"bi" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See bi in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Preposition

IPA: /bi/
Etymology: From Pre-Germanic *h₁pi, zero-grade of Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi, with voicing due to Verner's law. Cognate with Ancient Greek ἐπί (epí, “on, at”). Etymology templates: {{m|ine-pro||*h₁pi}} *h₁pi, {{der|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₁epi}} Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi, {{cog|grc|ἐπί||on, at}} Ancient Greek ἐπί (epí, “on, at”)
  1. by, at [+accusative or dative] Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: bi-gem-pro-prep-0O9P-avP
  2. near, around [+accusative or dative] Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: bi-gem-pro-prep-SMb9-Uc2 Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 40 60
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Related terms: bi-

Download JSON data for bi meaning in Proto-Germanic (2.7kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*bī"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *bī\nOld English: bi, be\nMiddle English: by, be, bi\nEnglish: by\n→ Mandarin: by (bāi), BY (bāi)\nScots: by, bye, bi', be, b'\nYola: bee, bie, be, by\nOld Frisian: bi, be\nNorth Frisian: bi\nSaterland Frisian: bie\nWest Frisian: by\nOld Saxon: bi, bī\nMiddle Low German: bi\nLow German: bi\n→ Swedish: bi\nOld Dutch: bī\nMiddle Dutch: bi\nDutch: bij\nLimburgish: bie\nOld High German: bī, pī\nMiddle High German: bī\nAlemannic German: bii\nGerman: bei\nVilamovian: by\nYiddish: בײַ (bay)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *bī\nOld English: bi, be\nMiddle English: by, be, bi\nEnglish: by\n→ Mandarin: by (bāi), BY (bāi)\nScots: by, bye, bi', be, b'\nYola: bee, bie, be, by\nOld Frisian: bi, be\nNorth Frisian: bi\nSaterland Frisian: bie\nWest Frisian: by\nOld Saxon: bi, bī\nMiddle Low German: bi\nLow German: bi\n→ Swedish: bi\nOld Dutch: bī\nMiddle Dutch: bi\nDutch: bij\nLimburgish: bie\nOld High German: bī, pī\nMiddle High German: bī\nAlemannic German: bii\nGerman: bei\nVilamovian: by\nYiddish: בײַ (bay)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌱𐌹"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌱𐌹 (bi)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌱𐌹 (bi)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₁pi"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₁pi",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁epi"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἐπί",
        "3": "",
        "4": "on, at"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἐπί (epí, “on, at”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Pre-Germanic *h₁pi, zero-grade of Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi, with voicing due to Verner's law. Cognate with Ancient Greek ἐπί (epí, “on, at”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/bi",
  "pos": "prep",
  "related": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0",
      "word": "bi-"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "by, at [+accusative or dative]",
        "by, at"
      ],
      "id": "bi-gem-pro-prep-0O9P-avP",
      "links": [
        [
          "by",
          "by"
        ],
        [
          "at",
          "at"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "by, at [+accusative or dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "40 60",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "near, around [+accusative or dative]",
        "near, around"
      ],
      "id": "bi-gem-pro-prep-SMb9-Uc2",
      "links": [
        [
          "near",
          "near"
        ],
        [
          "around",
          "around"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "near, around [+accusative or dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/bi/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers",
    "Verner's law"
  ],
  "word": "bi"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*bī"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *bī\nOld English: bi, be\nMiddle English: by, be, bi\nEnglish: by\n→ Mandarin: by (bāi), BY (bāi)\nScots: by, bye, bi', be, b'\nYola: bee, bie, be, by\nOld Frisian: bi, be\nNorth Frisian: bi\nSaterland Frisian: bie\nWest Frisian: by\nOld Saxon: bi, bī\nMiddle Low German: bi\nLow German: bi\n→ Swedish: bi\nOld Dutch: bī\nMiddle Dutch: bi\nDutch: bij\nLimburgish: bie\nOld High German: bī, pī\nMiddle High German: bī\nAlemannic German: bii\nGerman: bei\nVilamovian: by\nYiddish: בײַ (bay)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *bī\nOld English: bi, be\nMiddle English: by, be, bi\nEnglish: by\n→ Mandarin: by (bāi), BY (bāi)\nScots: by, bye, bi', be, b'\nYola: bee, bie, be, by\nOld Frisian: bi, be\nNorth Frisian: bi\nSaterland Frisian: bie\nWest Frisian: by\nOld Saxon: bi, bī\nMiddle Low German: bi\nLow German: bi\n→ Swedish: bi\nOld Dutch: bī\nMiddle Dutch: bi\nDutch: bij\nLimburgish: bie\nOld High German: bī, pī\nMiddle High German: bī\nAlemannic German: bii\nGerman: bei\nVilamovian: by\nYiddish: בײַ (bay)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "got",
            "2": "𐌱𐌹"
          },
          "expansion": "Gothic: 𐌱𐌹 (bi)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Gothic: 𐌱𐌹 (bi)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₁pi"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₁pi",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₁epi"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "ἐπί",
        "3": "",
        "4": "on, at"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek ἐπί (epí, “on, at”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Pre-Germanic *h₁pi, zero-grade of Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi, with voicing due to Verner's law. Cognate with Ancient Greek ἐπί (epí, “on, at”).",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/bi",
  "pos": "prep",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "bi-"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "by, at [+accusative or dative]",
        "by, at"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "by",
          "by"
        ],
        [
          "at",
          "at"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "by, at [+accusative or dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "near, around [+accusative or dative]",
        "near, around"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "near",
          "near"
        ],
        [
          "around",
          "around"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "near, around [+accusative or dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/bi/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers",
    "Verner's law"
  ],
  "word": "bi"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.