"andi" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See andi in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Conjunction

IPA: /ˈɑn.di/
Etymology: From Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti, locative of *h₂ent- (“front, forehead”). West Germanic continues an enclitic variant. The forms in *u- may continue the zero grade (genitive singular *h₂n̥tés), but this is uncertain given the enclitic nature of the word and the virtually unlimited variety of attested vowels. Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂ent-}}, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂énti}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti, {{m|ine-pro|*h₂ent-||front, forehead}} *h₂ent- (“front, forehead”), {{m|ine-pro||*h₂n̥tés}} *h₂n̥tés
  1. in addition, furthermore, and Tags: reconstruction Related terms: anda-
    Sense id: andi-gem-pro-conj-J75wPGfO

Download JSON data for andi meaning in Proto-Germanic (5.6kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*andi",
            "3": "*and"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *andi, *and",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *andi, *and"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "and"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: and, ond, end\nMiddle English: and, annd, ant, an, en; ⁊, &\nEnglish: and\nScots: an\nYola: an, an', and",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: and, ond, end\nMiddle English: and, annd, ant, an, en; ⁊, &\nEnglish: and\nScots: an\nYola: an, an', and"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "and"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: and, ande, ende\nNorth Frisian: en\nSaterland Frisian: un\nWest Frisian: en, in",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: and, ande, ende\nNorth Frisian: en\nSaterland Frisian: un\nWest Frisian: en, in"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "endi"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: endi\nMiddle Low German: ende, end, en; unde, und, un; (western also) inde, ind, in; (early) ande\nDutch Low Saxon: en, in\nGerman Low German: un, on\nPlautdietsch: un, en\n→ Latvian: un",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: endi\nMiddle Low German: ende, end, en; unde, und, un; (western also) inde, ind, in; (early) ande\nDutch Low Saxon: en, in\nGerman Low German: un, on\nPlautdietsch: un, en\n→ Latvian: un"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "ande"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: ande, enda, in, indi, unde\nMiddle Dutch: ende, en, end, enn, enne; (early) inde; (very rare) unde, ande\nDutch: en\nAfrikaans: en\nBerbice Creole Dutch: an\nJersey Dutch: en\nNegerhollands: en, an\nPetjo: en\nSranan Tongo: èn\nLimburgish: ènde, ènd, èn, è",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: ande, enda, in, indi, unde\nMiddle Dutch: ende, en, end, enn, enne; (early) inde; (very rare) unde, ande\nDutch: en\nAfrikaans: en\nBerbice Creole Dutch: an\nJersey Dutch: en\nNegerhollands: en, an\nPetjo: en\nSranan Tongo: èn\nLimburgish: ènde, ènd, èn, è"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "unti"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: unti, unta, unte, unda, undi, unde, un; anti, and; enti, endi, end; inti, indi, int, in\nMiddle High German: unde, unt, und, unn; onde, ont; (Central Franconian) inde\nBavarian: und\nCimbrian: un\nMòcheno: ont\nCentral Franconian: en, an (< inde), on, un (< unde, now predominant, originally south-eastern)\nHunsrik: un\nLuxembourgish: an\nGerman: und\nRhine Franconian: un, on\nPennsylvania German: un\nYiddish: און (un)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: unti, unta, unte, unda, undi, unde, un; anti, and; enti, endi, end; inti, indi, int, in\nMiddle High German: unde, unt, und, unn; onde, ont; (Central Franconian) inde\nBavarian: und\nCimbrian: un\nMòcheno: ont\nCentral Franconian: en, an (< inde), on, un (< unde, now predominant, originally south-eastern)\nHunsrik: un\nLuxembourgish: an\nGerman: und\nRhine Franconian: un, on\nPennsylvania German: un\nYiddish: און (un)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*anþi"
          },
          "expansion": "*anþi",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "qq": "from *anþi"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: (from *anþi)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: (from *anþi)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "en"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: en\nIcelandic: en\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: en\nIcelandic: en\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "enn"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: enn\nIcelandic: enn\nFaroese: enn\nNorwegian: enn\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än\nDanish: end",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: enn\nIcelandic: enn\nFaroese: enn\nNorwegian: enn\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än\nDanish: end"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "urj-fin-pro",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Proto-Finnic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Proto-Finnic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "et",
            "2": "ent"
          },
          "expansion": "Estonian: ent",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Estonian: ent"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fi",
            "2": "entä"
          },
          "expansion": "Finnish: entä",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Finnish: entä"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "izh",
            "2": "entä"
          },
          "expansion": "Ingrian: entä",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ingrian: entä"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ent-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂énti"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*h₂ent-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "front, forehead"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂ent- (“front, forehead”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂n̥tés"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂n̥tés",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti, locative of *h₂ent- (“front, forehead”). West Germanic continues an enclitic variant. The forms in *u- may continue the zero grade (genitive singular *h₂n̥tés), but this is uncertain given the enclitic nature of the word and the virtually unlimited variety of attested vowels.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/andi",
  "pos": "conj",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "glosses": [
        "in addition, furthermore, and"
      ],
      "id": "andi-gem-pro-conj-J75wPGfO",
      "links": [
        [
          "in addition",
          "in addition"
        ],
        [
          "furthermore",
          "furthermore"
        ],
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ]
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "anda-"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑn.di/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "andi"
}
{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*andi",
            "3": "*and"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *andi, *and",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *andi, *and"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "and"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: and, ond, end\nMiddle English: and, annd, ant, an, en; ⁊, &\nEnglish: and\nScots: an\nYola: an, an', and",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: and, ond, end\nMiddle English: and, annd, ant, an, en; ⁊, &\nEnglish: and\nScots: an\nYola: an, an', and"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "and"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: and, ande, ende\nNorth Frisian: en\nSaterland Frisian: un\nWest Frisian: en, in",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: and, ande, ende\nNorth Frisian: en\nSaterland Frisian: un\nWest Frisian: en, in"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "endi"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: endi\nMiddle Low German: ende, end, en; unde, und, un; (western also) inde, ind, in; (early) ande\nDutch Low Saxon: en, in\nGerman Low German: un, on\nPlautdietsch: un, en\n→ Latvian: un",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: endi\nMiddle Low German: ende, end, en; unde, und, un; (western also) inde, ind, in; (early) ande\nDutch Low Saxon: en, in\nGerman Low German: un, on\nPlautdietsch: un, en\n→ Latvian: un"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "ande"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: ande, enda, in, indi, unde\nMiddle Dutch: ende, en, end, enn, enne; (early) inde; (very rare) unde, ande\nDutch: en\nAfrikaans: en\nBerbice Creole Dutch: an\nJersey Dutch: en\nNegerhollands: en, an\nPetjo: en\nSranan Tongo: èn\nLimburgish: ènde, ènd, èn, è",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: ande, enda, in, indi, unde\nMiddle Dutch: ende, en, end, enn, enne; (early) inde; (very rare) unde, ande\nDutch: en\nAfrikaans: en\nBerbice Creole Dutch: an\nJersey Dutch: en\nNegerhollands: en, an\nPetjo: en\nSranan Tongo: èn\nLimburgish: ènde, ènd, èn, è"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "unti"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: unti, unta, unte, unda, undi, unde, un; anti, and; enti, endi, end; inti, indi, int, in\nMiddle High German: unde, unt, und, unn; onde, ont; (Central Franconian) inde\nBavarian: und\nCimbrian: un\nMòcheno: ont\nCentral Franconian: en, an (< inde), on, un (< unde, now predominant, originally south-eastern)\nHunsrik: un\nLuxembourgish: an\nGerman: und\nRhine Franconian: un, on\nPennsylvania German: un\nYiddish: און (un)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: unti, unta, unte, unda, undi, unde, un; anti, and; enti, endi, end; inti, indi, int, in\nMiddle High German: unde, unt, und, unn; onde, ont; (Central Franconian) inde\nBavarian: und\nCimbrian: un\nMòcheno: ont\nCentral Franconian: en, an (< inde), on, un (< unde, now predominant, originally south-eastern)\nHunsrik: un\nLuxembourgish: an\nGerman: und\nRhine Franconian: un, on\nPennsylvania German: un\nYiddish: און (un)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gem-pro",
            "2": "",
            "3": "*anþi"
          },
          "expansion": "*anþi",
          "name": "l"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "qq": "from *anþi"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: (from *anþi)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: (from *anþi)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "en"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: en\nIcelandic: en\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: en\nIcelandic: en\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "enn"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: enn\nIcelandic: enn\nFaroese: enn\nNorwegian: enn\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än\nDanish: end",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: enn\nIcelandic: enn\nFaroese: enn\nNorwegian: enn\nOld Swedish: æn\nSwedish: än\nDanish: end"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "urj-fin-pro",
            "bor": "1"
          },
          "expansion": "→ Proto-Finnic:",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "→ Proto-Finnic:"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "et",
            "2": "ent"
          },
          "expansion": "Estonian: ent",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Estonian: ent"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fi",
            "2": "entä"
          },
          "expansion": "Finnish: entä",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Finnish: entä"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "izh",
            "2": "entä"
          },
          "expansion": "Ingrian: entä",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ingrian: entä"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂ent-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂énti"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*h₂ent-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "front, forehead"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂ent- (“front, forehead”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂n̥tés"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂n̥tés",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Indo-European *h₂énti, locative of *h₂ent- (“front, forehead”). West Germanic continues an enclitic variant. The forms in *u- may continue the zero grade (genitive singular *h₂n̥tés), but this is uncertain given the enclitic nature of the word and the virtually unlimited variety of attested vowels.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/andi",
  "pos": "conj",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "anda-"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic conjunctions",
        "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "in addition, furthermore, and"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "in addition",
          "in addition"
        ],
        [
          "furthermore",
          "furthermore"
        ],
        [
          "and",
          "and"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑn.di/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "andi"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.