"less" meaning in Old Irish

See less in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Noun

IPA: [l͈ʲes]
Etymology: Suggested by Stokes to be from Proto-Celtic *lesso-, from Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (“to fill”), similar to Proto-Slavic *plodъ (“fruit”). Etymology templates: {{der|sga|cel-pro|*lesso-}} Proto-Celtic *lesso-, {{der|sga|ine-pro|*pleh₁-|t=to fill}} Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (“to fill”), {{cog|sla-pro|*plodъ|t=fruit}} Proto-Slavic *plodъ (“fruit”) Head templates: {{head|sga|noun|||genitive|lesso||||||||{{{3}}}||{{{pl2}}}||{{{pl3}}}|cat2=|g=m|g2=|g3=|head=|sort=}} less m (genitive lesso), {{sga-noun|m|~o}} less m (genitive lesso) Inflection templates: {{sga-decl-u|g=m}}, {{sga-decl-noun|acc_du=less+L|acc_du2=|acc_du3=|acc_pl=lessu|acc_pl2=|acc_pl3=|acc_sg=less+N|acc_sg2=|acc_sg3=|class=u-m|dat_du=lessaib|dat_du2=|dat_du3=|dat_pl=lessaib|dat_pl2=|dat_pl3=|dat_sg=less+L|dat_sg2=|dat_sg3=|gen_du=lesso+L|gen_du2=lessa+L|gen_du3=|gen_du4=|gen_pl=lessae+N|gen_pl2=|gen_pl3=|gen_sg=lesso+H|gen_sg2=lessa+H|gen_sg3=|gen_sg4=|n=|nom_du=less+L|nom_du2=|nom_du3=|nom_pl=lessae+H|nom_pl2=|nom_pl3=|nom_pl4=|nom_sg=less|nom_sg2=|nom_sg3=|voc_du=less+L|voc_du2=|voc_du3=|voc_pl=lessu|voc_pl2=|voc_pl3=|voc_sg=less|voc_sg2=|voc_sg3=}} Forms: lesso [genitive], no-table-tags [table-tags], less [nominative, singular], less [dual, nominative], lessae [nominative, plural], less [singular, vocative], less [dual, vocative], lessu [plural, vocative], less [accusative, singular], less [accusative, dual], lessu [accusative, plural], lesso [genitive, singular], lessa [genitive, singular], lesso [dual, genitive], lessa [dual, genitive], lessae [genitive, plural], less [dative, singular], lessaib [dative, dual], lessaib [dative, plural]
  1. benefit, advantage Tags: masculine Synonyms: les Derived forms: ro·icc less
    Sense id: en-less-sga-noun-Bt1cIC0- Categories (other): Old Irish entries with incorrect language header, Old Irish prepositional pronouns Disambiguation of Old Irish entries with incorrect language header: 54 46 Disambiguation of Old Irish prepositional pronouns: 47 53
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 1

Pronoun

IPA: [lʲesʲ] Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], less [mutation, mutation-radical], also lless after a proclitic [mutation, mutation-radical], ending in a vowel [mutation, mutation-radical], less [mutation, mutation-nasal]
Head templates: {{head|sga|prepositional pronoun}} less Inflection templates: {{sga-mutation|l|ess}}
  1. Alternative spelling of les (third-person singular masculine of la) Tags: alt-of, alternative Alternative form of: les (extra: third-person singular masculine of la)
    Sense id: en-less-sga-pron-uvpfy0KE Categories (other): Old Irish entries with incorrect language header, Old Irish prepositional pronouns Disambiguation of Old Irish entries with incorrect language header: 54 46 Disambiguation of Old Irish prepositional pronouns: 47 53
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Etymology number: 2

Alternative forms

Download JSONL data for less meaning in Old Irish (6.3kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ga",
            "2": "leas"
          },
          "expansion": "Irish: leas",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Irish: leas"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gv",
            "2": "lhiass"
          },
          "expansion": "Manx: lhiass",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Manx: lhiass"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gd",
            "2": "leas"
          },
          "expansion": "Scottish Gaelic: leas",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scottish Gaelic: leas"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*lesso-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *lesso-",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*pleh₁-",
        "t": "to fill"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (“to fill”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sla-pro",
        "2": "*plodъ",
        "t": "fruit"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Slavic *plodъ (“fruit”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Suggested by Stokes to be from Proto-Celtic *lesso-, from Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (“to fill”), similar to Proto-Slavic *plodъ (“fruit”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "lesso",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-u",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "u-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine u-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessae",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lesso",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessa",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lesso",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessa",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessae",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessaib",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessaib",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "",
        "14": "{{{3}}}",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "noun",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "genitive",
        "6": "lesso",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "less m (genitive lesso)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "2": "~o"
      },
      "expansion": "less m (genitive lesso)",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "g": "m"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-u"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "less+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_pl": "lessu",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "less+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "u-m",
        "dat_du": "lessaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "lessaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "less+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "lesso+L",
        "gen_du2": "lessa+L",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_du4": "",
        "gen_pl": "lessae+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "lesso+H",
        "gen_sg2": "lessa+H",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "gen_sg4": "",
        "n": "",
        "nom_du": "less+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_pl": "lessae+H",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_pl4": "",
        "nom_sg": "less",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "less+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_pl": "lessu",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "less",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "54 46",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "47 53",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish prepositional pronouns",
          "parents": [
            "Prepositional pronouns",
            "Prepositions",
            "Pronoun forms",
            "Lemmas",
            "Non-lemma forms",
            "Pronouns"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "derived": [
        {
          "word": "ro·icc less"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "benefit, advantage"
      ],
      "id": "en-less-sga-noun-Bt1cIC0-",
      "links": [
        [
          "benefit",
          "benefit"
        ],
        [
          "advantage",
          "advantage"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "les"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[l͈ʲes]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "less"
}

{
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-mutation",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "also lless after a proclitic",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ending in a vowel",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-nasal"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "prepositional pronoun"
      },
      "expansion": "less",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "l",
        "2": "ess"
      },
      "name": "sga-mutation"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "pron",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "third-person singular masculine of la",
          "word": "les"
        }
      ],
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "54 46",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "47 53",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Old Irish prepositional pronouns",
          "parents": [
            "Prepositional pronouns",
            "Prepositions",
            "Pronoun forms",
            "Lemmas",
            "Non-lemma forms",
            "Pronouns"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative spelling of les (third-person singular masculine of la)"
      ],
      "id": "en-less-sga-pron-uvpfy0KE",
      "links": [
        [
          "les",
          "les#Old Irish"
        ],
        [
          "la",
          "la#Old Irish"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[lʲesʲ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "less"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old Irish lemmas",
    "Old Irish masculine nouns",
    "Old Irish masculine u-stem nouns",
    "Old Irish non-lemma forms",
    "Old Irish nouns",
    "Old Irish prepositional pronouns",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Celtic",
    "Old Irish terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
    "Old Irish terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "word": "ro·icc less"
    }
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ga",
            "2": "leas"
          },
          "expansion": "Irish: leas",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Irish: leas"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gv",
            "2": "lhiass"
          },
          "expansion": "Manx: lhiass",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Manx: lhiass"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gd",
            "2": "leas"
          },
          "expansion": "Scottish Gaelic: leas",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scottish Gaelic: leas"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_number": 1,
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "cel-pro",
        "3": "*lesso-"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Celtic *lesso-",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*pleh₁-",
        "t": "to fill"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (“to fill”)",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sla-pro",
        "2": "*plodъ",
        "t": "fruit"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Slavic *plodъ (“fruit”)",
      "name": "cog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Suggested by Stokes to be from Proto-Celtic *lesso-, from Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (“to fill”), similar to Proto-Slavic *plodъ (“fruit”).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "lesso",
      "tags": [
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-decl-u",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "u-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Masculine u-stem",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "class"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "nominative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessae",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "singular",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "plural",
        "vocative"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessu",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "accusative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lesso",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessa",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lesso",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessa",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dual",
        "genitive"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessae",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessaib",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "dual"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "lessaib",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "10": "",
        "11": "",
        "12": "",
        "13": "",
        "14": "{{{3}}}",
        "15": "",
        "16": "{{{pl2}}}",
        "17": "",
        "18": "{{{pl3}}}",
        "2": "noun",
        "3": "",
        "4": "",
        "5": "genitive",
        "6": "lesso",
        "7": "",
        "8": "",
        "9": "",
        "cat2": "",
        "g": "m",
        "g2": "",
        "g3": "",
        "head": "",
        "sort": ""
      },
      "expansion": "less m (genitive lesso)",
      "name": "head"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "m",
        "2": "~o"
      },
      "expansion": "less m (genitive lesso)",
      "name": "sga-noun"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "g": "m"
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-u"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "acc_du": "less+L",
        "acc_du2": "",
        "acc_du3": "",
        "acc_pl": "lessu",
        "acc_pl2": "",
        "acc_pl3": "",
        "acc_sg": "less+N",
        "acc_sg2": "",
        "acc_sg3": "",
        "class": "u-m",
        "dat_du": "lessaib",
        "dat_du2": "",
        "dat_du3": "",
        "dat_pl": "lessaib",
        "dat_pl2": "",
        "dat_pl3": "",
        "dat_sg": "less+L",
        "dat_sg2": "",
        "dat_sg3": "",
        "gen_du": "lesso+L",
        "gen_du2": "lessa+L",
        "gen_du3": "",
        "gen_du4": "",
        "gen_pl": "lessae+N",
        "gen_pl2": "",
        "gen_pl3": "",
        "gen_sg": "lesso+H",
        "gen_sg2": "lessa+H",
        "gen_sg3": "",
        "gen_sg4": "",
        "n": "",
        "nom_du": "less+L",
        "nom_du2": "",
        "nom_du3": "",
        "nom_pl": "lessae+H",
        "nom_pl2": "",
        "nom_pl3": "",
        "nom_pl4": "",
        "nom_sg": "less",
        "nom_sg2": "",
        "nom_sg3": "",
        "voc_du": "less+L",
        "voc_du2": "",
        "voc_du3": "",
        "voc_pl": "lessu",
        "voc_pl2": "",
        "voc_pl3": "",
        "voc_sg": "less",
        "voc_sg2": "",
        "voc_sg3": ""
      },
      "name": "sga-decl-noun"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "noun",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "benefit, advantage"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "benefit",
          "benefit"
        ],
        [
          "advantage",
          "advantage"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "masculine"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[l͈ʲes]"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "les"
    }
  ],
  "word": "less"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Old Irish entries with incorrect language header",
    "Old Irish non-lemma forms",
    "Old Irish prepositional pronouns",
    "Old Irish terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_number": 2,
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "sga-mutation",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "also lless after a proclitic",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "ending in a vowel",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-radical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "less",
      "source": "mutation",
      "tags": [
        "mutation",
        "mutation-nasal"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "sga",
        "2": "prepositional pronoun"
      },
      "expansion": "less",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "inflection_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "l",
        "2": "ess"
      },
      "name": "sga-mutation"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Old Irish",
  "lang_code": "sga",
  "pos": "pron",
  "senses": [
    {
      "alt_of": [
        {
          "extra": "third-person singular masculine of la",
          "word": "les"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Alternative spelling of les (third-person singular masculine of la)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "les",
          "les#Old Irish"
        ],
        [
          "la",
          "la#Old Irish"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "alt-of",
        "alternative"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[lʲesʲ]"
    }
  ],
  "word": "less"
}
{
  "called_from": "inflection/2466",
  "msg": "accepted heuristic header: table cell identified as header and given candidate status, AND the cleaned text is in LANGUAGES_WITH_CELLS_AS_HEADERS[Old Irish]; cleaned text: Initial mutations of a following adjective: *ᴴ = triggers aspiration *ᴸ = triggers lenition *ᴺ = triggers nasalization",
  "path": [
    "less"
  ],
  "section": "Old Irish",
  "subsection": "noun",
  "title": "less",
  "trace": ""
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Old Irish dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-07-22 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-07-20 using wiktextract (0af6c06 and 6aeea9b). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.