"Jālgab" meaning in Livonian

See Jālgab in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Proper name

IPA: /jɑːlɡɑb/
Etymology: Latvian proper noun Jelgava and 17th century countable noun jelgava (“town, city”) (later replaced by pilsēta) are popularly believed to be a borrowing from Livonian jālgab (“town, city”). Karulis, however, thinks that this word doesn't have a plausible Finnic etymology and suggests it being a borrowing from Latvian, in Latvian ultimately from *Heh₃l- (“to bend”) whence also leja (“underside, depression, valley”), dialectal meanings of elks (“elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle”), elkonis (“elbow”). The name of Jelgava could also be related to dialectal jelgs (“wet”) or the noun jelga (“a swampy place”). Karulis' version, however, raises questions as Jelgava has been historically called Mītava and Mitau in Latvian and German respectively (according to Karulis himself of Baltic stock, cognate with the verb mīt (“to stagger, shift, trade”)). (Kersti Boiko also tangentially mentions Nītauja as an earlier name for Jelgava.) Suggesting Livonian borrowing from Latvian a term that perhaps was not even used in Latvian at that time is anachronistic. Etymology templates: {{m|lv|Jelgava}} Jelgava, {{m|lv|jelgava||town, city}} jelgava (“town, city”), {{m|lv|pilsēta}} pilsēta, {{m|liv|jālgab||town, city}} jālgab (“town, city”), {{der|liv|lv|-}} Latvian, {{m|ine-pro|*Heh₃l-||to bend}} *Heh₃l- (“to bend”), {{m|lv|leja||underside, depression, valley}} leja (“underside, depression, valley”), {{m|lv|elks||elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle}} elks (“elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle”), {{m|lv|elkonis||elbow}} elkonis (“elbow”), {{m|lv|jelgs||wet}} jelgs (“wet”), {{m|lv|jelga||a swampy place}} jelga (“a swampy place”), {{m|lv|Mītava}} Mītava, {{m|de|Mitau}} Mitau, {{m|lv|mīt||to stagger, shift, trade}} mīt (“to stagger, shift, trade”), {{m|lv|Nītauja}} Nītauja Head templates: {{head|liv|proper noun}} Jālgab Forms: no-table-tags [table-tags], Jālgab [nominative, singular], - [nominative, plural], Jālgab [genitive, singular], - [genitive, plural], Jālgabt [partitive, singular], - [partitive, plural], Jālgabõn [dative, singular], - [dative, plural], Jālgabõks [instrumental, singular], - [instrumental, plural], Jālgabõ [illative, singular], - [illative, plural], Jālgabõs [inessive, singular], Jālgabs [inessive, singular], - [inessive, plural], Jālgabõst [elative, singular], Jālgabst [elative, singular], - [elative, plural]
  1. Jelgava (a town in Latvia) Categories (place): Places in Latvia, Towns in Latvia
    Sense id: en-Jālgab-liv-name-SqaTx4p1 Categories (other): Livonian entries with incorrect language header, Livonian etymologies from LEV

Inflected forms

Download JSON data for Jālgab meaning in Livonian (5.6kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "Jelgava"
      },
      "expansion": "Jelgava",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "jelgava",
        "3": "",
        "4": "town, city"
      },
      "expansion": "jelgava (“town, city”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "pilsēta"
      },
      "expansion": "pilsēta",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "liv",
        "2": "jālgab",
        "3": "",
        "4": "town, city"
      },
      "expansion": "jālgab (“town, city”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "liv",
        "2": "lv",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Latvian",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*Heh₃l-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to bend"
      },
      "expansion": "*Heh₃l- (“to bend”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "leja",
        "3": "",
        "4": "underside, depression, valley"
      },
      "expansion": "leja (“underside, depression, valley”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "elks",
        "3": "",
        "4": "elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle"
      },
      "expansion": "elks (“elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "elkonis",
        "3": "",
        "4": "elbow"
      },
      "expansion": "elkonis (“elbow”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "jelgs",
        "3": "",
        "4": "wet"
      },
      "expansion": "jelgs (“wet”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "jelga",
        "3": "",
        "4": "a swampy place"
      },
      "expansion": "jelga (“a swampy place”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "Mītava"
      },
      "expansion": "Mītava",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "de",
        "2": "Mitau"
      },
      "expansion": "Mitau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "mīt",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to stagger, shift, trade"
      },
      "expansion": "mīt (“to stagger, shift, trade”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "Nītauja"
      },
      "expansion": "Nītauja",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Latvian proper noun Jelgava and 17th century countable noun jelgava (“town, city”) (later replaced by pilsēta) are popularly believed to be a borrowing from Livonian jālgab (“town, city”). Karulis, however, thinks that this word doesn't have a plausible Finnic etymology and suggests it being a borrowing from Latvian, in Latvian ultimately from *Heh₃l- (“to bend”) whence also leja (“underside, depression, valley”), dialectal meanings of elks (“elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle”), elkonis (“elbow”). The name of Jelgava could also be related to dialectal jelgs (“wet”) or the noun jelga (“a swampy place”).\nKarulis' version, however, raises questions as Jelgava has been historically called Mītava and Mitau in Latvian and German respectively (according to Karulis himself of Baltic stock, cognate with the verb mīt (“to stagger, shift, trade”)). (Kersti Boiko also tangentially mentions Nītauja as an earlier name for Jelgava.) Suggesting Livonian borrowing from Latvian a term that perhaps was not even used in Latvian at that time is anachronistic.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liv-noun",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgab",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgab",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabt",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "partitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "partitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõn",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõks",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõ",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "illative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "illative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inessive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inessive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inessive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõst",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "elative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabst",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "elative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "elative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "liv",
        "2": "proper noun"
      },
      "expansion": "Jālgab",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Livonian",
  "lang_code": "liv",
  "pos": "name",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Livonian entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Livonian etymologies from LEV",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "place",
          "langcode": "liv",
          "name": "Places in Latvia",
          "orig": "liv:Places in Latvia",
          "parents": [
            "Places",
            "Names",
            "All topics",
            "Proper nouns",
            "Terms by semantic function",
            "Fundamental",
            "Nouns",
            "Lemmas"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "place",
          "langcode": "liv",
          "name": "Towns in Latvia",
          "orig": "liv:Towns in Latvia",
          "parents": [
            "Towns",
            "Places",
            "Polities",
            "Names",
            "All topics",
            "Proper nouns",
            "Terms by semantic function",
            "Fundamental",
            "Nouns",
            "Lemmas"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Tiit-Rein Viitso, Valts Ernštreits (2012–2013), Līvõkīel-ēstikīel-lețkīel sõnārōntõz, Tartu, Rīga: TÜ, LVA\nJālgab – Jelgava – Jelgava\nJelgava – Jelgava – Jelgava"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Jelgava (a town in Latvia)"
      ],
      "id": "en-Jālgab-liv-name-SqaTx4p1",
      "links": [
        [
          "Jelgava",
          "Jelgava#English"
        ],
        [
          "Latvia",
          "Latvia#English"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/jɑːlɡɑb/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "Jālgab"
}
{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "Jelgava"
      },
      "expansion": "Jelgava",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "jelgava",
        "3": "",
        "4": "town, city"
      },
      "expansion": "jelgava (“town, city”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "pilsēta"
      },
      "expansion": "pilsēta",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "liv",
        "2": "jālgab",
        "3": "",
        "4": "town, city"
      },
      "expansion": "jālgab (“town, city”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "liv",
        "2": "lv",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Latvian",
      "name": "der"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*Heh₃l-",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to bend"
      },
      "expansion": "*Heh₃l- (“to bend”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "leja",
        "3": "",
        "4": "underside, depression, valley"
      },
      "expansion": "leja (“underside, depression, valley”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "elks",
        "3": "",
        "4": "elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle"
      },
      "expansion": "elks (“elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "elkonis",
        "3": "",
        "4": "elbow"
      },
      "expansion": "elkonis (“elbow”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "jelgs",
        "3": "",
        "4": "wet"
      },
      "expansion": "jelgs (“wet”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "jelga",
        "3": "",
        "4": "a swampy place"
      },
      "expansion": "jelga (“a swampy place”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "Mītava"
      },
      "expansion": "Mītava",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "de",
        "2": "Mitau"
      },
      "expansion": "Mitau",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "mīt",
        "3": "",
        "4": "to stagger, shift, trade"
      },
      "expansion": "mīt (“to stagger, shift, trade”)",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lv",
        "2": "Nītauja"
      },
      "expansion": "Nītauja",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Latvian proper noun Jelgava and 17th century countable noun jelgava (“town, city”) (later replaced by pilsēta) are popularly believed to be a borrowing from Livonian jālgab (“town, city”). Karulis, however, thinks that this word doesn't have a plausible Finnic etymology and suggests it being a borrowing from Latvian, in Latvian ultimately from *Heh₃l- (“to bend”) whence also leja (“underside, depression, valley”), dialectal meanings of elks (“elbow, part of sleeve around elbow, turn, angle”), elkonis (“elbow”). The name of Jelgava could also be related to dialectal jelgs (“wet”) or the noun jelga (“a swampy place”).\nKarulis' version, however, raises questions as Jelgava has been historically called Mītava and Mitau in Latvian and German respectively (according to Karulis himself of Baltic stock, cognate with the verb mīt (“to stagger, shift, trade”)). (Kersti Boiko also tangentially mentions Nītauja as an earlier name for Jelgava.) Suggesting Livonian borrowing from Latvian a term that perhaps was not even used in Latvian at that time is anachronistic.",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "no-table-tags",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "table-tags"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "liv-noun",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inflection-template"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgab",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "nominative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgab",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "genitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabt",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "partitive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "partitive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõn",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "dative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõks",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "instrumental",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõ",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "illative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "illative",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inessive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabs",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inessive",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "inessive",
        "plural"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabõst",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "elative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "Jālgabst",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "elative",
        "singular"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-",
      "source": "declension",
      "tags": [
        "elative",
        "plural"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "liv",
        "2": "proper noun"
      },
      "expansion": "Jālgab",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Livonian",
  "lang_code": "liv",
  "pos": "name",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Livonian entries with incorrect language header",
        "Livonian etymologies from LEV",
        "Livonian lemmas",
        "Livonian proper nouns",
        "Livonian terms derived from Latvian",
        "Livonian terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "Livonian uncountable nouns",
        "liv:Places in Latvia",
        "liv:Towns in Latvia"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Tiit-Rein Viitso, Valts Ernštreits (2012–2013), Līvõkīel-ēstikīel-lețkīel sõnārōntõz, Tartu, Rīga: TÜ, LVA\nJālgab – Jelgava – Jelgava\nJelgava – Jelgava – Jelgava"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Jelgava (a town in Latvia)"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "Jelgava",
          "Jelgava#English"
        ],
        [
          "Latvia",
          "Latvia#English"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/jɑːlɡɑb/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "Jālgab"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Livonian dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-04-22 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-04-21 using wiktextract (fc4f0c7 and c937495). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.