"under" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See under in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Preposition

IPA: /ˈun.der/
Etymology: From a merger of two originally distinct prepositions as a result of Verner's law: Pre-Germanic *untér and *undʰér, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥tér (“inside”), from which also Latin inter and *h₁n̥dʰér (“under”), whence Latin īnfrā, Sanskrit अध (adhá, “below”), Ossetian дӕлӕ (dælæ, “below”). Etymology templates: {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₁entér|*h₁n̥tér|inside}} Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥tér (“inside”), {{cog|la|inter}} Latin inter, {{m|ine-pro|*h₁n̥dʰér||under}} *h₁n̥dʰér (“under”), {{cog|la|īnfrā}} Latin īnfrā, {{cog|sa|अध||below|tr=adhá}} Sanskrit अध (adhá, “below”), {{cog|os|дӕлӕ||below}} Ossetian дӕлӕ (dælæ, “below”) Head templates: {{head|gem-pro|preposition|cat2=adverbs}} *under
  1. (+dative) among, between Tags: reconstruction, with-dative
    Sense id: under-gem-pro-prep-NP~WmJ5H Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 35 33 33
  2. (+dative) under, beneath (location) Tags: reconstruction, with-dative
    Sense id: under-gem-pro-prep-xFDNFR~k Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 35 33 33
  3. (+accusative) under (direction) Tags: reconstruction, with-accusative
    Sense id: under-gem-pro-prep-rGPbhLBz Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 35 33 33

Download JSON data for under meaning in Proto-Germanic (4.8kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*undar"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *undar\nOld English: under\nMiddle English: under, vnder, onder\nEnglish: under\nScots: unner\nYola: unnere\nOld Frisian: under\nSaterland Frisian: unner\nWest Frisian: ûnder\nOld Saxon: undar\nMiddle Low German: under, ünder, ynder\nLow German: ünner\nPlautdietsch: unja\nOld Dutch: under\nMiddle Dutch: onder\nDutch: onder\nAfrikaans: onder\nBerbice Creole Dutch: ondro\nNegerhollands: onder, ondu, undu\n→ Aukan: ondoo\nLimburgish: ónger\nOld High German: untar, undar, under\nMiddle High German: unter\nGerman: unter\nHunsrik: unne\nLuxembourgish: ënner\nYiddish: אונטער (unter)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *undar\nOld English: under\nMiddle English: under, vnder, onder\nEnglish: under\nScots: unner\nYola: unnere\nOld Frisian: under\nSaterland Frisian: unner\nWest Frisian: ûnder\nOld Saxon: undar\nMiddle Low German: under, ünder, ynder\nLow German: ünner\nPlautdietsch: unja\nOld Dutch: under\nMiddle Dutch: onder\nDutch: onder\nAfrikaans: onder\nBerbice Creole Dutch: ondro\nNegerhollands: onder, ondu, undu\n→ Aukan: ondoo\nLimburgish: ónger\nOld High German: untar, undar, under\nMiddle High German: unter\nGerman: unter\nHunsrik: unne\nLuxembourgish: ënner\nYiddish: אונטער (unter)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "undir"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: undir\nIcelandic: undir\nFaroese: undir\nNorn: onjder, onder\nNorwegian: under\nOld Swedish: undir\nSwedish: under\nDanish: under\nGutnish: undar, unda, undur",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: undir\nIcelandic: undir\nFaroese: undir\nNorn: onjder, onder\nNorwegian: under\nOld Swedish: undir\nSwedish: under\nDanish: under\nGutnish: undar, unda, undur"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (undar)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (undar)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "roa-opt",
            "2": "unter",
            "bor": "1",
            "unc": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→? Old Galician-Portuguese: unter",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→? Old Galician-Portuguese: unter"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gl",
            "2": "unter",
            "3": "ontre"
          },
          "expansion": "Galician: unter, ontre",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Galician: unter, ontre"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁entér",
        "4": "*h₁n̥tér",
        "5": "inside"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥tér (“inside”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "inter"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin inter",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*h₁n̥dʰér",
        "3": "",
        "4": "under"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₁n̥dʰér (“under”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "īnfrā"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin īnfrā",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sa",
        "2": "अध",
        "3": "",
        "4": "below",
        "tr": "adhá"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit अध (adhá, “below”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "os",
        "2": "дӕлӕ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "below"
      },
      "expansion": "Ossetian дӕлӕ (dælæ, “below”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From a merger of two originally distinct prepositions as a result of Verner's law: Pre-Germanic *untér and *undʰér, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥tér (“inside”), from which also Latin inter and *h₁n̥dʰér (“under”), whence Latin īnfrā, Sanskrit अध (adhá, “below”), Ossetian дӕлӕ (dælæ, “below”).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "preposition",
        "cat2": "adverbs"
      },
      "expansion": "*under",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/under",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "35 33 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "among, between"
      ],
      "id": "under-gem-pro-prep-NP~WmJ5H",
      "links": [
        [
          "among",
          "among"
        ],
        [
          "between",
          "between"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(+dative) among, between"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-dative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "35 33 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "under, beneath (location)"
      ],
      "id": "under-gem-pro-prep-xFDNFR~k",
      "links": [
        [
          "under",
          "under"
        ],
        [
          "beneath",
          "beneath"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(+dative) under, beneath (location)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-dative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "35 33 33",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "under (direction)"
      ],
      "id": "under-gem-pro-prep-rGPbhLBz",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(+accusative) under (direction)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-accusative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈun.der/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "under"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*undar"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *undar\nOld English: under\nMiddle English: under, vnder, onder\nEnglish: under\nScots: unner\nYola: unnere\nOld Frisian: under\nSaterland Frisian: unner\nWest Frisian: ûnder\nOld Saxon: undar\nMiddle Low German: under, ünder, ynder\nLow German: ünner\nPlautdietsch: unja\nOld Dutch: under\nMiddle Dutch: onder\nDutch: onder\nAfrikaans: onder\nBerbice Creole Dutch: ondro\nNegerhollands: onder, ondu, undu\n→ Aukan: ondoo\nLimburgish: ónger\nOld High German: untar, undar, under\nMiddle High German: unter\nGerman: unter\nHunsrik: unne\nLuxembourgish: ënner\nYiddish: אונטער (unter)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *undar\nOld English: under\nMiddle English: under, vnder, onder\nEnglish: under\nScots: unner\nYola: unnere\nOld Frisian: under\nSaterland Frisian: unner\nWest Frisian: ûnder\nOld Saxon: undar\nMiddle Low German: under, ünder, ynder\nLow German: ünner\nPlautdietsch: unja\nOld Dutch: under\nMiddle Dutch: onder\nDutch: onder\nAfrikaans: onder\nBerbice Creole Dutch: ondro\nNegerhollands: onder, ondu, undu\n→ Aukan: ondoo\nLimburgish: ónger\nOld High German: untar, undar, under\nMiddle High German: unter\nGerman: unter\nHunsrik: unne\nLuxembourgish: ënner\nYiddish: אונטער (unter)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "undir"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: undir\nIcelandic: undir\nFaroese: undir\nNorn: onjder, onder\nNorwegian: under\nOld Swedish: undir\nSwedish: under\nDanish: under\nGutnish: undar, unda, undur",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: undir\nIcelandic: undir\nFaroese: undir\nNorn: onjder, onder\nNorwegian: under\nOld Swedish: undir\nSwedish: under\nDanish: under\nGutnish: undar, unda, undur"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (undar)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌿𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (undar)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "roa-opt",
            "2": "unter",
            "bor": "1",
            "unc": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→? Old Galician-Portuguese: unter",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→? Old Galician-Portuguese: unter"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gl",
            "2": "unter",
            "3": "ontre"
          },
          "expansion": "Galician: unter, ontre",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Galician: unter, ontre"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁entér",
        "4": "*h₁n̥tér",
        "5": "inside"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥tér (“inside”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "inter"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin inter",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*h₁n̥dʰér",
        "3": "",
        "4": "under"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₁n̥dʰér (“under”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "īnfrā"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin īnfrā",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sa",
        "2": "अध",
        "3": "",
        "4": "below",
        "tr": "adhá"
      },
      "expansion": "Sanskrit अध (adhá, “below”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "os",
        "2": "дӕлӕ",
        "3": "",
        "4": "below"
      },
      "expansion": "Ossetian дӕлӕ (dælæ, “below”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From a merger of two originally distinct prepositions as a result of Verner's law: Pre-Germanic *untér and *undʰér, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁n̥tér (“inside”), from which also Latin inter and *h₁n̥dʰér (“under”), whence Latin īnfrā, Sanskrit अध (adhá, “below”), Ossetian дӕлӕ (dælæ, “below”).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "preposition",
        "cat2": "adverbs"
      },
      "expansion": "*under",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/under",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "among, between"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "among",
          "among"
        ],
        [
          "between",
          "between"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(+dative) among, between"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-dative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "under, beneath (location)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "under",
          "under"
        ],
        [
          "beneath",
          "beneath"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(+dative) under, beneath (location)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-dative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "under (direction)"
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(+accusative) under (direction)"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-accusative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈun.der/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "under"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.