"-pi" meaning in All languages combined

See -pi on Wiktionary

Suffix [Finnish]

Etymology: From Proto-Finnic *-pi, derived from Proto-Finnic *-pa (participle ending). Etymology templates: {{inh|fi|urj-fin-pro|*-pi}} Proto-Finnic *-pi, {{der|fi|urj-fin-pro|*-pa|pos=participle ending}} Proto-Finnic *-pa (participle ending) Head templates: {{head|fi|suffix}} -pi
  1. (personal, dialectal or poetic) Forms the third-person singular indicative present of verbs. Tags: archaic, dialectal, morpheme, personal, poetic Synonyms: -vi

Suffix [Lakota]

Head templates: {{head|lkt|suffix}} -pi
  1. plural marker Tags: morpheme
    Sense id: en--pi-lkt-suffix-tTYB11B5 Categories (other): Lakota entries with incorrect language header, Pages with raw sortkeys

Suffix [Proto-Finnic]

Etymology: Related to *-pa. The final *-i may be of the same origin as in ei (see *e-). Lauri Hakulinen, in his seminal Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys, proposes a sound change from unstressed final *a to *i in bisyllabic words with a long initial syllable or any word with more than two syllables. This could then have been generalized by analogy (and participles exempted likewise by analogy, as their oblique forms would not have been affected). Kallio (SUST264) discusses the same sound change and shows that it has also taken place in the comparative ending, *-mpi, as well as the instrumental derivative suffix and superlative ending, *-in, and the caritive suffix, *-t'oin. Originally restricted to 'Coastal Finnic' (i.e. Finnic except South Estonian), but has also spread into some South Estonian dialects. The original South Estonian third-person singular forms were endingless, which is probably an archaism rather than an innovation. Head templates: {{head|urj-fin-pro|suffix}} *-pi
  1. 3rd person singular present marker. Tags: morpheme, reconstruction Synonyms: -bi (english: weak grade)
    Sense id: en--pi-urj-fin-pro-suffix-w56Z0zey Categories (other): Proto-Finnic entries with incorrect language header

Suffix [Quechua]

IPA: /pɪ/
Head templates: {{head|qu|suffix}} -pi
  1. A suffix for the locative case. Tags: morpheme Synonyms: -chaw (alt: Ancash)
    Sense id: en--pi-qu-suffix-uTpILZiH Categories (other): Pages with raw sortkeys, Quechua entries with incorrect language header

Postposition [Taos]

IPA: /pi/
Head templates: {{head|twf|postposition}} -pi
  1. alongside

Suffix [Zou]

IPA: /-pì/
Etymology: From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pwi (“female”). Etymology templates: {{der|zom|sit-pro|*pwi(y)-n|*pwi|female}} Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pwi (“female”) Head templates: {{head|zom|suffix}} -pi
  1. Used to form nouns for female animals. Tags: morpheme

Alternative forms

Download JSONL data for -pi meaning in All languages combined (7.7kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fi",
        "2": "urj-fin-pro",
        "3": "*-pi"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Finnic *-pi",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fi",
        "2": "urj-fin-pro",
        "3": "*-pa",
        "pos": "participle ending"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Finnic *-pa (participle ending)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Finnic *-pi, derived from Proto-Finnic *-pa (participle ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fi",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Finnish",
  "lang_code": "fi",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Finnish entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Finnish entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Finnish terms with redundant sortkeys",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant sortkeys",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Finnish usage examples with omitted translation",
          "parents": [
            "Usage examples with omitted translation",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Pages with raw sortkeys",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Kotimaani ompi Suomi...",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms the third-person singular indicative present of verbs."
      ],
      "id": "en--pi-fi-suffix-yM2yXBc4",
      "links": [
        [
          "poetic",
          "poetic"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(personal, dialectal or poetic) Forms the third-person singular indicative present of verbs."
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "-vi"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic",
        "dialectal",
        "morpheme",
        "personal",
        "poetic"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lkt",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Lakota",
  "lang_code": "lkt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Lakota entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Pages with raw sortkeys",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "my relatives",
          "text": "mitakuyepi",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "plural marker"
      ],
      "id": "en--pi-lkt-suffix-tTYB11B5",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "qu",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Quechua",
  "lang_code": "qu",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Pages with raw sortkeys",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Quechua entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I left it at the house.",
          "text": "Wasipi saqirqani."
        },
        {
          "english": "In one year there are twelve months.",
          "text": "Huk watapiqa chunka iskayniyuq killam kan."
        },
        {
          "english": "I live there.",
          "text": "Chaypim yachani."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A suffix for the locative case."
      ],
      "id": "en--pi-qu-suffix-uTpILZiH",
      "links": [
        [
          "locative",
          "locative"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "alt": "Ancash",
          "word": "-chaw"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/pɪ/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "twf",
        "2": "postposition"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Taos",
  "lang_code": "twf",
  "pos": "postp",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Pages with raw sortkeys",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Taos entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Taos entries with language name categories using raw markup",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with language name categories using raw markup",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Taos postpositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Taos terms with redundant sortkeys",
          "parents": [
            "Terms with redundant sortkeys",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "alongside"
      ],
      "id": "en--pi-twf-postp-DPzcLwmR",
      "links": [
        [
          "alongside",
          "alongside"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/pi/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "zom",
        "2": "sit-pro",
        "3": "*pwi(y)-n",
        "4": "*pwi",
        "5": "female"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pwi (“female”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pwi (“female”).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "zom",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Zou",
  "lang_code": "zom",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Pages with raw sortkeys",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Zou entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        },
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Zou terms in nonstandard scripts",
          "parents": [
            "Terms in nonstandard scripts",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "ah (“chicken”) + -pi → ahpi (“hen”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form nouns for female animals."
      ],
      "id": "en--pi-zom-suffix-2IDCsQYw",
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/-pì/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "et",
            "2": "-b"
          },
          "expansion": "Estonian: -b",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Estonian: -b"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fi",
            "2": "-pi",
            "3": "-vi"
          },
          "expansion": "Finnish: -pi, -vi",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "Both archaic. The suffix has been reduced to <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"fi\">-V</i>."
          },
          "expansion": "(Both archaic. The suffix has been reduced to -V.)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Finnish: -pi, -vi (Both archaic. The suffix has been reduced to -V.)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "izh",
            "2": "-p"
          },
          "expansion": "Ingrian: -p",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "in verbs ending in -ja or -vva"
          },
          "expansion": "(in verbs ending in -ja or -vva)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ingrian: -p (in verbs ending in -ja or -vva)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "vep",
            "2": "-b"
          },
          "expansion": "Veps: -b",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Veps: -b"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Related to *-pa. The final *-i may be of the same origin as in ei (see *e-).\nLauri Hakulinen, in his seminal Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys, proposes a sound change from unstressed final *a to *i in bisyllabic words with a long initial syllable or any word with more than two syllables. This could then have been generalized by analogy (and participles exempted likewise by analogy, as their oblique forms would not have been affected).\nKallio (SUST264) discusses the same sound change and shows that it has also taken place in the comparative ending, *-mpi, as well as the instrumental derivative suffix and superlative ending, *-in, and the caritive suffix, *-t'oin.\nOriginally restricted to 'Coastal Finnic' (i.e. Finnic except South Estonian), but has also spread into some South Estonian dialects. The original South Estonian third-person singular forms were endingless, which is probably an archaism rather than an innovation.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "urj-fin-pro",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Finnic",
  "lang_code": "urj-fin-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Finnic/-pi",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Finnic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "3rd person singular present marker."
      ],
      "id": "en--pi-urj-fin-pro-suffix-w56Z0zey",
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "english": "weak grade",
          "word": "-bi"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}
{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fi",
        "2": "urj-fin-pro",
        "3": "*-pi"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Finnic *-pi",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fi",
        "2": "urj-fin-pro",
        "3": "*-pa",
        "pos": "participle ending"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Finnic *-pa (participle ending)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Finnic *-pi, derived from Proto-Finnic *-pa (participle ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "fi",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Finnish",
  "lang_code": "fi",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Finnish archaic terms",
        "Finnish dialectal terms",
        "Finnish entries with incorrect language header",
        "Finnish entries with language name categories using raw markup",
        "Finnish lemmas",
        "Finnish personal suffixes",
        "Finnish poetic terms",
        "Finnish suffixes",
        "Finnish terms derived from Proto-Finnic",
        "Finnish terms inherited from Proto-Finnic",
        "Finnish terms with redundant sortkeys",
        "Finnish terms with usage examples",
        "Finnish usage examples with omitted translation",
        "Pages with raw sortkeys"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "Kotimaani ompi Suomi...",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Forms the third-person singular indicative present of verbs."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "poetic",
          "poetic"
        ]
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "(personal, dialectal or poetic) Forms the third-person singular indicative present of verbs."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "archaic",
        "dialectal",
        "morpheme",
        "personal",
        "poetic"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "-vi"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "lkt",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Lakota",
  "lang_code": "lkt",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Lakota entries with incorrect language header",
        "Lakota lemmas",
        "Lakota suffixes",
        "Lakota terms with usage examples",
        "Pages with raw sortkeys"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "my relatives",
          "text": "mitakuyepi",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "plural marker"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "et",
            "2": "-b"
          },
          "expansion": "Estonian: -b",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Estonian: -b"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fi",
            "2": "-pi",
            "3": "-vi"
          },
          "expansion": "Finnish: -pi, -vi",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "Both archaic. The suffix has been reduced to <i class=\"Latn mention\" lang=\"fi\">-V</i>."
          },
          "expansion": "(Both archaic. The suffix has been reduced to -V.)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Finnish: -pi, -vi (Both archaic. The suffix has been reduced to -V.)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "izh",
            "2": "-p"
          },
          "expansion": "Ingrian: -p",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "in verbs ending in -ja or -vva"
          },
          "expansion": "(in verbs ending in -ja or -vva)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Ingrian: -p (in verbs ending in -ja or -vva)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "vep",
            "2": "-b"
          },
          "expansion": "Veps: -b",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Veps: -b"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "Related to *-pa. The final *-i may be of the same origin as in ei (see *e-).\nLauri Hakulinen, in his seminal Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys, proposes a sound change from unstressed final *a to *i in bisyllabic words with a long initial syllable or any word with more than two syllables. This could then have been generalized by analogy (and participles exempted likewise by analogy, as their oblique forms would not have been affected).\nKallio (SUST264) discusses the same sound change and shows that it has also taken place in the comparative ending, *-mpi, as well as the instrumental derivative suffix and superlative ending, *-in, and the caritive suffix, *-t'oin.\nOriginally restricted to 'Coastal Finnic' (i.e. Finnic except South Estonian), but has also spread into some South Estonian dialects. The original South Estonian third-person singular forms were endingless, which is probably an archaism rather than an innovation.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "urj-fin-pro",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "*-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Finnic",
  "lang_code": "urj-fin-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Finnic/-pi",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Finnic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Finnic lemmas",
        "Proto-Finnic suffixes"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "3rd person singular present marker."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme",
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "english": "weak grade",
      "word": "-bi"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "qu",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Quechua",
  "lang_code": "qu",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Pages with raw sortkeys",
        "Quechua entries with incorrect language header",
        "Quechua lemmas",
        "Quechua suffixes",
        "Quechua terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "english": "I left it at the house.",
          "text": "Wasipi saqirqani."
        },
        {
          "english": "In one year there are twelve months.",
          "text": "Huk watapiqa chunka iskayniyuq killam kan."
        },
        {
          "english": "I live there.",
          "text": "Chaypim yachani."
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "A suffix for the locative case."
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "locative",
          "locative"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/pɪ/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "alt": "Ancash",
      "word": "-chaw"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "twf",
        "2": "postposition"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Taos",
  "lang_code": "twf",
  "pos": "postp",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Pages with raw sortkeys",
        "Taos entries with incorrect language header",
        "Taos entries with language name categories using raw markup",
        "Taos lemmas",
        "Taos postpositions",
        "Taos terms with IPA pronunciation",
        "Taos terms with redundant sortkeys"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "alongside"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "alongside",
          "alongside"
        ]
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/pi/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "zom",
        "2": "sit-pro",
        "3": "*pwi(y)-n",
        "4": "*pwi",
        "5": "female"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pwi (“female”)",
      "name": "der"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *pwi (“female”).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "zom",
        "2": "suffix"
      },
      "expansion": "-pi",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Zou",
  "lang_code": "zom",
  "pos": "suffix",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Pages with raw sortkeys",
        "Zou entries with incorrect language header",
        "Zou lemmas",
        "Zou suffixes",
        "Zou terms derived from Proto-Sino-Tibetan",
        "Zou terms in nonstandard scripts",
        "Zou terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "examples": [
        {
          "text": "ah (“chicken”) + -pi → ahpi (“hen”)",
          "type": "example"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "Used to form nouns for female animals."
      ],
      "tags": [
        "morpheme"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/-pì/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "-pi"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable All languages combined dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-07-13 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-07-01 using wiktextract (f8674bc and 7cfad79). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.