"hwō" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See hwō in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Pronoun

IPA: /xʷɔː/
Etymology: From a form of Proto-Indo-European *kʷos, *kʷis. Compare Latin quō (“where(to); why; so that”) (Proto-Italic *kʷō) and Ancient Greek πω (pō, “ever”), Ionic Greek κω (kō) (Proto-Hellenic *kʷō). Equivalent to *hwaz (“what”) + *-ō (instrumental ending). Etymology templates: {{root|gem-pro|ine-pro|*kʷ-}}, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*kʷos}} Proto-Indo-European *kʷos, {{cog|la|quō||where(to); why; so that}} Latin quō (“where(to); why; so that”), {{cog|itc-pro|*kʷō}} Proto-Italic *kʷō, {{cog|grc|πω||ever}} Ancient Greek πω (pō, “ever”), {{cog|grc-ion|κω}} Ionic Greek κω (kō), {{cog|grk-pro|*kʷō}} Proto-Hellenic *kʷō, {{suf|gem-pro|*hwaz||alt2=*-ō|nocat=1|pos2=instrumental ending|t1=what}} *hwaz (“what”) + *-ō (instrumental ending) Head templates: {{head|gem-pro|pronoun form}} *hwō
  1. how, with what, by what means; instrumental of *hwaz Tags: reconstruction Synonyms: hwē, hwī
    Sense id: en-hwō-gem-pro-pron-FU39A6uB Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header

Download JSON data for hwō meaning in Proto-Germanic (4.1kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*hwō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "hū"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: hū, hwu\nMiddle English: how, hou, howe, hu, hwu, whu, wou, wu\nEnglish: how\nGeordie English: hoo\nScots: hoo, how, foo\nYola: fowe, how",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: hū, hwu\nMiddle English: how, hou, howe, hu, hwu, whu, wou, wu\nEnglish: how\nGeordie English: hoo\nScots: hoo, how, foo\nYola: fowe, how"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "hū",
            "3": "hō"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: hū, hō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: hū, hō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "frr",
            "2": "ho"
          },
          "expansion": "North Frisian: ho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "North Frisian: ho"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "wo"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: wo",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: wo"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "hoe"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: hoe",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: hoe > hoe't"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "hwō",
            "3": "hwuo",
            "4": "hū"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: hwō, hwuo, hū",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: hwō, hwuo, hū"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "wô",
            "3": "wû"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: wô, wû",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: wô, wû"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "wo"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: wo",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: wo"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "huo"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: huo\nMiddle Dutch: hoe\nDutch: hoe\nLimburgish: woe",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: huo\nMiddle Dutch: hoe\nDutch: hoe\nLimburgish: woe"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "wuo"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: wuo",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "Franconian"
          },
          "expansion": "(Franconian)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: wuo (Franconian)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*kʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*kʷos"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *kʷos",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "quō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "where(to); why; so that"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin quō (“where(to); why; so that”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "itc-pro",
        "2": "*kʷō"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Italic *kʷō",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "πω",
        "3": "",
        "4": "ever"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek πω (pō, “ever”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc-ion",
        "2": "κω"
      },
      "expansion": "Ionic Greek κω (kō)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grk-pro",
        "2": "*kʷō"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic *kʷō",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*hwaz",
        "3": "",
        "alt2": "*-ō",
        "nocat": "1",
        "pos2": "instrumental ending",
        "t1": "what"
      },
      "expansion": "*hwaz (“what”) + *-ō (instrumental ending)",
      "name": "suf"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From a form of Proto-Indo-European *kʷos, *kʷis. Compare Latin quō (“where(to); why; so that”) (Proto-Italic *kʷō) and Ancient Greek πω (pō, “ever”), Ionic Greek κω (kō) (Proto-Hellenic *kʷō). Equivalent to *hwaz (“what”) + *-ō (instrumental ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "pronoun form"
      },
      "expansion": "*hwō",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hwō",
  "pos": "pron",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "how, with what, by what means; instrumental of *hwaz"
      ],
      "id": "en-hwō-gem-pro-pron-FU39A6uB",
      "links": [
        [
          "how",
          "how"
        ],
        [
          "what",
          "what"
        ],
        [
          "*hwaz",
          "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hwaz"
        ]
      ],
      "synonyms": [
        {
          "word": "hwē"
        },
        {
          "word": "hwī"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/xʷɔː/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hwō"
}
{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*hwō"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *hwō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "hū"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: hū, hwu\nMiddle English: how, hou, howe, hu, hwu, whu, wou, wu\nEnglish: how\nGeordie English: hoo\nScots: hoo, how, foo\nYola: fowe, how",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: hū, hwu\nMiddle English: how, hou, howe, hu, hwu, whu, wou, wu\nEnglish: how\nGeordie English: hoo\nScots: hoo, how, foo\nYola: fowe, how"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "hū",
            "3": "hō"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: hū, hō",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: hū, hō"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "frr",
            "2": "ho"
          },
          "expansion": "North Frisian: ho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "North Frisian: ho"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "wo"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: wo",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: wo"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "hoe"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: hoe",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: hoe > hoe't"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "hwō",
            "3": "hwuo",
            "4": "hū"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: hwō, hwuo, hū",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: hwō, hwuo, hū"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "wô",
            "3": "wû"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: wô, wû",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: wô, wû"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds",
            "2": "wo"
          },
          "expansion": "Low German: wo",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Low German: wo"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "huo"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: huo\nMiddle Dutch: hoe\nDutch: hoe\nLimburgish: woe",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: huo\nMiddle Dutch: hoe\nDutch: hoe\nLimburgish: woe"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "wuo"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: wuo",
          "name": "desc"
        },
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "Franconian"
          },
          "expansion": "(Franconian)",
          "name": "q"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: wuo (Franconian)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*kʷ-"
      },
      "expansion": "",
      "name": "root"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*kʷos"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *kʷos",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "la",
        "2": "quō",
        "3": "",
        "4": "where(to); why; so that"
      },
      "expansion": "Latin quō (“where(to); why; so that”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "itc-pro",
        "2": "*kʷō"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Italic *kʷō",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc",
        "2": "πω",
        "3": "",
        "4": "ever"
      },
      "expansion": "Ancient Greek πω (pō, “ever”)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grc-ion",
        "2": "κω"
      },
      "expansion": "Ionic Greek κω (kō)",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "grk-pro",
        "2": "*kʷō"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Hellenic *kʷō",
      "name": "cog"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "*hwaz",
        "3": "",
        "alt2": "*-ō",
        "nocat": "1",
        "pos2": "instrumental ending",
        "t1": "what"
      },
      "expansion": "*hwaz (“what”) + *-ō (instrumental ending)",
      "name": "suf"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From a form of Proto-Indo-European *kʷos, *kʷis. Compare Latin quō (“where(to); why; so that”) (Proto-Italic *kʷō) and Ancient Greek πω (pō, “ever”), Ionic Greek κω (kō) (Proto-Hellenic *kʷō). Equivalent to *hwaz (“what”) + *-ō (instrumental ending).",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "pronoun form"
      },
      "expansion": "*hwō",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hwō",
  "pos": "pron",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Germanic non-lemma forms",
        "Proto-Germanic pronoun forms",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *kʷ-",
        "Proto-Germanic terms inherited from Proto-Indo-European",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "how, with what, by what means; instrumental of *hwaz"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "how",
          "how"
        ],
        [
          "what",
          "what"
        ],
        [
          "*hwaz",
          "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/hwaz"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/xʷɔː/"
    }
  ],
  "synonyms": [
    {
      "word": "hwē"
    },
    {
      "word": "hwī"
    }
  ],
  "word": "hwō"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-05-27 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (bb24e0f and c7ea76d). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.