"fra-" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See fra- in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Prefix

Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“before, in front of”). Cognate with Ancient Greek πρό- (pró-, “in front of”). Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*per-}}, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*pro-||before, in front of}} Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“before, in front of”), {{cog|grc|πρό-||in front of}} Ancient Greek πρό- (pró-, “in front of”)
  1. off, away Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-fra--gem-pro-prefix-5h-k9qRu
  2. completely, fully, up Tags: morpheme, reconstruction
    Sense id: en-fra--gem-pro-prefix-MRp2P0Dj Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header: 0 100

Download JSON data for fra- meaning in Proto-Germanic (3.2kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*fra-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *fra-, *far-, *fur-, *fir-\nOld English: for-, fer-, fær-, fier-\nMiddle English: for-, far-, fer-, vor-\nEnglish: for-\nScots: for-\nOld Frisian: for-\nSaterland Frisian: fer-\nWest Frisian: for-, fer-\nOld Saxon: far-, fir-; for-\nMiddle Low German: vor-\nLow German: for-, ver-\nOld Dutch: far-, for-, fer-\nMiddle Dutch: ver-\nDutch: ver-\nOld High German: far-, fir-\nMiddle High German: ver-\nGerman: ver-\nYiddish: פֿאַר־ (far-)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *fra-, *far-, *fur-, *fir-\nOld English: for-, fer-, fær-, fier-\nMiddle English: for-, far-, fer-, vor-\nEnglish: for-\nScots: for-\nOld Frisian: for-\nSaterland Frisian: fer-\nWest Frisian: for-, fer-\nOld Saxon: far-, fir-; for-\nMiddle Low German: vor-\nLow German: for-, ver-\nOld Dutch: far-, for-, fer-\nMiddle Dutch: ver-\nDutch: ver-\nOld High German: far-, fir-\nMiddle High German: ver-\nGerman: ver-\nYiddish: פֿאַר־ (far-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "for-",
            "3": "fyr-",
            "4": "fir-"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: for-, fyr-, fir-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: for-, fyr-, fir-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "for-"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: for-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: for-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "no",
            "2": "for-"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian: for-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian: for-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "för-"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: för-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: för-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "for-"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: for-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: for-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐍆𐍂𐌰-"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰- (fra-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰- (fra-)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*per-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*pro-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "before, in front of"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“before, in front of”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "πρό-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "in front of"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek πρό- (pró-, “in front of”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“before, in front of”). Cognate with Ancient Greek πρό- (pró-, “in front of”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/fra-",
  "pos": "prefix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "off, away"
      ],
      "id": "en-fra--gem-pro-prefix-5h-k9qRu",
      "links": [
        [
          "off",
          "off"
        ],
        [
          "away",
          "away"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "0 100",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "completely, fully, up"
      ],
      "id": "en-fra--gem-pro-prefix-MRp2P0Dj",
      "links": [
        [
          "completely",
          "completely"
        ],
        [
          "fully",
          "fully"
        ],
        [
          "up",
          "up"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "fra-"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prefixes",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Proto-Germanic terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *per-",
    "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*fra-"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *fra-, *far-, *fur-, *fir-\nOld English: for-, fer-, fær-, fier-\nMiddle English: for-, far-, fer-, vor-\nEnglish: for-\nScots: for-\nOld Frisian: for-\nSaterland Frisian: fer-\nWest Frisian: for-, fer-\nOld Saxon: far-, fir-; for-\nMiddle Low German: vor-\nLow German: for-, ver-\nOld Dutch: far-, for-, fer-\nMiddle Dutch: ver-\nDutch: ver-\nOld High German: far-, fir-\nMiddle High German: ver-\nGerman: ver-\nYiddish: פֿאַר־ (far-)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *fra-, *far-, *fur-, *fir-\nOld English: for-, fer-, fær-, fier-\nMiddle English: for-, far-, fer-, vor-\nEnglish: for-\nScots: for-\nOld Frisian: for-\nSaterland Frisian: fer-\nWest Frisian: for-, fer-\nOld Saxon: far-, fir-; for-\nMiddle Low German: vor-\nLow German: for-, ver-\nOld Dutch: far-, for-, fer-\nMiddle Dutch: ver-\nDutch: ver-\nOld High German: far-, fir-\nMiddle High German: ver-\nGerman: ver-\nYiddish: פֿאַר־ (far-)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "for-",
            "3": "fyr-",
            "4": "fir-"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: for-, fyr-, fir-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: for-, fyr-, fir-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "is",
            "2": "for-"
          },
          "expansion": "Icelandic: for-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Icelandic: for-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "no",
            "2": "for-"
          },
          "expansion": "Norwegian: for-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Norwegian: for-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sv",
            "2": "för-"
          },
          "expansion": "Swedish: för-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Swedish: för-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "da",
            "2": "for-"
          },
          "expansion": "Danish: for-",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Danish: for-"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐍆𐍂𐌰-"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰- (fra-)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐍆𐍂𐌰- (fra-)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*per-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*pro-",
        "4": "",
        "5": "before, in front of"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“before, in front of”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "πρό-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "in front of"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek πρό- (pró-, “in front of”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *pro- (“before, in front of”). Cognate with Ancient Greek πρό- (pró-, “in front of”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/fra-",
  "pos": "prefix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "off, away"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "off",
          "off"
        ],
        [
          "away",
          "away"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "completely, fully, up"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "completely",
          "completely"
        ],
        [
          "fully",
          "fully"
        ],
        [
          "up",
          "up"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "fra-"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-23 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-20 using wiktextract (1b9bfc5 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.