"per-" meaning in Proto-Indo-European

See per- in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Root

  1. before, in front Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:before
  2. first Tags: morpheme, reconstruction Categories (topical): Proto-Indo-European ordinal numbers
    Sense id: en-per--ine-pro-root-p5N7ZLjK

Root

  1. to go through Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:go_forth Categories (other): Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots, Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots, Proto-Indo-European roots Disambiguation of Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots: 0 0 53 22 25 0 Disambiguation of Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots: 0 0 79 10 11 0 Disambiguation of Proto-Indo-European roots: 0 0 79 10 10 0
  2. to carry forth, fare Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-per--ine-pro-root-LVic7ohY

Root

  1. to try, dare, risk Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:try

Root

  1. to sell Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:sell

Download JSON data for per- meaning in Proto-Indo-European (45.9kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pér-i",
            "pos": "locative"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-i (locative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-i (locative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*per(i)"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *per(i)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *per(i)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "për"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: për",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: për"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hyx-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Armenian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Armenian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xcl",
            "2": "հեռ-"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Armenian: հեռ- (heṙ-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Armenian: հեռ- (heṙ-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*per"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *per",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *per"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "per"
          },
          "expansion": "Lithuanian: per",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "per-"
          },
          "expansion": "per-",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "par-"
          },
          "expansion": "par-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Lithuanian: per, per-, par-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "par"
          },
          "expansion": "Latvian: par",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "par-"
          },
          "expansion": "par-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latvian: par, par-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "prg",
            "2": "per"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Prussian: per",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Prussian: per"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*per"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *per",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*per-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *per, *per- (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*firi-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *firi-",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *firi- (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "περί"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: περί (perí)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρ"
          },
          "expansion": "πέρ (pér)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: περί (perí), πέρ (pér) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pári",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pári"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pári",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pári"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "परि",
            "tr": "pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: परि (pári)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: परि (pári) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *pári",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *pári"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ae",
            "2": "𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌"
          },
          "expansion": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌 (paⁱri)\n→ Persian: پیراـ (pirâ-, “peri-”, prefix)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌 (paⁱri)\n→ Persian: پیراـ (pirâ-, “peri-”, prefix)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "per"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: per",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: per (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-nóy"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-nóy",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-nóy"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*ferrai"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *ferrai",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *ferrai (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pér-o-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-o-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-o-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-ana-pro",
            "2": "",
            "alt": "*péro-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Anatolian: *péro-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Anatolian: *péro-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hit",
            "2": "𒁉𒂊𒊏𒀭",
            "tr": "pēran"
          },
          "expansion": "Hittite: 𒁉𒂊𒊏𒀭 (pēran)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hit",
            "2": "𒁉𒊏𒀭",
            "tr": "peran"
          },
          "expansion": "𒁉𒊏𒀭 (peran)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Hittite: 𒁉𒂊𒊏𒀭 (pēran), 𒁉𒊏𒀭 (peran)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρᾱ"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πέρᾱ (pérā)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρᾱν"
          },
          "expansion": "πέρᾱν (pérān)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πέρᾱ (pérā), πέρᾱν (pérān) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pára",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pára"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pára",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pára"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पर",
            "tr": "pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पर (pára)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पर (pára) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *pára",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *pára"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fa",
            "2": "فرفر",
            "t": "in hurry",
            "tr": "farfar"
          },
          "expansion": "Persian: فرفر (farfar, “in hurry”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "archaic"
          },
          "expansion": "(archaic)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "? Persian: فرفر (farfar, “in hurry”) (archaic)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "perperus",
            "alt": "(per)perus",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Latin: (per)perus",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "perperam",
            "3": "(per)peram"
          },
          "expansion": "(per)peram",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Latin: (per)perus, (per)peram"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρπερος",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Ancient Greek: πέρπερος (pérperos)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Ancient Greek: πέρπερος (pérperos)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*péruti",
            "3": "*pér-uti",
            "4": "last year"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-uti (“last year”)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*wet-",
            "3": "",
            "4": "year"
          },
          "expansion": "*wet- (“year”)",
          "name": "m"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ *pér-uti (“last year”) (with *wet- (“year”))"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-so-"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-so-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-so-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρσω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πόρσω (pórsō)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρρω"
          },
          "expansion": "πόρρω (pórrhō)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πόρσω (pórsō), πόρρω (pórrhō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "porrō"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: porrō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: porrō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πάρ"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πάρ (pár)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πάρ (pár)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*por-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *por-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *por-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "por-"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: por-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: por-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*preh₂-",
            "3": "*pr-eh₂-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-eh₂-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-eh₂-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-és"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-és",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-és"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρέσβυς",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πρέσβυς (présbus)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πρέσβυς (présbus)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-é-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-é-ti",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-ó-ti",
            "t": "towards, against"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-ó-ti (“towards, against”)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-é-ti, *pr-ó-ti (“towards, against”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*preti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *preti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *preti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "pret"
          },
          "expansion": "Latgalian: pret",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "pretim"
          },
          "expansion": "pretim",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "preteims"
          },
          "expansion": "preteims",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latgalian: pret, pretim, preteims"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "pret"
          },
          "expansion": "Latvian: pret",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "pretī"
          },
          "expansion": "pretī",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "pretējs"
          },
          "expansion": "pretējs",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latvian: pret, pretī, pretējs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*proti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *proti",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*protivъ"
          },
          "expansion": "*protivъ",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *proti, *protivъ"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "bg",
            "2": "проти́в"
          },
          "expansion": "Bulgarian: проти́в (protív)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "bg",
            "2": "проти"
          },
          "expansion": "проти (proti)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dialectal"
          },
          "expansion": "(dialectal)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Bulgarian: проти́в (protív), проти (proti) (dialectal)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cs",
            "2": "proti"
          },
          "expansion": "Czech: proti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Czech: proti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "pl",
            "2": "przeciw"
          },
          "expansion": "Polish: przeciw",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Polish: przeciw"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "mk",
            "2": "против"
          },
          "expansion": "Macedonian: против (protiv)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Macedonian: против (protiv)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "uk",
            "2": "про́ти"
          },
          "expansion": "Ukrainian: про́ти (próty)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ukrainian: про́ти (próty)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ru",
            "2": "про́тив"
          },
          "expansion": "Russian: про́тив (prótiv)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Russian: про́тив (prótiv)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sh",
            "2": "-"
          },
          "expansion": "Serbo-Croatian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Serbo-Croatian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sh",
            "2": "про̏тив",
            "sclb": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Cyrillic script: про̏тив",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Cyrillic script: про̏тив"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sh",
            "2": "prȍtiv",
            "sclb": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin script: prȍtiv",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin script: prȍtiv"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "προτί"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: προτί (protí)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρός"
          },
          "expansion": "πρός (prós)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: προτί (protí), πρός (prós) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*práti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *práti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *práti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*práti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *práti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *práti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "प्रति",
            "tr": "práti"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: प्रति (práti)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: प्रति (práti) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*pati-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *pati-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *pati-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "peo",
            "2": "𐎱𐎫𐎡𐏁"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Persian: 𐎱𐎫𐎡𐏁 (p-t-i-š)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Persian: 𐎱𐎫𐎡𐏁 (p-t-i-š)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ae",
            "2": "𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌"
          },
          "expansion": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (paⁱti)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (paⁱti)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pr-e-ti-o-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-e-ti-o-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-e-ti-o-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*pretjom"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *pretjom",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *pretjom"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "pretium"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: pretium",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: pretium (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-éy",
            "pos": "dative"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-éy (dative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-éy (dative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-ana-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Anatolian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Anatolian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Proto-Luwic: *prī"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xlu",
            "2": "𒉺𒊑𒄿",
            "ts": "pri"
          },
          "expansion": "Luwian: 𒉺𒊑𒄿 (/⁠pri⁠/)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Luwian: 𒉺𒊑𒄿 (/⁠pri⁠/)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-ola",
            "2": "prī"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Latin: prī",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Latin: prī"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*prei"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *prei\nLatvian: prie-, pie-, pie\nLithuanian: priẽ, príe-\nOld Prussian: prei\nProto-Slavic: *pri (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *prei\nLatvian: prie-, pie-, pie\nLithuanian: priẽ, príe-\nOld Prussian: prei\nProto-Slavic: *pri (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-ey-wo-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-ey-wo-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-ey-wo-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "prīvus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: prīvus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: prīvus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*ɸrīs"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸrīs",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸrīs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-gau",
            "2": "ris"
          },
          "expansion": "Gaulish: ris",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gaulish: ris"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sga",
            "2": "ré"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Irish: ré",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Irish: ré"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ga",
            "2": "roimh"
          },
          "expansion": "Irish: roimh",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Irish: roimh"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gd",
            "2": "ro"
          },
          "expansion": "Scottish Gaelic: ro",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scottish Gaelic: ro"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is-ḱo-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is-ḱo-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is-ḱo-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "prīscus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: prīscus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: prīscus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is-m̥mos"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is-m̥mos",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is-m̥mos"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*priisemos"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *priisemos, *prīsemos\nLatin: prīmus (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *priisemos, *prīsemos\nLatin: prīmus (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is-tn̥-o-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is-tn̥-o-",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*ten-"
          },
          "expansion": "*ten-",
          "name": "m"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is-tn̥-o- (with *ten-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "prīstinus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: prīstinus",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: prīstinus (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-n-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-n-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-n-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρίν",
            "alts": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πρίν (prín), πρείν (preín)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πρίν (prín), πρείν (preín) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-is-to-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-is-to-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-is-to-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*furistaz"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *furistaz",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *furistaz (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-yōs"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-yōs",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-yōs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*priōs"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *priōs\nLatin: prior (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *priōs\nLatin: prior (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pró",
            "3": "*pr-ó"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-ó",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-óH",
            "pos": "allative"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-óH (allative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-ó, *pr-óH (allative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥H-e/o-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥H-e/o-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥H-e/o-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*pər-parə-a"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *pər-parə-a",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *pər-parə-a"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "përpara"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: përpara",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: përpara"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "para"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: para",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: para"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hyx-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Armenian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Armenian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xcl",
            "2": "առ"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Armenian: առ (aṙ)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Armenian: առ (aṙ)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pŕ̥-to-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pŕ̥-to-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pŕ̥-to-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*furþą"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *furþą",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *furþą (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-tero-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-tero-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-tero-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*furþeraz"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *furþeraz",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *furþeraz"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*furþar"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *furþar",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *furþar (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-u-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-u-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-u-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρυμνός"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πρυμνός (prumnós)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πρυμνός (prumnós)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 0,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Unsorted formations"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*frumô"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *frumô",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *frumô (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pratʰamás"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pratʰamás",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pratʰamás (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-toc-pro",
            "2": "*pre"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Tocharian: *pre",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Tocharian: *pre"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "before, in front"
      ],
      "id": "en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:before",
      "links": [
        [
          "before",
          "before"
        ],
        [
          "front",
          "front"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:before"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "topical",
          "name": "Proto-Indo-European ordinal numbers",
          "parents": [
            "Ordinal numbers",
            "Numbers",
            "All topics",
            "Terms by semantic function",
            "Fundamental"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "first"
      ],
      "id": "en-per--ine-pro-root-p5N7ZLjK",
      "links": [
        [
          "first",
          "first"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Vladimir Orel"
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pér-ye-ti",
            "pos": "ye-present"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-ye-ti (ye-present)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-ye-ti (ye-present)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*péřřō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *péřřō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *péřřō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πείρω",
            "t": "to pierce"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πείρω (peírō, “to pierce”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πείρω (peírō, “to pierce”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti",
            "pos": ""
          },
          "expansion": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "περάω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-éye-ti",
            "pos": "causative"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-éye-ti (causative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-éye-ti (causative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*pariti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *pariti",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *pariti (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*pьrati"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *pьrati",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "? Proto-Slavic: *pьrati (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*farjaną",
            "t": "to carry, to ferry"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *farjaną (“to carry, to ferry”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*farjǭ",
            "3": "",
            "4": "ferry"
          },
          "expansion": "*farjǭ (“ferry”)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *farjaną (“to carry, to ferry”), *farjǭ (“ferry”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fōrijaną",
            "t": "to lead"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fōrijaną (“to lead”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*faraną"
          },
          "expansion": "*faraną",
          "name": "m"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fōrijaną (“to lead”) (formed from primary *faraną) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pāráyati"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pāráyati",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pāráyati"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pāráyati"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pāráyati",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pāráyati"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पारयति",
            "t": "to make cross",
            "tr": "pāráyati"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पारयति (pāráyati, “to make cross”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पारयति (pāráyati, “to make cross”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-ti",
            "pos": "o-grade root present"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-ti (o-grade root present)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-ti (o-grade root present)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*faraną"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *faraną",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *faraną (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "ἔπορον"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: ἔπορον (époron)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: ἔπορον (époron)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-toc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Tocharian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Tocharian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "txb",
            "2": "pere"
          },
          "expansion": "Tocharian B: pere",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Tocharian B: pere"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pí-por-ti",
            "pos": "o-grade reduplicated present"
          },
          "expansion": "*pí-por-ti (o-grade reduplicated present)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pí-por-ti (o-grade reduplicated present)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*píparti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *píparti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *píparti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*píparti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *píparti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *píparti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पिपर्ति",
            "t": "to bring across",
            "tr": "píparti"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (píparti, “to bring across”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (píparti, “to bring across”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*portāō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *portāō\nLatin: portō (see there for further descendants)\nUmbrian: 𐌐𐌖𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌕𐌖 (purtatu), portatu, portaia, portust",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *portāō\nLatin: portō (see there for further descendants)\nUmbrian: 𐌐𐌖𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌕𐌖 (purtatu), portatu, portaia, portust"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*prā́ťťō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *prā́ťťō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *prā́ťťō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρᾱ́σσω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πρᾱ́σσω (prā́ssō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πρᾱ́σσω (prā́ssō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pértus",
            "3": "*pér-tu-s",
            "4": "crossing"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-tu-s (“crossing”)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-tu-s (“crossing”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pérwr̥",
            "3": "*pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-dʰmo-"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-dʰmo-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-dʰmo-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πορθμός"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πορθμός (porthmós)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πορθμός (porthmós)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pōr-i-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pōr-i-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pōr-i-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fōriz",
            "t": "passable"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fōriz (“passable”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fōriz (“passable”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pór-mo-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pór-mo-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pór-mo-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*parmas"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *parmas",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *parmas"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*pormъ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *pormъ",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *pormъ (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*farmaz",
            "t": "load, fare"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *farmaz (“load, fare”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *farmaz (“load, fare”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-os"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-os",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-os"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*ɸoros"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸoros",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸoros (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρος"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πόρος (póros)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πόρος (póros)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πορεύω",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορεύω (poreúō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορεύω (poreúō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πορίζω",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορίζω (porízō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορίζω (porízō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pārás"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pārás",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pārás"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pārás"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pārás",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pārás"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पार",
            "t": "crossing",
            "tr": "pārá"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पार (pārá, “crossing”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पार (pārá, “crossing”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-teh₂"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-teh₂",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-teh₂"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*portā"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *portā\nLatin: porta (see there for further descendants)\nOscan: 𐌐𐌞𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌌 (púrtam, “gate, door”, acc.sg.)\nUmbrian: [script needed] (pertome)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *portā\nLatin: porta (see there for further descendants)\nOscan: 𐌐𐌞𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌌 (púrtam, “gate, door”, acc.sg.)\nUmbrian: [script needed] (pertome)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-ti-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-ti-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-ti-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fardiz",
            "t": "journey"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fardiz (“journey”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fardiz (“journey”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Unsorted formations"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*p(e)rē-(n-)"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *p(e)rē-(n-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *p(e)rē-(n-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "prura",
            "t": "bring (along), lead (up/forward)"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: prura (“bring (along), lead (up/forward)”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: prura (“bring (along), lead (up/forward)”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*priś"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *priś",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *priś"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "prish"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: prish",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: prish"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": ""
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "paramà",
            "g": "f",
            "pos": "noun",
            "t": "support, help"
          },
          "expansion": "Lithuanian: paramà f (“support, help”, noun)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Lithuanian: paramà f (“support, help”, noun)"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "0 0 53 22 25 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "0 0 79 10 11 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "0 0 79 10 10 0",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Indo-European roots",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to go through"
      ],
      "id": "en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:go_forth",
      "links": [
        [
          "go",
          "go"
        ],
        [
          "through",
          "through"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:go forth"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to carry forth, fare"
      ],
      "id": "en-per--ine-pro-root-LVic7ohY",
      "links": [
        [
          "carry",
          "carry"
        ],
        [
          "forth",
          "forth"
        ],
        [
          "fare",
          "fare"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*peřřa"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *peřřa",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *peřřa"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πεῖρα"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πεῖρα (peîra)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πεῖρα (peîra)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂-ye-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂-ye-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂-ye-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "comperiō",
            "alt": "(com)periō"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: (com)periō",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "experior",
            "3": "(ex)perior"
          },
          "expansion": "(ex)perior",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "opperior",
            "3": "(op)perior"
          },
          "expansion": "(op)perior",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: (com)periō, (ex)perior, (op)perior"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂-to-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂-to-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂-to-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "perītus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: perītus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: perītus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂-tlom"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂-tlom",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂-tlom"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*perītlom"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *perītlom\nLatin: perīculum (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *perītlom\nLatin: perīculum (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-h₃-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-h₃-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-h₃-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fērō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fērō",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fērą",
            "3": "",
            "4": "danger"
          },
          "expansion": "*fērą (“danger”)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fērō, *fērą (“danger”) (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to try, dare, risk"
      ],
      "id": "en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:try",
      "links": [
        [
          "try",
          "try"
        ],
        [
          "dare",
          "dare"
        ],
        [
          "risk",
          "risk"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:try"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "περάω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-neh₂"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-neh₂",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-neh₂"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*pórnē"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *pórnē",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *pórnē"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρνη"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πόρνη (pórnē)\nGreek: πόρνη f (pórni, “prostitute”)\n⇒ Old Armenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)\nArmenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πόρνη (pórnē)\nGreek: πόρνη f (pórni, “prostitute”)\n⇒ Old Armenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)\nArmenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρνημι"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πέρνημι (pérnēmi)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πέρνημι (pérnēmi)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πιπράσκω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πιπράσκω (pipráskō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πιπράσκω (pipráskō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "pars"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: pars",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: pars (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "portiō"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: portiō",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: portiō (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "pār"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: pār",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "? Latin: pār (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to sell"
      ],
      "id": "en-per--ine-pro-root-ine_pro:sell",
      "links": [
        [
          "sell",
          "sell"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:sell"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European lemmas",
    "Proto-Indo-European roots"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pér-i",
            "pos": "locative"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-i (locative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-i (locative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*per(i)"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *per(i)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *per(i)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "për"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: për",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: për"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hyx-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Armenian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Armenian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xcl",
            "2": "հեռ-"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Armenian: հեռ- (heṙ-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Armenian: հեռ- (heṙ-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*per"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *per",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *per"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "per"
          },
          "expansion": "Lithuanian: per",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "per-"
          },
          "expansion": "per-",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "par-"
          },
          "expansion": "par-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Lithuanian: per, per-, par-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "par"
          },
          "expansion": "Latvian: par",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "par-"
          },
          "expansion": "par-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latvian: par, par-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "prg",
            "2": "per"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Prussian: per",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Prussian: per"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*per"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *per",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*per-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *per, *per- (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*firi-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *firi-",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *firi- (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "περί"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: περί (perí)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρ"
          },
          "expansion": "πέρ (pér)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: περί (perí), πέρ (pér) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pári",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pári"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pári",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pári"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "परि",
            "tr": "pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: परि (pári)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: परि (pári) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*pári"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *pári",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *pári"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ae",
            "2": "𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌"
          },
          "expansion": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌 (paⁱri)\n→ Persian: پیراـ (pirâ-, “peri-”, prefix)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬭𐬌 (paⁱri)\n→ Persian: پیراـ (pirâ-, “peri-”, prefix)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "per"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: per",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: per (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-nóy"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-nóy",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-nóy"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*ferrai"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *ferrai",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *ferrai (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pér-o-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-o-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-o-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-ana-pro",
            "2": "",
            "alt": "*péro-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Anatolian: *péro-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Anatolian: *péro-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hit",
            "2": "𒁉𒂊𒊏𒀭",
            "tr": "pēran"
          },
          "expansion": "Hittite: 𒁉𒂊𒊏𒀭 (pēran)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hit",
            "2": "𒁉𒊏𒀭",
            "tr": "peran"
          },
          "expansion": "𒁉𒊏𒀭 (peran)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Hittite: 𒁉𒂊𒊏𒀭 (pēran), 𒁉𒊏𒀭 (peran)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρᾱ"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πέρᾱ (pérā)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρᾱν"
          },
          "expansion": "πέρᾱν (pérān)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πέρᾱ (pérā), πέρᾱν (pérān) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pára",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pára"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pára",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pára"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पर",
            "tr": "pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पर (pára)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पर (pára) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*pára"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *pára",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *pára"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fa",
            "2": "فرفر",
            "t": "in hurry",
            "tr": "farfar"
          },
          "expansion": "Persian: فرفر (farfar, “in hurry”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "archaic"
          },
          "expansion": "(archaic)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "? Persian: فرفر (farfar, “in hurry”) (archaic)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "perperus",
            "alt": "(per)perus",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Latin: (per)perus",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "perperam",
            "3": "(per)peram"
          },
          "expansion": "(per)peram",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Latin: (per)perus, (per)peram"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρπερος",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Ancient Greek: πέρπερος (pérperos)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Ancient Greek: πέρπερος (pérperos)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*péruti",
            "3": "*pér-uti",
            "4": "last year"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-uti (“last year”)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*wet-",
            "3": "",
            "4": "year"
          },
          "expansion": "*wet- (“year”)",
          "name": "m"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ *pér-uti (“last year”) (with *wet- (“year”))"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-so-"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-so-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-so-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρσω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πόρσω (pórsō)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρρω"
          },
          "expansion": "πόρρω (pórrhō)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πόρσω (pórsō), πόρρω (pórrhō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "porrō"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: porrō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: porrō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πάρ"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πάρ (pár)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πάρ (pár)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*por-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *por-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *por-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "por-"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: por-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: por-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*preh₂-",
            "3": "*pr-eh₂-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-eh₂-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-eh₂-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-és"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-és",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-és"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρέσβυς",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πρέσβυς (présbus)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πρέσβυς (présbus)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-é-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-é-ti",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-ó-ti",
            "t": "towards, against"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-ó-ti (“towards, against”)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-é-ti, *pr-ó-ti (“towards, against”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*preti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *preti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *preti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "pret"
          },
          "expansion": "Latgalian: pret",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "pretim"
          },
          "expansion": "pretim",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "preteims"
          },
          "expansion": "preteims",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latgalian: pret, pretim, preteims"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "pret"
          },
          "expansion": "Latvian: pret",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lv",
            "2": "pretī"
          },
          "expansion": "pretī",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ltg",
            "2": "pretējs"
          },
          "expansion": "pretējs",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latvian: pret, pretī, pretējs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*proti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *proti",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*protivъ"
          },
          "expansion": "*protivъ",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *proti, *protivъ"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "bg",
            "2": "проти́в"
          },
          "expansion": "Bulgarian: проти́в (protív)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "bg",
            "2": "проти"
          },
          "expansion": "проти (proti)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dialectal"
          },
          "expansion": "(dialectal)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Bulgarian: проти́в (protív), проти (proti) (dialectal)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cs",
            "2": "proti"
          },
          "expansion": "Czech: proti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Czech: proti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "pl",
            "2": "przeciw"
          },
          "expansion": "Polish: przeciw",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Polish: przeciw"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "mk",
            "2": "против"
          },
          "expansion": "Macedonian: против (protiv)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Macedonian: против (protiv)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "uk",
            "2": "про́ти"
          },
          "expansion": "Ukrainian: про́ти (próty)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ukrainian: про́ти (próty)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ru",
            "2": "про́тив"
          },
          "expansion": "Russian: про́тив (prótiv)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Russian: про́тив (prótiv)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sh",
            "2": "-"
          },
          "expansion": "Serbo-Croatian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Serbo-Croatian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sh",
            "2": "про̏тив",
            "sclb": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Cyrillic script: про̏тив",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Cyrillic script: про̏тив"
    },
    {
      "depth": 5,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sh",
            "2": "prȍtiv",
            "sclb": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin script: prȍtiv",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin script: prȍtiv"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "προτί"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: προτί (protí)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρός"
          },
          "expansion": "πρός (prós)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: προτί (protí), πρός (prós) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*práti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *práti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *práti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*práti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *práti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *práti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "प्रति",
            "tr": "práti"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: प्रति (práti)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: प्रति (práti) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ira-pro",
            "2": "*pati-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Iranian: *pati-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Iranian: *pati-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "peo",
            "2": "𐎱𐎫𐎡𐏁"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Persian: 𐎱𐎫𐎡𐏁 (p-t-i-š)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Persian: 𐎱𐎫𐎡𐏁 (p-t-i-š)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ae",
            "2": "𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌"
          },
          "expansion": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (paⁱti)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Avestan: 𐬞𐬀𐬌𐬙𐬌 (paⁱti)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pr-e-ti-o-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-e-ti-o-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-e-ti-o-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*pretjom"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *pretjom",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *pretjom"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "pretium"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: pretium",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: pretium (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-éy",
            "pos": "dative"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-éy (dative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-éy (dative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-ana-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Anatolian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Anatolian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Proto-Luwic: *prī"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xlu",
            "2": "𒉺𒊑𒄿",
            "ts": "pri"
          },
          "expansion": "Luwian: 𒉺𒊑𒄿 (/⁠pri⁠/)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Luwian: 𒉺𒊑𒄿 (/⁠pri⁠/)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-ola",
            "2": "prī"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Latin: prī",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Latin: prī"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*prei"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *prei\nLatvian: prie-, pie-, pie\nLithuanian: priẽ, príe-\nOld Prussian: prei\nProto-Slavic: *pri (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *prei\nLatvian: prie-, pie-, pie\nLithuanian: priẽ, príe-\nOld Prussian: prei\nProto-Slavic: *pri (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-ey-wo-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-ey-wo-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-ey-wo-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "prīvus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: prīvus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: prīvus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*ɸrīs"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸrīs",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸrīs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-gau",
            "2": "ris"
          },
          "expansion": "Gaulish: ris",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gaulish: ris"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sga",
            "2": "ré"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Irish: ré",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Irish: ré"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ga",
            "2": "roimh"
          },
          "expansion": "Irish: roimh",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Irish: roimh"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gd",
            "2": "ro"
          },
          "expansion": "Scottish Gaelic: ro",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scottish Gaelic: ro"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is-ḱo-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is-ḱo-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is-ḱo-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "prīscus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: prīscus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: prīscus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is-m̥mos"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is-m̥mos",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is-m̥mos"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*priisemos"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *priisemos, *prīsemos\nLatin: prīmus (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *priisemos, *prīsemos\nLatin: prīmus (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-is-tn̥-o-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-is-tn̥-o-",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*ten-"
          },
          "expansion": "*ten-",
          "name": "m"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-is-tn̥-o- (with *ten-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "prīstinus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: prīstinus",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: prīstinus (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-n-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-n-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-n-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρίν",
            "alts": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πρίν (prín), πρείν (preín)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πρίν (prín), πρείν (preín) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-is-to-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-is-to-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-is-to-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*furistaz"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *furistaz",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *furistaz (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-i-yōs"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-i-yōs",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-i-yōs"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*priōs"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *priōs\nLatin: prior (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *priōs\nLatin: prior (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pró",
            "3": "*pr-ó"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-ó",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-óH",
            "pos": "allative"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-óH (allative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-ó, *pr-óH (allative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥H-e/o-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥H-e/o-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥H-e/o-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*pər-parə-a"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *pər-parə-a",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *pər-parə-a"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "përpara"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: përpara",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: përpara"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "para"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: para",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: para"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥s- ~ *pors-V́-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "hyx-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Armenian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Armenian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xcl",
            "2": "առ"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Armenian: առ (aṙ)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Armenian: առ (aṙ)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pŕ̥-to-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pŕ̥-to-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pŕ̥-to-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*furþą"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *furþą",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *furþą (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-tero-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-tero-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-tero-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*furþeraz"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *furþeraz",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *furþeraz"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*furþar"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *furþar",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *furþar (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr-u-"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr-u-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr-u-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρυμνός"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πρυμνός (prumnós)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πρυμνός (prumnós)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 0,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Unsorted formations"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*frumô"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *frumô",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *frumô (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pratʰamás"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pratʰamás",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pratʰamás (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-toc-pro",
            "2": "*pre"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Tocharian: *pre",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Tocharian: *pre"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "before, in front"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "before",
          "before"
        ],
        [
          "front",
          "front"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:before"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Indo-European ordinal numbers"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "first"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "first",
          "first"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Vladimir Orel"
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European lemmas",
    "Proto-Indo-European roots"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pér-ye-ti",
            "pos": "ye-present"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-ye-ti (ye-present)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-ye-ti (ye-present)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*péřřō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *péřřō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *péřřō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πείρω",
            "t": "to pierce"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πείρω (peírō, “to pierce”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πείρω (peírō, “to pierce”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti",
            "pos": ""
          },
          "expansion": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "περάω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-éye-ti",
            "pos": "causative"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-éye-ti (causative)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-éye-ti (causative)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*pariti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *pariti",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *pariti (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*pьrati"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *pьrati",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "? Proto-Slavic: *pьrati (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*farjaną",
            "t": "to carry, to ferry"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *farjaną (“to carry, to ferry”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*farjǭ",
            "3": "",
            "4": "ferry"
          },
          "expansion": "*farjǭ (“ferry”)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *farjaną (“to carry, to ferry”), *farjǭ (“ferry”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fōrijaną",
            "t": "to lead"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fōrijaną (“to lead”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*faraną"
          },
          "expansion": "*faraną",
          "name": "m"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fōrijaną (“to lead”) (formed from primary *faraną) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pāráyati"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pāráyati",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pāráyati"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pāráyati"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pāráyati",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pāráyati"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पारयति",
            "t": "to make cross",
            "tr": "pāráyati"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पारयति (pāráyati, “to make cross”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पारयति (pāráyati, “to make cross”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-ti",
            "pos": "o-grade root present"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-ti (o-grade root present)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-ti (o-grade root present)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*faraną"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *faraną",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *faraną (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "ἔπορον"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: ἔπορον (époron)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: ἔπορον (époron)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-toc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Tocharian:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Tocharian:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "txb",
            "2": "pere"
          },
          "expansion": "Tocharian B: pere",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Tocharian B: pere"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pí-por-ti",
            "pos": "o-grade reduplicated present"
          },
          "expansion": "*pí-por-ti (o-grade reduplicated present)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pí-por-ti (o-grade reduplicated present)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*píparti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *píparti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *píparti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*píparti"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *píparti",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *píparti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पिपर्ति",
            "t": "to bring across",
            "tr": "píparti"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (píparti, “to bring across”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पिपर्ति (píparti, “to bring across”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-t-eh₂-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*portāō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *portāō\nLatin: portō (see there for further descendants)\nUmbrian: 𐌐𐌖𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌕𐌖 (purtatu), portatu, portaia, portust",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *portāō\nLatin: portō (see there for further descendants)\nUmbrian: 𐌐𐌖𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌕𐌖 (purtatu), portatu, portaia, portust"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pr̥-h₂-k-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*prā́ťťō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *prā́ťťō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *prā́ťťō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πρᾱ́σσω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πρᾱ́σσω (prā́ssō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πρᾱ́σσω (prā́ssō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pértus",
            "3": "*pér-tu-s",
            "4": "crossing"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-tu-s (“crossing”)",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-tu-s (“crossing”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "*pérwr̥",
            "3": "*pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pér-wr̥ ~ *pr̥-wén-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-dʰmo-"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-dʰmo-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-dʰmo-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πορθμός"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πορθμός (porthmós)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πορθμός (porthmós)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pōr-i-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pōr-i-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pōr-i-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fōriz",
            "t": "passable"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fōriz (“passable”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fōriz (“passable”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*pór-mo-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*pór-mo-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*pór-mo-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": "*parmas"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *parmas",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic: *parmas"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sla-pro",
            "2": "*pormъ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Slavic: *pormъ",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Slavic: *pormъ (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*farmaz",
            "t": "load, fare"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *farmaz (“load, fare”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *farmaz (“load, fare”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-os"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-os",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-os"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "cel-pro",
            "2": "*ɸoros"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸoros",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Celtic: *ɸoros (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρος"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πόρος (póros)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πόρος (póros)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πορεύω",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορεύω (poreúō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορεύω (poreúō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πορίζω",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορίζω (porízō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Ancient Greek: πορίζω (porízō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "iir-pro",
            "2": "*pārás"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pārás",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Iranian: *pārás"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "inc-pro",
            "2": "*pārás"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pārás",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Indo-Aryan: *pārás"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sa",
            "2": "पार",
            "t": "crossing",
            "tr": "pārá"
          },
          "expansion": "Sanskrit: पार (pārá, “crossing”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Sanskrit: पार (pārá, “crossing”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-teh₂"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-teh₂",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-teh₂"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*portā"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *portā\nLatin: porta (see there for further descendants)\nOscan: 𐌐𐌞𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌌 (púrtam, “gate, door”, acc.sg.)\nUmbrian: [script needed] (pertome)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *portā\nLatin: porta (see there for further descendants)\nOscan: 𐌐𐌞𐌓𐌕𐌀𐌌 (púrtam, “gate, door”, acc.sg.)\nUmbrian: [script needed] (pertome)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-ti-s"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-ti-s",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-ti-s"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fardiz",
            "t": "journey"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fardiz (“journey”)",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fardiz (“journey”) (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [],
      "text": "Unsorted formations"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*p(e)rē-(n-)"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *p(e)rē-(n-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *p(e)rē-(n-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "prura",
            "t": "bring (along), lead (up/forward)"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: prura (“bring (along), lead (up/forward)”)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: prura (“bring (along), lead (up/forward)”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sqj-pro",
            "2": "*priś"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Albanian: *priś",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Albanian: *priś"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sq",
            "2": "prish"
          },
          "expansion": "Albanian: prish",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Albanian: prish"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-bsl-pro",
            "2": ""
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Balto-Slavic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "lt",
            "2": "paramà",
            "g": "f",
            "pos": "noun",
            "t": "support, help"
          },
          "expansion": "Lithuanian: paramà f (“support, help”, noun)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Lithuanian: paramà f (“support, help”, noun)"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to go through"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "go",
          "go"
        ],
        [
          "through",
          "through"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:go forth"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to carry forth, fare"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "carry",
          "carry"
        ],
        [
          "forth",
          "forth"
        ],
        [
          "fare",
          "fare"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European lemmas",
    "Proto-Indo-European roots"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*peřřa"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *peřřa",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *peřřa"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πεῖρα"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πεῖρα (peîra)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πεῖρα (peîra)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂-ye-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂-ye-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂-ye-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "comperiō",
            "alt": "(com)periō"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: (com)periō",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "experior",
            "3": "(ex)perior"
          },
          "expansion": "(ex)perior",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "opperior",
            "3": "(op)perior"
          },
          "expansion": "(op)perior",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: (com)periō, (ex)perior, (op)perior"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂-to-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂-to-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂-to-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "perītus"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: perītus",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: perītus"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-ih₂-tlom"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-ih₂-tlom",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-ih₂-tlom"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro",
            "2": "*perītlom"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic: *perītlom\nLatin: perīculum (see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic: *perītlom\nLatin: perīculum (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-h₃-"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-h₃-",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-h₃-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fērō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Germanic: *fērō",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "*fērą",
            "3": "",
            "4": "danger"
          },
          "expansion": "*fērą (“danger”)",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Germanic: *fērō, *fērą (“danger”) (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to try, dare, risk"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "try",
          "try"
        ],
        [
          "dare",
          "dare"
        ],
        [
          "risk",
          "risk"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:try"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Indo-European CeR-shape roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European homonymic roots",
    "Proto-Indo-European lemmas",
    "Proto-Indo-European roots"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti"
          },
          "expansion": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*per-eh₂-yé-ti"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "περάω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: περάω (peráō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "tags": [
        "derived"
      ],
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ine-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*por-neh₂"
          },
          "expansion": "*por-neh₂",
          "name": "l"
        }
      ],
      "text": "*por-neh₂"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro",
            "2": "*pórnē"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic: *pórnē",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic: *pórnē"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πόρνη"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πόρνη (pórnē)\nGreek: πόρνη f (pórni, “prostitute”)\n⇒ Old Armenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)\nArmenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πόρνη (pórnē)\nGreek: πόρνη f (pórni, “prostitute”)\n⇒ Old Armenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)\nArmenian: պոռնիկ (poṙnik)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grk-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Hellenic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πέρνημι"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πέρνημι (pérnēmi)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πέρνημι (pérnēmi)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "grc",
            "2": "πιπράσκω"
          },
          "expansion": "Ancient Greek: πιπράσκω (pipráskō)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ancient Greek: πιπράσκω (pipráskō)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "itc-pro"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Italic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Italic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "pars"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: pars",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: pars (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "portiō"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: portiō",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Latin: portiō (see there for further descendants)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "la",
            "2": "pār"
          },
          "expansion": "Latin: pār",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {},
          "expansion": "(see there for further descendants)",
          "name": "see desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "? Latin: pār (see there for further descendants)"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Indo-European",
  "lang_code": "ine-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/per-",
  "pos": "root",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "to sell"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "sell",
          "sell"
        ]
      ],
      "senseid": [
        "ine-pro:sell"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "per-"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Indo-European dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-01 using wiktextract (ee658f9 and be4df6b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.