"só" meaning in Proto-Indo-European

See in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Pronoun

Etymology: In earlier, animacy-based two-gender Proto-Indo-European, *so was the animate demonstrative. Once the gender system was established, *seh₂ was created, with the feminine suffix *-h₂; *tod was the inanimate demonstrative in two-gender Proto-Indo-European and was later used as a neuter demonstrative. Etymology templates: {{m|ine-pro|*-h₂}} *-h₂ Head templates: {{head|ine-pro|pronoun}} *só Inflection templates: {{ine-decl-pron|tó|f_nom_sg=séh₂|m_nom_sg=só}} Forms: [nominative, singular], tóh₁ [dual, nominative], tóy [nominative, plural], tóm [accusative, singular], tóh₁ [accusative, dual], tóms [accusative, plural], tósyo [genitive, singular], - [dual, genitive], tóysoHom [genitive, plural], tósmead [ablative, singular], - [ablative, dual], tóymos [ablative, plural], tósmey [dative, singular], - [dative, dual], tóymos [dative, plural], tósmi [locative, singular], - [dual, locative], tóysu [locative, plural], tónoh₁ [instrumental, singular], - [dual, instrumental], tṓys [instrumental, plural], séh₂ [nominative, singular], - [dual, nominative], téh₂es [nominative, plural], tā́m [accusative, singular], - [accusative, dual], téh₂m̥s [accusative, plural], tósyeh₂s [genitive, singular], téh₂soHom [genitive, plural], tósyeh₂s [ablative, singular], téh₂mos [ablative, plural], tósyeh₂ey [dative, singular], téh₂mos [dative, plural], tósyeh₂ [locative, singular], téh₂su [locative, plural], téh₂h₁ [instrumental, singular], téh₂eh₁ [instrumental, singular], téh₂mis [instrumental, plural], tód [nominative, singular], tóy [dual, nominative], téh₂ [nominative, plural], tód [accusative, singular], tóy [accusative, dual], téh₂ [accusative, plural]
  1. this Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: só-ine-pro-pron-HreWAkEe Categories (other): Proto-Indo-European pronouns Disambiguation of Proto-Indo-European pronouns: 50 50
  2. that Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: só-ine-pro-pron-jn~AI2r0 Categories (other): Proto-Indo-European pronouns Disambiguation of Proto-Indo-European pronouns: 50 50
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Derived forms: s-ih₂ Derived forms (*to-r (“there”)): þar (english: see there for further descendants) Derived forms (Indo-Iranian): तति (táti) [Sanskrit] Derived forms (Italic): tot [Latin] Derived forms (Middle Welsh: talu; Welsh): talu Derived forms (Proto-Balto-Slavic): toliko (english: see there for further descendants) [Proto-Slavic] Derived forms (Proto-Brythonic): tal [Cornish], tyli [Cornish] Derived forms (Proto-Brythonic; Old Breton): tal Derived forms (Proto-Hellenic): τῆος (têos) [Ancient-Greek], τέως (téōs) [Ancient-Greek] Derived forms (Proto-Hellenic: *totsos): τόσος (tósos) [Ancient-Greek], τόσσος (tóssos) [Ancient-Greek, Epic] Derived forms (Proto-Hellenic: *tālíkos): τᾱλίκος (tālíkos) [Ancient-Greek], τηλίκος (tēlíkos) [Ancient-Greek] Derived forms (Proto-Indo-Aryan): तर्हि (tarhi) [Sanskrit], तावत् (tāvat) [Sanskrit] Derived forms (Proto-Italic: *tālis): tālis (english: see there for further descendants) [Latin] Disambiguation of '*to-r (“there”)': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Indo-Iranian': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Italic': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Middle Welsh: talu; Welsh': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Balto-Slavic': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Brythonic': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Brythonic; Old Breton': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Hellenic': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Hellenic: *totsos': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Hellenic: *tālíkos': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Indo-Aryan': 0 0 Disambiguation of 'Proto-Italic: *tālis': 0 0

Download JSON data for só meaning in Proto-Indo-European (10.9kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "*to-r (“there”)",
      "word": "þar"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "tarhi",
      "sense": "Proto-Indo-Aryan",
      "tags": [
        "Sanskrit"
      ],
      "word": "तर्हि"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "tāvat",
      "sense": "Proto-Indo-Aryan",
      "tags": [
        "Sanskrit"
      ],
      "word": "तावत्"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "sense": "Italic",
      "tags": [
        "Latin"
      ],
      "word": "tot"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "táti",
      "sense": "Indo-Iranian",
      "tags": [
        "Sanskrit"
      ],
      "word": "तति"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "tósos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *totsos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τόσος"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "tóssos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *totsos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek",
        "Epic"
      ],
      "word": "τόσσος"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "sense": "Proto-Brythonic; Old Breton",
      "word": "tal"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "sense": "Proto-Brythonic",
      "tags": [
        "Cornish"
      ],
      "word": "tal"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "sense": "Proto-Brythonic",
      "tags": [
        "Cornish"
      ],
      "word": "tyli"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "sense": "Middle Welsh: talu; Welsh",
      "word": "talu"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "Proto-Italic: *tālis",
      "tags": [
        "Latin"
      ],
      "word": "tālis"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "toliko"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "tālíkos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *tālíkos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τᾱλίκος"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "tēlíkos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *tālíkos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τηλίκος"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "têos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τῆος"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "roman": "téōs",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τέως"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "s-ih₂"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Albanian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*tan-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *tan-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *tan-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "tanë"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: tanë",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: tanë (“Gheg”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "tërë"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: tërë",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: tërë"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*te-k(u)"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *te-k(u)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *te-k(u)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "tek",
            "tr": "at"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: tek (at)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: tek (at)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "te"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: te",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: te"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Armenian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xcl",
            "2": "*դո-"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Armenian: *դո- (*do-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Armenian: *դո- (*do-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*tas"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *tas",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *tas (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*so"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *so",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *so (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*sa",
            "3": "*þan",
            "4": "*þar",
            "5": "*þus",
            "6": "*þau"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *sa, *þan, *þar, *þus, *þau",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *sa, *þan, *þar, *þus, *þau (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*ho"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *ho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *ho"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "10": "τότε",
            "2": "ὁ",
            "3": "ἡ",
            "4": "τό",
            "5": "ὡς",
            "6": "αὐτός",
            "7": "ὅδε",
            "8": "ὁδί",
            "9": "οὗτος"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: ὁ (ho), ἡ (hē), τό (tó), ὡς (hōs), αὐτός (autós), ὅδε (hóde), ὁδί (hodí), οὗτος (hoûtos), τότε (tóte)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τοτέ"
          },
          "expansion": "τοτέ (toté)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τηλίκος"
          },
          "expansion": "τηλίκος (tēlíkos)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τηνίκα"
          },
          "expansion": "τηνίκα (tēníka)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τῆμος"
          },
          "expansion": "τῆμος (têmos)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: ὁ (ho), ἡ (hē), τό (tó), ὡς (hōs), αὐτός (autós), ὅδε (hóde), ὁδί (hodí), οὗτος (hoûtos), τότε (tóte) - τοτέ (toté), τηλίκος (tēlíkos), τηνίκα (tēníka), τῆμος (têmos)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*sei",
            "pos": "locative singular"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *sei (locative singular)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *sei (locative singular)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "sī",
            "3": "sic",
            "4": "tum",
            "5": "tam",
            "6": "iste",
            "7": "ita",
            "8": "ut"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: sī, sic, tum, tam, iste, ita, ut",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: sī, sic, tum, tam, iste, ita, ut"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osc",
            "2": "𐌔𐌅𐌀𐌝"
          },
          "expansion": "Oscan: 𐌔𐌅𐌀𐌝 (svaí)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Oscan: 𐌔𐌅𐌀𐌝 (svaí)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*sá",
            "3": "*sáH",
            "4": "*tád"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *sá, *sáH, *tád",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *sá, *sáH, *tád (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-h₂"
      },
      "expansion": "*-h₂",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "In earlier, animacy-based two-gender Proto-Indo-European, *so was the animate demonstrative. Once the gender system was established, *seh₂ was created, with the feminine suffix *-h₂; *tod was the inanimate demonstrative in two-gender Proto-Indo-European and was later used as a neuter demonstrative.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ine-decl-pron",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "só",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóms",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyo",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóysoHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósmead",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóymos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósmey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóymos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósmi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "locative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóysu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tónoh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "instrumental"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tṓys",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "séh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂es",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tā́m",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂m̥s",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂s",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂soHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂s",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂mos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂ey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂mos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂su",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂h₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂eh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂mis",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tód",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tód",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "pronoun"
      },
      "expansion": "*só",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "tó",
        "f_nom_sg": "séh₂",
        "m_nom_sg": "só"
      },
      "name": "ine-decl-pron"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/só",
  "pos": "pron",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "50 50",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Indo-European pronouns",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "this"
      ],
      "id": "só-ine-pro-pron-HreWAkEe",
      "links": [
        [
          "this",
          "this"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "50 50",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Indo-European pronouns",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "that"
      ],
      "id": "só-ine-pro-pron-jn~AI2r0",
      "links": [
        [
          "that",
          "that"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "só"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Indo-European lemmas",
    "Proto-Indo-European pronouns"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "*to-r (“there”)",
      "word": "þar"
    },
    {
      "roman": "tarhi",
      "sense": "Proto-Indo-Aryan",
      "tags": [
        "Sanskrit"
      ],
      "word": "तर्हि"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Italic",
      "tags": [
        "Latin"
      ],
      "word": "tot"
    },
    {
      "roman": "táti",
      "sense": "Indo-Iranian",
      "tags": [
        "Sanskrit"
      ],
      "word": "तति"
    },
    {
      "roman": "tósos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *totsos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τόσος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "tóssos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *totsos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek",
        "Epic"
      ],
      "word": "τόσσος"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Brythonic; Old Breton",
      "word": "tal"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Brythonic",
      "tags": [
        "Cornish"
      ],
      "word": "tal"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Proto-Brythonic",
      "tags": [
        "Cornish"
      ],
      "word": "tyli"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Middle Welsh: talu; Welsh",
      "word": "talu"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "Proto-Italic: *tālis",
      "tags": [
        "Latin"
      ],
      "word": "tālis"
    },
    {
      "english": "see there for further descendants",
      "sense": "Proto-Balto-Slavic",
      "tags": [
        "Proto-Slavic"
      ],
      "word": "toliko"
    },
    {
      "roman": "tālíkos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *tālíkos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τᾱλίκος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "tēlíkos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic: *tālíkos",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τηλίκος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "têos",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τῆος"
    },
    {
      "roman": "téōs",
      "sense": "Proto-Hellenic",
      "tags": [
        "Ancient-Greek"
      ],
      "word": "τέως"
    },
    {
      "roman": "tāvat",
      "sense": "Proto-Indo-Aryan",
      "tags": [
        "Sanskrit"
      ],
      "word": "तावत्"
    },
    {
      "word": "s-ih₂"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Albanian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*tan-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *tan-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *tan-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "tanë"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: tanë",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: tanë (“Gheg”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "tërë"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: tërë",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: tërë"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*te-k(u)"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *te-k(u)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *te-k(u)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "tek",
            "tr": "at"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: tek (at)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: tek (at)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "te"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: te",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: te"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Armenian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xcl",
            "2": "*դո-"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Armenian: *դո- (*do-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Armenian: *դո- (*do-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*tas"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *tas",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *tas (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*so"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *so",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *so (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*sa",
            "3": "*þan",
            "4": "*þar",
            "5": "*þus",
            "6": "*þau"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *sa, *þan, *þar, *þus, *þau",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *sa, *þan, *þar, *þus, *þau (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*ho"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *ho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *ho"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "10": "τότε",
            "2": "ὁ",
            "3": "ἡ",
            "4": "τό",
            "5": "ὡς",
            "6": "αὐτός",
            "7": "ὅδε",
            "8": "ὁδί",
            "9": "οὗτος"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: ὁ (ho), ἡ (hē), τό (tó), ὡς (hōs), αὐτός (autós), ὅδε (hóde), ὁδί (hodí), οὗτος (hoûtos), τότε (tóte)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τοτέ"
          },
          "expansion": "τοτέ (toté)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τηλίκος"
          },
          "expansion": "τηλίκος (tēlíkos)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τηνίκα"
          },
          "expansion": "τηνίκα (tēníka)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "τῆμος"
          },
          "expansion": "τῆμος (têmos)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: ὁ (ho), ἡ (hē), τό (tó), ὡς (hōs), αὐτός (autós), ὅδε (hóde), ὁδί (hodí), οὗτος (hoûtos), τότε (tóte) - τοτέ (toté), τηλίκος (tēlíkos), τηνίκα (tēníka), τῆμος (têmos)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*sei",
            "pos": "locative singular"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *sei (locative singular)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *sei (locative singular)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "sī",
            "3": "sic",
            "4": "tum",
            "5": "tam",
            "6": "iste",
            "7": "ita",
            "8": "ut"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: sī, sic, tum, tam, iste, ita, ut",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: sī, sic, tum, tam, iste, ita, ut"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osc",
            "2": "𐌔𐌅𐌀𐌝"
          },
          "expansion": "Oscan: 𐌔𐌅𐌀𐌝 (svaí)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Oscan: 𐌔𐌅𐌀𐌝 (svaí)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*sá",
            "3": "*sáH",
            "4": "*tád"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *sá, *sáH, *tád",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *sá, *sáH, *tád (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-h₂"
      },
      "expansion": "*-h₂",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "In earlier, animacy-based two-gender Proto-Indo-European, *so was the animate demonstrative. Once the gender system was established, *seh₂ was created, with the feminine suffix *-h₂; *tod was the inanimate demonstrative in two-gender Proto-Indo-European and was later used as a neuter demonstrative.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ine-decl-pron",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "só",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóm",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóms",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyo",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóysoHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósmead",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóymos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósmey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóymos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósmi",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "locative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóysu",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tónoh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "instrumental"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tṓys",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "séh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂es",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tā́m",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂m̥s",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂s",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂soHom",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂s",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂mos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "ablative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂ey",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂mos",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tósyeh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂su",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "locative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂h₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂eh₁",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂mis",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tód",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tód",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "tóy",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "téh₂",
      "source": "inflection",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "pronoun"
      },
      "expansion": "*só",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "tó",
        "f_nom_sg": "séh₂",
        "m_nom_sg": "só"
      },
      "name": "ine-decl-pron"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/só",
  "pos": "pron",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "this"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "this",
          "this"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "that"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "that",
          "that"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "só"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Indo-European dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.