"ga-" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See ga- in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Prefix

Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”). Cognate with Latin co-, con-, prefix forms of cum (“with”). The irregular change from expected **ha- to *ga- is probably due to the unstressed nature of this prefix. Etymology templates: {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*ḱóm|t=with, near, by, along}} Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”), {{cog|la|co-}} Latin co-
  1. Indicates association or togetherness; co-. Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-ga--gem-pro-prefix-3OYqTo3o
  2. Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action). Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-ga--gem-pro-prefix-2rL8aPO7 Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header: 44 56
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: gą- Derived forms: gagana, gaganą

Download JSON data for ga- meaning in Proto-Germanic (3.4kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "gagana"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "gaganą"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*ga-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *ga-\nOld English: ġe-, gæ- — Anglian; gi-; i-; ie- — Kentish\nMiddle English: ȝe-, i-, y-\nEnglish: a-, y-, i- (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: ge-, gi-, je-, ie-, e-, i-, a-\nSaterland Frisian: ge-\nWest Frisian: ge-\nOld Saxon: gi-, i-, ge-, ga-\nMiddle Low German: ge-\nLow German: ge-, e-, je-\nOld Dutch: gi-, ge-\nMiddle Dutch: ghe-, ge-, (West-Flanders) i-, y-\nDutch: ge-\nAfrikaans: ge-\nWest Flemish: ge-, e-\nOld High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-\nMiddle High German: ge-\nAlemannic German: g- or ge- (euphonic)\nBavarian: g-\nGerman: ge-\nLuxembourgish: ge-\nVilamovian: gy-\nYiddish: גע־ (ge-)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *ga-\nOld English: ġe-, gæ- — Anglian; gi-; i-; ie- — Kentish\nMiddle English: ȝe-, i-, y-\nEnglish: a-, y-, i- (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: ge-, gi-, je-, ie-, e-, i-, a-\nSaterland Frisian: ge-\nWest Frisian: ge-\nOld Saxon: gi-, i-, ge-, ga-\nMiddle Low German: ge-\nLow German: ge-, e-, je-\nOld Dutch: gi-, ge-\nMiddle Dutch: ghe-, ge-, (West-Flanders) i-, y-\nDutch: ge-\nAfrikaans: ge-\nWest Flemish: ge-, e-\nOld High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-\nMiddle High German: ge-\nAlemannic German: g- or ge- (euphonic)\nBavarian: g-\nGerman: ge-\nLuxembourgish: ge-\nVilamovian: gy-\nYiddish: גע־ (ge-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "g-",
            "qq": "non-productive"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: g- (non-productive)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: g- (non-productive)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "gnógr",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Old Norse: gnógr",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Old Norse: gnógr, glíkr, greiðr, greiða, granni"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌲𐌰-"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xvn",
            "2": "*ga-"
          },
          "expansion": "Vandalic: *ga-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Vandalic: *ga-"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱóm",
        "t": "with, near, by, along"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "co-"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin co-",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”). Cognate with Latin co-, con-, prefix forms of cum (“with”). The irregular change from expected **ha- to *ga- is probably due to the unstressed nature of this prefix.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/ga-",
  "pos": "prefix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Indicates association or togetherness; co-."
      ],
      "id": "en-ga--gem-pro-prefix-3OYqTo3o",
      "links": [
        [
          "co-",
          "co-"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "44 56",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action)."
      ],
      "id": "en-ga--gem-pro-prefix-2rL8aPO7",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "gą-"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ga-"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prefixes",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "gagana"
    },
    {
      "word": "gaganą"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*ga-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *ga-\nOld English: ġe-, gæ- — Anglian; gi-; i-; ie- — Kentish\nMiddle English: ȝe-, i-, y-\nEnglish: a-, y-, i- (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: ge-, gi-, je-, ie-, e-, i-, a-\nSaterland Frisian: ge-\nWest Frisian: ge-\nOld Saxon: gi-, i-, ge-, ga-\nMiddle Low German: ge-\nLow German: ge-, e-, je-\nOld Dutch: gi-, ge-\nMiddle Dutch: ghe-, ge-, (West-Flanders) i-, y-\nDutch: ge-\nAfrikaans: ge-\nWest Flemish: ge-, e-\nOld High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-\nMiddle High German: ge-\nAlemannic German: g- or ge- (euphonic)\nBavarian: g-\nGerman: ge-\nLuxembourgish: ge-\nVilamovian: gy-\nYiddish: גע־ (ge-)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *ga-\nOld English: ġe-, gæ- — Anglian; gi-; i-; ie- — Kentish\nMiddle English: ȝe-, i-, y-\nEnglish: a-, y-, i- (obsolete)\nOld Frisian: ge-, gi-, je-, ie-, e-, i-, a-\nSaterland Frisian: ge-\nWest Frisian: ge-\nOld Saxon: gi-, i-, ge-, ga-\nMiddle Low German: ge-\nLow German: ge-, e-, je-\nOld Dutch: gi-, ge-\nMiddle Dutch: ghe-, ge-, (West-Flanders) i-, y-\nDutch: ge-\nAfrikaans: ge-\nWest Flemish: ge-, e-\nOld High German: gi-, ga-, ki-, ka-\nMiddle High German: ge-\nAlemannic German: g- or ge- (euphonic)\nBavarian: g-\nGerman: ge-\nLuxembourgish: ge-\nVilamovian: gy-\nYiddish: גע־ (ge-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "g-",
            "qq": "non-productive"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: g- (non-productive)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: g- (non-productive)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "gnógr",
            "der": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "⇒ Old Norse: gnógr",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "⇒ Old Norse: gnógr, glíkr, greiðr, greiða, granni"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌲𐌰-"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌲𐌰- (ga-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "xvn",
            "2": "*ga-"
          },
          "expansion": "Vandalic: *ga-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Vandalic: *ga-"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*ḱóm",
        "t": "with, near, by, along"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "co-"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin co-",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (“with, near, by, along”). Cognate with Latin co-, con-, prefix forms of cum (“with”). The irregular change from expected **ha- to *ga- is probably due to the unstressed nature of this prefix.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/ga-",
  "pos": "prefix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Indicates association or togetherness; co-."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "co-",
          "co-"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Indicates completeness or wholeness. In verbs, also indicates perfectivity (a finished action)."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "gą-"
    }
  ],
  "word": "ga-"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-23 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-20 using wiktextract (1b9bfc5 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.