"-으로" meaning in Korean

See -으로 in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Particle

IPA: [ɯɾo̞] [SK-Standard, Seoul] Forms: 으로 [canonical], -euro [romanization]
Etymology: From Middle Korean 으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó), from Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo). Etymology templates: {{inh|ko|okm|-}} Middle Korean, {{okm-l|-으〮로〮|-úlwó}} 으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó), {{inh|ko|oko|留|乙留|tr=*-ulwo}} Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo) Head templates: {{ko-pos|particle}} 으로 • (-euro)
  1. to, toward: directional case marker, in a physical sense
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-XEuWOD~6
  2. into, direction of a change: directional case marker in a metaphorical sense; expresses transformation or direction towards a certain time
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-mlGwQN0K
  3. using, out of; with: instrumental case marker, marking material, instruments, or means of doing something
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-EW94X6PM
  4. due to; from: instrumental case marker, marking causation
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-6mNO8U7E
  5. as; as being; in the state of: instrumental case marker, marking state, manner, status, or capacity
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-Cv63lDcT
  6. as of: instrumental case marker, marking an update in a list of previous events
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-dWWVif9l
  7. (archaic) from; egressive case marker, in a physical or chronological sense Tags: archaic
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-rQoCrBOO
  8. (Gyeongsang) Marks the direct object for certain action verbs, especially verbs that have a direct impact on the object. Tags: Gyeongsang Synonyms: -을
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-kdgWZmSr Categories (other): Gyeongsang Korean, Korean entries with incorrect language header, Korean particles, Korean terms with redundant script codes, Korean terms with redundant transliterations Disambiguation of Korean entries with incorrect language header: 16 16 4 3 2 3 2 26 8 8 13 Disambiguation of Korean particles: 16 15 4 3 3 3 2 27 7 7 13 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant script codes: 14 14 6 4 3 4 4 26 7 7 12 Disambiguation of Korean terms with redundant transliterations: 15 15 5 3 2 3 3 26 7 7 13
  9. Used in various expressions:
    See 으로 하여 (-euro hayeo, “because of; via”).
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-~b41Wqc-
  10. Used in various expressions:
    See 으로 하여금 (-euro hayeogeum, expresses the agent in a causative construction).
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-5~D5suBq
  11. Used in various expressions:
    See 으로 더불어 (-euro deobureo, “together with”).
    Sense id: en--으로-ko-particle-pcMS5Hlj
The following are not (yet) sense-disambiguated
Synonyms: 로 — after vowels and ㄹ (l), ㄹ로 (-llo) (english: after vowels), colloquially for certain pronouns Derived forms: 으로서 (-euroseo), 으로써 (-eurosseo), 으로부터 (-eurobuteo)

Download JSON data for -으로 meaning in Korean (7.9kB)

{
  "derived": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-euroseo",
      "word": "으로서"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-eurosseo",
      "word": "으로써"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "-eurobuteo",
      "word": "으로부터"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-으〮로〮",
        "2": "-úlwó"
      },
      "expansion": "으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "留",
        "4": "乙留",
        "tr": "*-ulwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó), from Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "으로",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-euro",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "으로 • (-euro)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Let's go toward the direction of the tree.",
          "roman": "Namu banghyang-euro ga-ja.",
          "text": "나무 방향으로 가자.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I met a homeless person while going home [lit. going towards home].",
          "roman": "Jib-euro gadaga nosukja-reul mannatda.",
          "text": "집으로 가다가 노숙자를 만났다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to, toward: directional case marker, in a physical sense"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-XEuWOD~6",
      "links": [
        [
          "to",
          "to"
        ],
        [
          "toward",
          "toward"
        ],
        [
          "directional",
          "directional#English"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "The person turned into a tiger.",
          "roman": "Saram-i horang'i-ro byeonhaetda.",
          "text": "사람이 호랑이로 변했다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Let's switch out the trees for grass.",
          "roman": "Namu-reul pul-lo bakkuja.",
          "text": "나무를 풀로 바꾸자.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "This year it's been 3 years since I've started learning Korean.",
          "roman": "Olhaero han'gugeo-reul bae'un ji 3nyeon-i dwaetda.",
          "text": "올해로 한국어를 배운 지 3년이 됐다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "into, direction of a change: directional case marker in a metaphorical sense; expresses transformation or direction towards a certain time"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-mlGwQN0K",
      "links": [
        [
          "into",
          "into"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I tried making clothes out of paper.",
          "roman": "Jong'i-ro os-eul mandeureo-bwatda.",
          "text": "종이로 옷을 만들어봤다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I carved the stone with a knife.",
          "roman": "Kal-lo dor-eul kkakkatda.",
          "text": "칼로 돌을 깎았다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "One controls barbarians using [other] barbarians.",
          "roman": "Orangkae-ro orangkae-reul jeeohanda.",
          "text": "오랑캐로 오랑캐를 제어한다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Come in through the back door.",
          "roman": "Dwinmuneuro dureowa.",
          "text": "뒷문으로 둘어와.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "using, out of; with: instrumental case marker, marking material, instruments, or means of doing something"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-EW94X6PM",
      "links": [
        [
          "using",
          "using"
        ],
        [
          "out of",
          "out of"
        ],
        [
          "with",
          "with"
        ],
        [
          "instrumental",
          "instrumental#English"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "He passed away from influenza.",
          "roman": "Dokgam-euro doragasyeotda.",
          "text": "독감으로 돌아가셨다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I got rich from the lottery.",
          "roman": "Rotto-ro buja dwaesseo.",
          "text": "로또로 부자 됐어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "due to; from: instrumental case marker, marking causation"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-6mNO8U7E",
      "links": [
        [
          "due to",
          "due to"
        ],
        [
          "from",
          "from"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I lived as a beggar for several years.",
          "roman": "Myeot nyeon gan geoji-ro saratda.",
          "text": "몇 년 간 거지로 살았다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I consider her as being a good friend.",
          "roman": "Jo-eun chin'gu-ro saenggak-handa.",
          "text": "좋은 친구로 생각한다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "You have to think positively.",
          "roman": "Geungjeongjeogeuro saenggag-eul haeya dwae.",
          "text": "긍정적으로 생각을 해야 돼.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "as; as being; in the state of: instrumental case marker, marking state, manner, status, or capacity"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-Cv63lDcT",
      "links": [
        [
          "as",
          "as"
        ],
        [
          "being",
          "being"
        ],
        [
          "state",
          "state"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "As of today, you've been late five times.",
          "roman": "Oneul bu-ro neo-neun jigag-eul daseot beon haesseo.",
          "text": "오늘 부로 너는 지각을 다섯 번 했어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "as of: instrumental case marker, marking an update in a list of previous events"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-dWWVif9l",
      "links": [
        [
          "as of",
          "as of"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "From nine to twelve, it is the second watch; from twelve to three in the afternoon, it is the third watch.",
          "ref": "1901, 神(신)學(학)月(월)報(보) [Theological Monthly], volume 4",
          "roman": "ahop-si-ro yeoldu-si-kkaji-neun igyeong-io sibi-si-ro-beuteo sang'o se-si-kkaji-neun samgyeong-ira",
          "text": "아홉시로 열두시ᄭᅡ지는 이경이오 十(십)二(이)시로브터 상오 세시ᄭᅡ지는 삼경이라",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "from; egressive case marker, in a physical or chronological sense"
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-rQoCrBOO",
      "links": [
        [
          "from",
          "from"
        ],
        [
          "egressive",
          "egressive#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(archaic) from; egressive case marker, in a physical or chronological sense"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Gyeongsang Korean",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 16 4 3 2 3 2 26 8 8 13",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "16 15 4 3 3 3 2 27 7 7 13",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean particles",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "14 14 6 4 3 4 4 26 7 7 12",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant script codes",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        },
        {
          "_dis": "15 15 5 3 2 3 3 26 7 7 13",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Korean terms with redundant transliterations",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant transliterations",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Marks the direct object for certain action verbs, especially verbs that have a direct impact on the object."
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-kdgWZmSr",
      "links": [
        [
          "direct object",
          "direct object#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) Marks the direct object for certain action verbs, especially verbs that have a direct impact on the object."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-을"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used in various expressions:",
        "See 으로 하여 (-euro hayeo, “because of; via”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-~b41Wqc-",
      "links": [
        [
          "으로 하여",
          "-으로 하여#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used in various expressions:",
        "See 으로 하여금 (-euro hayeogeum, expresses the agent in a causative construction)."
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-5~D5suBq",
      "links": [
        [
          "으로 하여금",
          "-으로 하여금#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used in various expressions:",
        "See 으로 더불어 (-euro deobureo, “together with”)."
      ],
      "id": "en--으로-ko-particle-pcMS5Hlj",
      "links": [
        [
          "으로 더불어",
          "-으로 더불어#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɯɾo̞]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[으로]"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "roman": "l",
      "word": "로 — after vowels and ㄹ"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "english": "after vowels",
      "roman": "-llo",
      "word": "ㄹ로"
    },
    {
      "_dis1": "0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0",
      "word": "colloquially for certain pronouns"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-으로"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Korean entries with incorrect language header",
    "Korean lemmas",
    "Korean particles",
    "Korean terms derived from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms derived from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Middle Korean",
    "Korean terms inherited from Old Korean",
    "Korean terms with IPA pronunciation",
    "Korean terms with redundant script codes",
    "Korean terms with redundant transliterations"
  ],
  "derived": [
    {
      "roman": "-euroseo",
      "word": "으로서"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-eurosseo",
      "word": "으로써"
    },
    {
      "roman": "-eurobuteo",
      "word": "으로부터"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "okm",
        "3": "-"
      },
      "expansion": "Middle Korean",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "-으〮로〮",
        "2": "-úlwó"
      },
      "expansion": "으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó)",
      "name": "okm-l"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ko",
        "2": "oko",
        "3": "留",
        "4": "乙留",
        "tr": "*-ulwo"
      },
      "expansion": "Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo)",
      "name": "inh"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Middle Korean 으〮로〮 (Yale: -úlwó), from Old Korean 乙留 (*-ulwo).",
  "forms": [
    {
      "form": "으로",
      "tags": [
        "canonical"
      ]
    },
    {
      "form": "-euro",
      "tags": [
        "romanization"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "particle"
      },
      "expansion": "으로 • (-euro)",
      "name": "ko-pos"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Korean",
  "lang_code": "ko",
  "pos": "particle",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "Let's go toward the direction of the tree.",
          "roman": "Namu banghyang-euro ga-ja.",
          "text": "나무 방향으로 가자.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I met a homeless person while going home [lit. going towards home].",
          "roman": "Jib-euro gadaga nosukja-reul mannatda.",
          "text": "집으로 가다가 노숙자를 만났다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "to, toward: directional case marker, in a physical sense"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "to",
          "to"
        ],
        [
          "toward",
          "toward"
        ],
        [
          "directional",
          "directional#English"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "The person turned into a tiger.",
          "roman": "Saram-i horang'i-ro byeonhaetda.",
          "text": "사람이 호랑이로 변했다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Let's switch out the trees for grass.",
          "roman": "Namu-reul pul-lo bakkuja.",
          "text": "나무를 풀로 바꾸자.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "This year it's been 3 years since I've started learning Korean.",
          "roman": "Olhaero han'gugeo-reul bae'un ji 3nyeon-i dwaetda.",
          "text": "올해로 한국어를 배운 지 3년이 됐다.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "into, direction of a change: directional case marker in a metaphorical sense; expresses transformation or direction towards a certain time"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "into",
          "into"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I tried making clothes out of paper.",
          "roman": "Jong'i-ro os-eul mandeureo-bwatda.",
          "text": "종이로 옷을 만들어봤다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I carved the stone with a knife.",
          "roman": "Kal-lo dor-eul kkakkatda.",
          "text": "칼로 돌을 깎았다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "One controls barbarians using [other] barbarians.",
          "roman": "Orangkae-ro orangkae-reul jeeohanda.",
          "text": "오랑캐로 오랑캐를 제어한다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "Come in through the back door.",
          "roman": "Dwinmuneuro dureowa.",
          "text": "뒷문으로 둘어와.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "using, out of; with: instrumental case marker, marking material, instruments, or means of doing something"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "using",
          "using"
        ],
        [
          "out of",
          "out of"
        ],
        [
          "with",
          "with"
        ],
        [
          "instrumental",
          "instrumental#English"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "He passed away from influenza.",
          "roman": "Dokgam-euro doragasyeotda.",
          "text": "독감으로 돌아가셨다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I got rich from the lottery.",
          "roman": "Rotto-ro buja dwaesseo.",
          "text": "로또로 부자 됐어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "due to; from: instrumental case marker, marking causation"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "due to",
          "due to"
        ],
        [
          "from",
          "from"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I lived as a beggar for several years.",
          "roman": "Myeot nyeon gan geoji-ro saratda.",
          "text": "몇 년 간 거지로 살았다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "I consider her as being a good friend.",
          "roman": "Jo-eun chin'gu-ro saenggak-handa.",
          "text": "좋은 친구로 생각한다.",
          "type": "example"
        },
        {
          "english": "You have to think positively.",
          "roman": "Geungjeongjeogeuro saenggag-eul haeya dwae.",
          "text": "긍정적으로 생각을 해야 돼.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "as; as being; in the state of: instrumental case marker, marking state, manner, status, or capacity"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "as",
          "as"
        ],
        [
          "being",
          "being"
        ],
        [
          "state",
          "state"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with usage examples"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "As of today, you've been late five times.",
          "roman": "Oneul bu-ro neo-neun jigag-eul daseot beon haesseo.",
          "text": "오늘 부로 너는 지각을 다섯 번 했어.",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "as of: instrumental case marker, marking an update in a list of previous events"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "as of",
          "as of"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Korean terms with archaic senses",
        "Korean terms with quotations"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "From nine to twelve, it is the second watch; from twelve to three in the afternoon, it is the third watch.",
          "ref": "1901, 神(신)學(학)月(월)報(보) [Theological Monthly], volume 4",
          "roman": "ahop-si-ro yeoldu-si-kkaji-neun igyeong-io sibi-si-ro-beuteo sang'o se-si-kkaji-neun samgyeong-ira",
          "text": "아홉시로 열두시ᄭᅡ지는 이경이오 十(십)二(이)시로브터 상오 세시ᄭᅡ지는 삼경이라",
          "type": "quotation"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "from; egressive case marker, in a physical or chronological sense"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "from",
          "from"
        ],
        [
          "egressive",
          "egressive#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(archaic) from; egressive case marker, in a physical or chronological sense"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic"
      ]
    },
    {
      "categories": [
        "Gyeongsang Korean"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Marks the direct object for certain action verbs, especially verbs that have a direct impact on the object."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "direct object",
          "direct object#English"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(Gyeongsang) Marks the direct object for certain action verbs, especially verbs that have a direct impact on the object."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-을"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "Gyeongsang"
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used in various expressions:",
        "See 으로 하여 (-euro hayeo, “because of; via”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "으로 하여",
          "-으로 하여#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used in various expressions:",
        "See 으로 하여금 (-euro hayeogeum, expresses the agent in a causative construction)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "으로 하여금",
          "-으로 하여금#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    },
    {
      "glosses": [
        "Used in various expressions:",
        "See 으로 더불어 (-euro deobureo, “together with”)."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "으로 더불어",
          "-으로 더불어#Korean"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "[ɯɾo̞]",
      "tags": [
        "SK-Standard",
        "Seoul"
      ]
    },
    {
      "other": "[으로]"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "roman": "l",
      "word": "로 — after vowels and ㄹ"
    },
    {
      "english": "after vowels",
      "roman": "-llo",
      "word": "ㄹ로"
    },
    {
      "word": "colloquially for certain pronouns"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-으로"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Korean dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-06-23 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-06-20 using wiktextract (1b9bfc5 and 0136956). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.