"hinder" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See hinder in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adverb

IPA: /ˈxin.der/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), from *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”). Cognate with Latin contrā (“back, against”), Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”); > Modern Welsh gan (“with, by”), Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”). Etymology templates: {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro||*ḱem-tér-|down, back, along, over, through}} Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), {{m|ine-pro|*ḱóm||beside, near, by, with}} *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”), {{cog|la|contrā||back, against}} Latin contrā (“back, against”), {{cog|owl|cant||with, at, along}} Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”), {{cog|cy|gan||with, by}} Welsh gan (“with, by”), {{cog|grc|κατά||downwards}} Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”)
  1. back, on that side of, behind Tags: reconstruction Derived forms: hinderōną Related terms: hindrōną Related terms (*hindanē): 𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽𐌰 (hindana) [Gothic] Related terms (*hindumistaz): 𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌿𐌼𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍃 (hindumists) [Gothic] Related terms (Old English: hindemest): hindmost [English]
    Sense id: hinder-gem-pro-adv-VdkJNMjY
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: hindar

Preposition

IPA: /ˈxin.der/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), from *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”). Cognate with Latin contrā (“back, against”), Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”); > Modern Welsh gan (“with, by”), Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”). Etymology templates: {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro||*ḱem-tér-|down, back, along, over, through}} Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), {{m|ine-pro|*ḱóm||beside, near, by, with}} *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”), {{cog|la|contrā||back, against}} Latin contrā (“back, against”), {{cog|owl|cant||with, at, along}} Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”), {{cog|cy|gan||with, by}} Welsh gan (“with, by”), {{cog|grc|κατά||downwards}} Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”)
  1. (with accusative or dative) behind, beyond Tags: reconstruction, with-accusative, with-dative
    Sense id: hinder-gem-pro-prep-M2gCC5nj Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: hindar

Download JSON data for hinder meaning in Proto-Germanic (5.2kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*ḱem-tér-",
        "5": "down, back, along, over, through"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ḱóm",
        "3": "",
        "4": "beside, near, by, with"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "contrā",
        "3": "",
        "4": "back, against"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin contrā (“back, against”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "owl",
        "2": "cant",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, at, along"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "gan",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, by"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh gan (“with, by”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κατά",
        "3": "",
        "4": "downwards"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), from *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”). Cognate with Latin contrā (“back, against”), Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”); > Modern Welsh gan (“with, by”), Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hinder",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "behind, beyond"
      ],
      "id": "hinder-gem-pro-prep-M2gCC5nj",
      "links": [
        [
          "behind",
          "behind"
        ],
        [
          "beyond",
          "beyond"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(with accusative or dative) behind, beyond"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-accusative",
        "with-dative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxin.der/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "hindar"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hinder"
}

{
  "categories": [],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: hinder"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: hinder"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dum",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Dutch: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Dutch: hinder (rare as simplex)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nl",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Dutch: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Dutch: hinder (rare as simplex)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "hintar"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: hintar\nMiddle High German: hinter\nCentral Franconian: henger, henner; honner, hönner; hinger\nCimbrian: hintare\nGerman: hinter\nLuxembourgish: hanner\nYiddish: הינטער (hinter)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: hintar\nMiddle High German: hinter\nCentral Franconian: henger, henner; honner, hönner; hinger\nCimbrian: hintare\nGerman: hinter\nLuxembourgish: hanner\nYiddish: הינטער (hinter)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (hindar)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (hindar)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*ḱem-tér-",
        "5": "down, back, along, over, through"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ḱóm",
        "3": "",
        "4": "beside, near, by, with"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "contrā",
        "3": "",
        "4": "back, against"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin contrā (“back, against”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "owl",
        "2": "cant",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, at, along"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "gan",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, by"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh gan (“with, by”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κατά",
        "3": "",
        "4": "downwards"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), from *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”). Cognate with Latin contrā (“back, against”), Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”); > Modern Welsh gan (“with, by”), Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hinder",
  "pos": "adv",
  "senses": [
    {
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "hinderōną"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "back, on that side of, behind"
      ],
      "id": "hinder-gem-pro-adv-VdkJNMjY",
      "links": [
        [
          "back",
          "back"
        ],
        [
          "behind",
          "behind"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "roman": "hindana",
          "sense": "*hindanē",
          "tags": [
            "Gothic"
          ],
          "word": "𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽𐌰"
        },
        {
          "word": "hindrōną"
        },
        {
          "sense": "Old English: hindemest",
          "tags": [
            "English"
          ],
          "word": "hindmost"
        },
        {
          "roman": "hindumists",
          "sense": "*hindumistaz",
          "tags": [
            "Gothic"
          ],
          "word": "𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌿𐌼𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍃"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxin.der/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "hindar"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hinder"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*ḱem-tér-",
        "5": "down, back, along, over, through"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ḱóm",
        "3": "",
        "4": "beside, near, by, with"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "contrā",
        "3": "",
        "4": "back, against"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin contrā (“back, against”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "owl",
        "2": "cant",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, at, along"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "gan",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, by"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh gan (“with, by”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κατά",
        "3": "",
        "4": "downwards"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), from *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”). Cognate with Latin contrā (“back, against”), Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”); > Modern Welsh gan (“with, by”), Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hinder",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "behind, beyond"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "behind",
          "behind"
        ],
        [
          "beyond",
          "beyond"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(with accusative or dative) behind, beyond"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction",
        "with-accusative",
        "with-dative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxin.der/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "hindar"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hinder"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "hinderōną"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: hinder"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: hinder"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dum",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Dutch: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Dutch: hinder (rare as simplex)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nl",
            "2": "hinder"
          },
          "expansion": "Dutch: hinder",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Dutch: hinder (rare as simplex)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "hintar"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: hintar\nMiddle High German: hinter\nCentral Franconian: henger, henner; honner, hönner; hinger\nCimbrian: hintare\nGerman: hinter\nLuxembourgish: hanner\nYiddish: הינטער (hinter)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: hintar\nMiddle High German: hinter\nCentral Franconian: henger, henner; honner, hönner; hinger\nCimbrian: hintare\nGerman: hinter\nLuxembourgish: hanner\nYiddish: הינטער (hinter)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (hindar)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐍂 (hindar)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "",
        "4": "*ḱem-tér-",
        "5": "down, back, along, over, through"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*ḱóm",
        "3": "",
        "4": "beside, near, by, with"
      },
      "expansion": "*ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "contrā",
        "3": "",
        "4": "back, against"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin contrā (“back, against”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "owl",
        "2": "cant",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, at, along"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "cy",
        "2": "gan",
        "3": "",
        "4": "with, by"
      },
      "expansion": "Welsh gan (“with, by”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "κατά",
        "3": "",
        "4": "downwards"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱem-tér- (“down, back, along, over, through”), from *ḱóm (“beside, near, by, with”). Cognate with Latin contrā (“back, against”), Old Welsh cant (“with, at, along”); > Modern Welsh gan (“with, by”), Ancient Greek κατά (katá, “downwards”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hinder",
  "pos": "adv",
  "related": [
    {
      "roman": "hindana",
      "sense": "*hindanē",
      "tags": [
        "Gothic"
      ],
      "word": "𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽𐌰"
    },
    {
      "word": "hindrōną"
    },
    {
      "sense": "Old English: hindemest",
      "tags": [
        "English"
      ],
      "word": "hindmost"
    },
    {
      "roman": "hindumists",
      "sense": "*hindumistaz",
      "tags": [
        "Gothic"
      ],
      "word": "𐌷𐌹𐌽𐌳𐌿𐌼𐌹𐍃𐍄𐍃"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "back, on that side of, behind"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "back",
          "back"
        ],
        [
          "behind",
          "behind"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈxin.der/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "hindar"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hinder"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.