"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Auguste Dozon",
    "John Benjamins Publishing Company",
    "Kostandin Kristoforidhi"
  ],
  "word": "mirative"
}

{
  "antonyms": [
    {
      "word": "non-mirative"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "fr",
        "3": "admiratif",
        "4": "",
        "5": "tending to admire"
      },
      "expansion": "French admiratif (“tending to admire”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἀπροσδόκητος",
        "3": "",
        "4": "unexpected"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”)",
      "name": "noncog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "admīrārī"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin admīrārī",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "present"
      },
      "expansion": "present",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "active"
      },
      "expansion": "active",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "infinitive"
      },
      "expansion": "infinitive",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*smey-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "to be glad, laugh"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly from (ad)mirative, from French admiratif (“tending to admire”) (used by French diplomat and scholar Auguste Dozon (1822–1890), imitating the use of the Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”) in a similar context by Albanian translator and scholar Kostandin Kristoforidhi (1826–1895)), from Latin admīrārī, present active infinitive of admīror (“to admire, respect; to be astonished, to be surprised at”), from ad- (“prefix meaning ‘to’”) + mīror (“to admire, marvel at; to be amazed or astonished at”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "mirative (not comparable)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "mi‧rat‧ive"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "en",
          "name": "Grammatical moods",
          "orig": "en:Grammatical moods",
          "parents": [
            "Grammar",
            "Linguistics",
            "Language",
            "Social sciences",
            "Communication",
            "Sciences",
            "Society",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "27 38 35",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "32 38 30",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 39 28",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "English terms suffixed with -ive",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Albanian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Finnish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "35 37 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with German translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "34 39 27",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Russian translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "33 38 29",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Terms with Swedish translations",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "mirativity"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1964, William Horton Jacobsen, Jr., “The Prefinal Suffixes”, in A Grammar of the Washo Language (unpublished Ph.D. in Linguistics dissertation), Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, Berkeley, →OCLC, paragraph 28.7, page 630",
          "text": "The prefinal suffix -áʔyiʔ Mirative indicates that the speaker knows of the action described by the verb, not having observed it occur, but only inferentially from observation of its effects. It thus commonly conveys an emotion of surprise.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1997, Scott DeLancey, “Mirativity: The Grammatical Marking of Unexpected Information”, in Linguistic Typology, volume 1, Berlin, New York, N.Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISSN, page 36",
          "text": "In the first in-depth analysis of a mirative construction which I am aware of, discussing the Turkish \"evidential\" perfect, Slobin & Aksu (1983; see also Aksu-Koç & Slobin 1986) give a unified characterization of the category as marking that the speaker's mind was \"not prepared\" for the information which is now being relayed. […] In this paper I adopt the older term \"mirative\" for the marked category, leaving the unmarked category unlabelled.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2003, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, “Evidentiality in Typological Perspective”, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, editors, Studies in Evidentiality (Typological Studies in Language; 54), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, page 192",
          "text": "This is why a noneyewitness evidentiality specification in a two-term system and an inferential evidential in a three-term system may acquire a mirative extension. In Quechua […] the reported evidential can be used in a mirative sense.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2012, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, “The Essence of Mirativity”, in Linguistic Typology, volume 16, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, →DOI, →ISSN, page 436",
          "text": "A \"mirative\" meaning can be associated with information acquired through any means – be it \"inferentially from observation\" of the effects of the event, as in Washo (Jacobsen 1964: 630), or through first-hand observation, inference or hearsay as in Kham (Watters 2002: 300).",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Of or relating to the mirative mood."
      ],
      "hypernyms": [
        {
          "word": "admirative"
        }
      ],
      "id": "en-mirative-en-adj-CWb5lJgs",
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "mirative",
          "#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "mood",
          "mood"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) Of or relating to the mirative mood."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "not-comparable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ],
      "translations": [
        {
          "code": "fi",
          "lang": "Finnish",
          "sense": "of or relating to the mirative mood",
          "word": "miratiivi-"
        }
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈmɪɹətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "General-American",
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-mirative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.ogg"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Auguste Dozon",
    "John Benjamins Publishing Company",
    "Kostandin Kristoforidhi"
  ],
  "word": "mirative"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "English 3-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from French",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "English terms suffixed with -ive",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English uncomparable adjectives",
    "English uncountable nouns",
    "Terms with Albanian translations",
    "Terms with Finnish translations",
    "Terms with German translations",
    "Terms with Russian translations",
    "Terms with Swedish translations"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "fr",
        "3": "admiratif",
        "4": "",
        "5": "tending to admire"
      },
      "expansion": "French admiratif (“tending to admire”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἀπροσδόκητος",
        "3": "",
        "4": "unexpected"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”)",
      "name": "noncog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "admīrārī"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin admīrārī",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "present"
      },
      "expansion": "present",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "active"
      },
      "expansion": "active",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "infinitive"
      },
      "expansion": "infinitive",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*smey-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "to be glad, laugh"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly from (ad)mirative, from French admiratif (“tending to admire”) (used by French diplomat and scholar Auguste Dozon (1822–1890), imitating the use of the Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”) in a similar context by Albanian translator and scholar Kostandin Kristoforidhi (1826–1895)), from Latin admīrārī, present active infinitive of admīror (“to admire, respect; to be astonished, to be surprised at”), from ad- (“prefix meaning ‘to’”) + mīror (“to admire, marvel at; to be amazed or astonished at”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "miratives",
      "tags": [
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "~"
      },
      "expansion": "mirative (countable and uncountable, plural miratives)",
      "name": "en-noun"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "mi‧rat‧ive"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "noun",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "list at admire"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "English uncountable nouns",
        "en:Grammatical moods"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1986, Wallace [L.] Chafe, Johanna Nichols, editors, Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology, Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation, footnote 7, page 8",
          "text": "Although the Maidu 'evidential' -wéw (Shipley 1964:45) might correspond somewhat to the Washo visual, and the (unexemplified) Sierra Miwok 'circumstantial evidence' marker taˀ, tat, ˀiš- (Freeland 1951:169) may correspond to the Washo inferential (mirative).",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2011, Elena Kalinina, “Exclamative Clauses in the Languages of the North Caucasus and the Problem of Finiteness”, in Gilles Authier, Timur Maisak, editors, Tense, Aspect, Modality and Finiteness in East Caucasian Languages (Diversitas Linguarum; 30), Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia: Universitätsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer, →ISSN, pages 197–198",
          "text": "In Archi mirativity is grammaticalized as part of the verbal category of evidentiality, so the study of the mirative in Nakh-Daghestanian languages might help to identify the meaning of exclamatives more precisely.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2013, Willem F. H. Adelaar, “A Quechuan Mirative?”, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, Anne Storch, editors, Perception and Cognition in Language and Culture (Brill’s Studies in Language, Cognition and Culture; 3), Leiden, Boston, Mass.: Brill, →ISSN, section 3 (Meaning and Use), pages 99–100",
          "text": "The Tarms Quechua Mirative often refers to information that is withheld from the addressee until the speaker sees fit to reveal it, a frequent strategy in narratives of which the unexpected outcome is reserved for the end. By consequence, the speaker him/herself need not be under the impact of surprise any longer when using the Mirative. […] Characteristically, actions performed during one's sleep or in a state of unconsciousness are expressed in the Mirative[…]. The Mirative can also be used in recounting dreams[…].",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A grammatical mood that expresses (surprise at) unexpected revelations or new information."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "grammatical mood",
          "grammatical mood"
        ],
        [
          "expresses",
          "express#Verb"
        ],
        [
          "surprise",
          "surprise#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "unexpected",
          "unexpected"
        ],
        [
          "revelation",
          "revelation"
        ],
        [
          "information",
          "information"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(uncountable, grammar) A grammatical mood that expresses (surprise at) unexpected revelations or new information."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "uncountable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "English countable nouns",
        "English terms with quotations",
        "en:Grammatical moods"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "2003, Willem J. de Reuse, “Evidentiality in Western Apache (Athabaskan)”, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, editors, Studies in Evidentiality (Typological Studies in Language; 54), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, section 2.2.1 (The Mirative/Inferential), page 81",
          "text": "[T]he speaker had heard on the radio that a bear had attacked a woman. From the description of her wounds on the radio, he infers, using the mirative/inferential particle lą̄ą̄, that she was dragged by the bear. […] This particle also implies that the speaker was surprised at the event. Bear attacks are uncommon in Arizona, and the woman was someone the speaker was acquainted with. In fact, lą̄ą̄ is more fundamentally a mirative than an inferential, […]",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2018, Gwendolyn Hyslop, “Mirativity and Egophoricity in Kurtöp”, in Simeon Floyd, Elisabeth Norcliffe, Lila San Roque, editors, Egophoricity (Typological Studies in Language; 118), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →DOI, page 117",
          "text": "He [Timothy Jowan Curnow] points out that miratives are very rare with first person, more common with second, and most common with third person. In all cases, however, non-miratives are more common than miratives.",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "(An instance of) a form of a word which conveys this mood."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "word",
          "word#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "convey",
          "convey"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(countable, grammar) (An instance of) a form of a word which conveys this mood."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "countable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈmɪɹətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "General-American",
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-mirative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.ogg"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "sq",
      "lang": "Albanian",
      "sense": "grammatical mood",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ],
      "word": "mënyra habitore"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "grammatical mood",
      "word": "miratiivi"
    },
    {
      "code": "de",
      "lang": "German",
      "sense": "grammatical mood",
      "word": "Admirativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "ru",
      "lang": "Russian",
      "roman": "admiratívnostʹ",
      "sense": "grammatical mood",
      "word": "адмирати́вность"
    },
    {
      "code": "sv",
      "lang": "Swedish",
      "sense": "grammatical mood",
      "word": "admirativ"
    },
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "form of a word which conveys a mirative mood",
      "word": "miratiivi"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Auguste Dozon",
    "John Benjamins Publishing Company",
    "Kostandin Kristoforidhi"
  ],
  "word": "mirative"
}

{
  "antonyms": [
    {
      "word": "non-mirative"
    }
  ],
  "categories": [
    "English 3-syllable words",
    "English adjectives",
    "English countable nouns",
    "English entries with incorrect language header",
    "English entries with language name categories using raw markup",
    "English lemmas",
    "English nouns",
    "English terms derived from French",
    "English terms derived from Latin",
    "English terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "English terms suffixed with -ive",
    "English terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "English terms with audio links",
    "English uncomparable adjectives",
    "English uncountable nouns",
    "Terms with Albanian translations",
    "Terms with Finnish translations",
    "Terms with German translations",
    "Terms with Russian translations",
    "Terms with Swedish translations"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "mirativity"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "fr",
        "3": "admiratif",
        "4": "",
        "5": "tending to admire"
      },
      "expansion": "French admiratif (“tending to admire”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἀπροσδόκητος",
        "3": "",
        "4": "unexpected"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”)",
      "name": "noncog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "la",
        "3": "admīrārī"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin admīrārī",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "present"
      },
      "expansion": "present",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "active"
      },
      "expansion": "active",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "infinitive"
      },
      "expansion": "infinitive",
      "name": "glossary"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*smey-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "to be glad, laugh"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Possibly from (ad)mirative, from French admiratif (“tending to admire”) (used by French diplomat and scholar Auguste Dozon (1822–1890), imitating the use of the Ancient Greek ἀπροσδόκητος (aprosdókētos, “unexpected”) in a similar context by Albanian translator and scholar Kostandin Kristoforidhi (1826–1895)), from Latin admīrārī, present active infinitive of admīror (“to admire, respect; to be astonished, to be surprised at”), from ad- (“prefix meaning ‘to’”) + mīror (“to admire, marvel at; to be amazed or astonished at”) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *smey- (“to be glad, laugh”)).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "mirative (not comparable)",
      "name": "en-adj"
    }
  ],
  "hypernyms": [
    {
      "word": "admirative"
    }
  ],
  "hyphenation": [
    "mi‧rat‧ive"
  ],
  "lang": "English",
  "lang_code": "en",
  "pos": "adj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "English terms with quotations",
        "en:Grammatical moods"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "ref": "1964, William Horton Jacobsen, Jr., “The Prefinal Suffixes”, in A Grammar of the Washo Language (unpublished Ph.D. in Linguistics dissertation), Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, Berkeley, →OCLC, paragraph 28.7, page 630",
          "text": "The prefinal suffix -áʔyiʔ Mirative indicates that the speaker knows of the action described by the verb, not having observed it occur, but only inferentially from observation of its effects. It thus commonly conveys an emotion of surprise.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "1997, Scott DeLancey, “Mirativity: The Grammatical Marking of Unexpected Information”, in Linguistic Typology, volume 1, Berlin, New York, N.Y.: Mouton de Gruyter, →ISSN, page 36",
          "text": "In the first in-depth analysis of a mirative construction which I am aware of, discussing the Turkish \"evidential\" perfect, Slobin & Aksu (1983; see also Aksu-Koç & Slobin 1986) give a unified characterization of the category as marking that the speaker's mind was \"not prepared\" for the information which is now being relayed. […] In this paper I adopt the older term \"mirative\" for the marked category, leaving the unmarked category unlabelled.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2003, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, “Evidentiality in Typological Perspective”, in Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, editors, Studies in Evidentiality (Typological Studies in Language; 54), Amsterdam, Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, →ISSN, page 192",
          "text": "This is why a noneyewitness evidentiality specification in a two-term system and an inferential evidential in a three-term system may acquire a mirative extension. In Quechua […] the reported evidential can be used in a mirative sense.",
          "type": "quotation"
        },
        {
          "ref": "2012, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, “The Essence of Mirativity”, in Linguistic Typology, volume 16, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, →DOI, →ISSN, page 436",
          "text": "A \"mirative\" meaning can be associated with information acquired through any means – be it \"inferentially from observation\" of the effects of the event, as in Washo (Jacobsen 1964: 630), or through first-hand observation, inference or hearsay as in Kham (Watters 2002: 300).",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Of or relating to the mirative mood."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "grammar",
          "grammar"
        ],
        [
          "mirative",
          "#Noun"
        ],
        [
          "mood",
          "mood"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(grammar) Of or relating to the mirative mood."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "not-comparable"
      ],
      "topics": [
        "grammar",
        "human-sciences",
        "linguistics",
        "sciences"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈmɪɹətɪv/",
      "tags": [
        "General-American",
        "Received-Pronunciation"
      ]
    },
    {
      "audio": "LL-Q1860 (eng)-Vealhurl-mirative.wav",
      "mp3_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.mp3",
      "ogg_url": "https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/3/3c/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav/LL-Q1860_%28eng%29-Vealhurl-mirative.wav.ogg"
    }
  ],
  "translations": [
    {
      "code": "fi",
      "lang": "Finnish",
      "sense": "of or relating to the mirative mood",
      "word": "miratiivi-"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Auguste Dozon",
    "John Benjamins Publishing Company",
    "Kostandin Kristoforidhi"
  ],
  "word": "mirative"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable English dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-07-20 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-07-01 using wiktextract (2f2df25 and 6aeea9b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.