"svainis" meaning in All languages combined

See svainis on Wiktionary

Noun [Latvian]

IPA: [svâjnis]
Etymology: From Proto-Baltic *swaynya-, from Proto-Indo-European *swoini, probably meaning “ours,” “one of us”, from *swe-, *swo- with an extra in, from the reflexive pronominal stem *se- (“one's own”) with an extra -we, -wo (whence also Latvian savs). The meaning probably went from “one of us, one of our relatives” to “one who has become a relative (by marriage)” and was then restricted to “brother-in-law.” Cognates include Lithuanian sváinis (“wife's sister's husband”), Old High German swein (“servant, shepherd”) (< “one of us”), Messapic veinam (“one's own (acc.)”). Etymology templates: {{der|lv|bat-pro|-}} Proto-Baltic, {{m|ine-bsl-pro|*swaynya-}} *swaynya-, {{der|lv|ine-pro|*swoini}} Proto-Indo-European *swoini, {{m|ine-pro|*swe-}} *swe-, {{m|ine-pro|*swo-}} *swo-, {{m|ine-pro|*se-||one&#x27;s own}} *se- (“one's own”), {{cog|lv|savs}} Latvian savs, {{cog|lt|sváinis||wife&#x27;s sister&#x27;s husband}} Lithuanian sváinis (“wife's sister's husband”), {{cog|goh|swein||servant, shepherd}} Old High German swein (“servant, shepherd”), {{l|en|accusative|acc.}} acc., {{cog|cms|veinam||one&#x27;s own (acc.)}} Messapic veinam (“one's own (acc.)”) Head templates: {{head|lv|noun|g=m|g2=|head=|sort=}} svainis m, {{lv-noun|m|2nd|fem=svaine|fem2=svainiene}} svainis m (2nd declension, feminine form: svaine or svainiene) Inflection templates: {{lv-decl-noun|svai|is|2nd||n|ņ|extrawidth=-60}}, {{lv-decl-noun-2|svai|is|4=|5=n|6=ņ|7=|8=|drop-v=|keep-s=|x=-60}}, {{lv-decl-noun-table|svainis|svaiņi|svaini|svaiņus|svaiņa|svaiņu|svainim|svaiņiem|svaini|svaiņiem|svainī|svaiņos|svaini|svaiņi|type=2nd declension|x=-60}} Forms: svaine [feminine], svainiene [feminine], declension-2 [table-tags], svainis [nominative, singular], svaiņi [nominative, plural], svaini [accusative, singular], svaiņus [accusative, plural], svaiņa [genitive, singular], svaiņu [genitive, plural], svainim [dative, singular], svaiņiem [dative, plural], svaini [instrumental, singular], svaiņiem [instrumental, plural], svainī [locative, singular], svaiņos [locative, plural], svaini [singular, vocative], svaiņi [plural, vocative]
  1. brother-in-law (one's wife's brother or one's husband's brother; also, one's sister's husband, or one's wife's sister's husband) Tags: declension-2, masculine Categories (topical): Family Derived forms: svainība

Inflected forms

Download JSON data for svainis meaning in All languages combined (5.8kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "bat-pro",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Baltic",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
        "2": "*swaynya-"
      },
      "expansion": "*swaynya-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*swoini"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *swoini",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*swe-"
      },
      "expansion": "*swe-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*swo-"
      },
      "expansion": "*swo-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*se-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "one's own"
      },
      "expansion": "*se- (“one's own”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "savs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latvian savs",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lt",
        "2": "sváinis",
        "3": "",
        "4": "wife's sister's husband"
      },
      "expansion": "Lithuanian sváinis (“wife's sister's husband”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "goh",
        "2": "swein",
        "3": "",
        "4": "servant, shepherd"
      },
      "expansion": "Old High German swein (“servant, shepherd”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "accusative",
        "3": "acc."
      },
      "expansion": "acc.",
      "name": "l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cms",
        "2": "veinam",
        "3": "",
        "4": "one's own (acc.)"
      },
      "expansion": "Messapic veinam (“one's own (acc.)”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Baltic *swaynya-, from Proto-Indo-European *swoini, probably meaning “ours,” “one of us”, from *swe-, *swo- with an extra in, from the reflexive pronominal stem *se- (“one's own”) with an extra -we, -wo (whence also Latvian savs). The meaning probably went from “one of us, one of our relatives” to “one who has become a relative (by marriage)” and was then restricted to “brother-in-law.” Cognates include Lithuanian sváinis (“wife's sister's husband”), Old High German swein (“servant, shepherd”) (< “one of us”), Messapic veinam (“one's own (acc.)”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "svaine",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainiene",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "declension-2",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lv-decl-noun",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "2nd declension",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainis",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņi",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņa",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainim",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņiem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņiem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainī",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņos",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņi",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "noun",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "svainis m",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "2": "2nd",
        "fem": "svaine",
        "fem2": "svainiene"
      },
      "expansion": "svainis m (2nd declension, feminine form: svaine or svainiene)",
      "name": "lv-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "svai",
        "2": "is",
        "3": "2nd",
        "4": "",
        "5": "n",
        "6": "ņ",
        "extrawidth": "-60"
      },
      "name": "lv-decl-noun"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "svai",
        "2": "is",
        "4": "",
        "5": "n",
        "6": "ņ",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "drop-v": "",
        "keep-s": "",
        "x": "-60"
      },
      "name": "lv-decl-noun-2"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "svainis",
        "10": "svaiņiem",
        "11": "svainī",
        "12": "svaiņos",
        "13": "svaini",
        "14": "svaiņi",
        "2": "svaiņi",
        "3": "svaini",
        "4": "svaiņus",
        "5": "svaiņa",
        "6": "svaiņu",
        "7": "svainim",
        "8": "svaiņiem",
        "9": "svaini",
        "type": "2nd declension",
        "x": "-60"
      },
      "name": "lv-decl-noun-table"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latvian",
  "lang_code": "lv",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latvian entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latvian entries with topic categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with topic categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latvian etymologies from LEV",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Latvian words with broken intonation",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "langcode": "lv",
          "name": "Family",
          "orig": "lv:Family",
          "parents": [
            "People",
            "Human",
            "All topics",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "svainība"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "your very sister and brother-in-law work somewhere in a collective farm",
          "text": "tev pašam māsa un svainis strādā kaut kur kolhozā",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "Līzbetei daudz radu nebija... pilnīgi cerams, ka svainis Līdaks ar māsu Gerdu bērēs nebūs ― Līzbete didn't have many relatives... it can certainly be hoped that (her) brother-in-law Līdaks and (her) sister Gerda won't be at the funeral",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "brother-in-law (one's wife's brother or one's husband's brother; also, one's sister's husband, or one's wife's sister's husband)"
      ],
      "id": "en-svainis-lv-noun-EhkeBi8P",
      "links": [
        [
          "brother-in-law",
          "brother-in-law"
        ],
        [
          "wife",
          "wife#English"
        ],
        [
          "brother",
          "brother#English"
        ],
        [
          "husband",
          "husband#English"
        ],
        [
          "sister",
          "sister#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "declension-2",
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[svâjnis]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "svainis"
}
{
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "svainība"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "bat-pro",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Baltic",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
        "2": "*swaynya-"
      },
      "expansion": "*swaynya-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*swoini"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *swoini",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*swe-"
      },
      "expansion": "*swe-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*swo-"
      },
      "expansion": "*swo-",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*se-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "one's own"
      },
      "expansion": "*se- (“one's own”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "savs"
      },
      "expansion": "Latvian savs",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lt",
        "2": "sváinis",
        "3": "",
        "4": "wife's sister's husband"
      },
      "expansion": "Lithuanian sváinis (“wife's sister's husband”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "goh",
        "2": "swein",
        "3": "",
        "4": "servant, shepherd"
      },
      "expansion": "Old High German swein (“servant, shepherd”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "en",
        "2": "accusative",
        "3": "acc."
      },
      "expansion": "acc.",
      "name": "l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cms",
        "2": "veinam",
        "3": "",
        "4": "one's own (acc.)"
      },
      "expansion": "Messapic veinam (“one's own (acc.)”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Baltic *swaynya-, from Proto-Indo-European *swoini, probably meaning “ours,” “one of us”, from *swe-, *swo- with an extra in, from the reflexive pronominal stem *se- (“one's own”) with an extra -we, -wo (whence also Latvian savs). The meaning probably went from “one of us, one of our relatives” to “one who has become a relative (by marriage)” and was then restricted to “brother-in-law.” Cognates include Lithuanian sváinis (“wife's sister's husband”), Old High German swein (“servant, shepherd”) (< “one of us”), Messapic veinam (“one's own (acc.)”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "svaine",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainiene",
      "tags": [
        "feminine"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "declension-2",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lv-decl-noun",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "2nd declension",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainis",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņi",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņus",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņa",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainim",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņiem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņiem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svainī",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņos",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaini",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "svaiņi",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "noun",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "svainis m",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "2": "2nd",
        "fem": "svaine",
        "fem2": "svainiene"
      },
      "expansion": "svainis m (2nd declension, feminine form: svaine or svainiene)",
      "name": "lv-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "svai",
        "2": "is",
        "3": "2nd",
        "4": "",
        "5": "n",
        "6": "ņ",
        "extrawidth": "-60"
      },
      "name": "lv-decl-noun"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "svai",
        "2": "is",
        "4": "",
        "5": "n",
        "6": "ņ",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "drop-v": "",
        "keep-s": "",
        "x": "-60"
      },
      "name": "lv-decl-noun-2"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "svainis",
        "10": "svaiņiem",
        "11": "svainī",
        "12": "svaiņos",
        "13": "svaini",
        "14": "svaiņi",
        "2": "svaiņi",
        "3": "svaini",
        "4": "svaiņus",
        "5": "svaiņa",
        "6": "svaiņu",
        "7": "svainim",
        "8": "svaiņiem",
        "9": "svaini",
        "type": "2nd declension",
        "x": "-60"
      },
      "name": "lv-decl-noun-table"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Latvian",
  "lang_code": "lv",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Latvian entries with incorrect language header",
        "Latvian entries with topic categories using raw markup",
        "Latvian etymologies from LEV",
        "Latvian lemmas",
        "Latvian masculine nouns",
        "Latvian nouns",
        "Latvian second declension nouns",
        "Latvian terms derived from Proto-Baltic",
        "Latvian terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Latvian terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "Latvian terms with usage examples",
        "Latvian words with broken intonation",
        "lv:Family"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "your very sister and brother-in-law work somewhere in a collective farm",
          "text": "tev pašam māsa un svainis strādā kaut kur kolhozā",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "text": "Līzbetei daudz radu nebija... pilnīgi cerams, ka svainis Līdaks ar māsu Gerdu bērēs nebūs ― Līzbete didn't have many relatives... it can certainly be hoped that (her) brother-in-law Līdaks and (her) sister Gerda won't be at the funeral",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "brother-in-law (one's wife's brother or one's husband's brother; also, one's sister's husband, or one's wife's sister's husband)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "brother-in-law",
          "brother-in-law"
        ],
        [
          "wife",
          "wife#English"
        ],
        [
          "brother",
          "brother#English"
        ],
        [
          "husband",
          "husband#English"
        ],
        [
          "sister",
          "sister#English"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "declension-2",
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[svâjnis]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "svainis"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable All languages combined dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-05-20 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (1d5a7d1 and 304864d). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.