"after" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See after in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Adverb

IPA: /ˈɑɸ.ter/
Etymology: From the locative form of Pre-Germanic *h₂ep(o)teros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”) + *-teros. Etymology templates: {{m|gem-pro||*h₂ep(o)teros}} *h₂ep(o)teros, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂epó|t=away, off, from}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”), {{m|ine-pro|*-teros}} *-teros
  1. after, behind Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: after-gem-pro-adv-nKYsXxBM

Preposition

IPA: /ˈɑɸ.ter/
Etymology: From the locative form of Pre-Germanic *h₂ep(o)teros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”) + *-teros. Etymology templates: {{m|gem-pro||*h₂ep(o)teros}} *h₂ep(o)teros, {{inh|gem-pro|ine-pro|*h₂epó|t=away, off, from}} Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”), {{m|ine-pro|*-teros}} *-teros
  1. after, behind [+dative] Tags: reconstruction Related terms: afteraz, afti, aftiri, aftrą, aftai
    Sense id: after-gem-pro-prep-7BJUUh9Z Categories (other): Proto-Germanic prepositions Disambiguation of Proto-Germanic prepositions: 44 56

Download JSON data for after meaning in Proto-Germanic (4.9kB)

{
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂ep(o)teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂ep(o)teros",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂epó",
        "t": "away, off, from"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*-teros",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From the locative form of Pre-Germanic *h₂ep(o)teros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”) + *-teros.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/after",
  "pos": "adv",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "after, behind"
      ],
      "id": "after-gem-pro-adv-nKYsXxBM",
      "links": [
        [
          "after",
          "after"
        ],
        [
          "behind",
          "behind"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑɸ.ter/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "after"
}

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*aftar"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *aftar, *after\nOld English: æfter\nMiddle English: æfter, efter, after\nScots: efter\nEnglish: after\nOld Frisian: efter, after\nNorth Frisian: efter\nSaterland Frisian: ätter\nWest Frisian: efter; after, achter\nOld Saxon: aftar, after\nMiddle Low German: after, achter\nLow German: achter, aster\nGerman Low German: achter; ächter (Münsterländisch & Paderbornisch)\nOld Dutch: after, aftir\nMiddle Dutch: after, affter, achter, echter\nDutch: achter; after (dialectal)\nOld High German: after, aftar; ahter (northern)\nMiddle High German: after; *ahter, *achter\nGerman: after; After\nLuxembourgish: uechter (“throughout”)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *aftar, *after\nOld English: æfter\nMiddle English: æfter, efter, after\nScots: efter\nEnglish: after\nOld Frisian: efter, after\nNorth Frisian: efter\nSaterland Frisian: ätter\nWest Frisian: efter; after, achter\nOld Saxon: aftar, after\nMiddle Low German: after, achter\nLow German: achter, aster\nGerman Low German: achter; ächter (Münsterländisch & Paderbornisch)\nOld Dutch: after, aftir\nMiddle Dutch: after, affter, achter, echter\nDutch: achter; after (dialectal)\nOld High German: after, aftar; ahter (northern)\nMiddle High German: after; *ahter, *achter\nGerman: after; After\nLuxembourgish: uechter (“throughout”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": "ᚨᚠᛏᛖᚱ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚠᛏᛖᚱ (after)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚠᛏᛖᚱ (after)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "eptir"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: eptir, ęptir, eftir, ept; ᛁᚠᛏᛁᛦ (iftiʀ), ᛁᚠᛏᛁᚱ (iftir), ᛁᛒᛏᛁᛦ (ibtiʀ), ᛅᚠᛏᛁᛦ (aftiʀ), ᚬᚠᛏᛁᛦ (ąftiʀ), ᛅᛒᛏᛁᛦ (abtiʀ)\nIcelandic: eftir\nFaroese: eftir\nNorn: efter\nMiddle Norwegian: ettir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: etter\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: etter\nOld Jamtish: efti\nJamtish: ette\nElfdalian: etter\nOld Swedish: æptir, æftir, ættir\nSwedish: efter\nOld Danish: æftær, æftir\nDanish: efter\nNorwegian Bokmål: efter (unofficial, riksmål)\nScanian: ætte\nOld Gutnish: eptir, aktr, ebtir, efter, eftir, epter\nGutnish: etta, ettar, yttur (fårö)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: eptir, ęptir, eftir, ept; ᛁᚠᛏᛁᛦ (iftiʀ), ᛁᚠᛏᛁᚱ (iftir), ᛁᛒᛏᛁᛦ (ibtiʀ), ᛅᚠᛏᛁᛦ (aftiʀ), ᚬᚠᛏᛁᛦ (ąftiʀ), ᛅᛒᛏᛁᛦ (abtiʀ)\nIcelandic: eftir\nFaroese: eftir\nNorn: efter\nMiddle Norwegian: ettir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: etter\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: etter\nOld Jamtish: efti\nJamtish: ette\nElfdalian: etter\nOld Swedish: æptir, æftir, ættir\nSwedish: efter\nOld Danish: æftær, æftir\nDanish: efter\nNorwegian Bokmål: efter (unofficial, riksmål)\nScanian: ætte\nOld Gutnish: eptir, aktr, ebtir, efter, eftir, epter\nGutnish: etta, ettar, yttur (fårö)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂ep(o)teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂ep(o)teros",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂epó",
        "t": "away, off, from"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*-teros",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From the locative form of Pre-Germanic *h₂ep(o)teros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”) + *-teros.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/after",
  "pos": "prep",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "_dis": "44 56",
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
          "parents": [],
          "source": "w+disamb"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "after, behind [+dative]",
        "after, behind"
      ],
      "id": "after-gem-pro-prep-7BJUUh9Z",
      "raw_glosses": [
        "after, behind [+dative]"
      ],
      "related": [
        {
          "word": "afteraz"
        },
        {
          "word": "afti"
        },
        {
          "word": "aftiri"
        },
        {
          "word": "aftrą"
        },
        {
          "word": "aftai"
        }
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑɸ.ter/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "after"
}
{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic adverbs",
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂ep(o)teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂ep(o)teros",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂epó",
        "t": "away, off, from"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*-teros",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From the locative form of Pre-Germanic *h₂ep(o)teros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”) + *-teros.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/after",
  "pos": "adv",
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "after, behind"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "after",
          "after"
        ],
        [
          "behind",
          "behind"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑɸ.ter/"
    }
  ],
  "wikipedia": [
    "Brill Publishers"
  ],
  "word": "after"
}

{
  "categories": [
    "Proto-Germanic lemmas",
    "Proto-Germanic prepositions",
    "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
  ],
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*aftar"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *aftar, *after\nOld English: æfter\nMiddle English: æfter, efter, after\nScots: efter\nEnglish: after\nOld Frisian: efter, after\nNorth Frisian: efter\nSaterland Frisian: ätter\nWest Frisian: efter; after, achter\nOld Saxon: aftar, after\nMiddle Low German: after, achter\nLow German: achter, aster\nGerman Low German: achter; ächter (Münsterländisch & Paderbornisch)\nOld Dutch: after, aftir\nMiddle Dutch: after, affter, achter, echter\nDutch: achter; after (dialectal)\nOld High German: after, aftar; ahter (northern)\nMiddle High German: after; *ahter, *achter\nGerman: after; After\nLuxembourgish: uechter (“throughout”)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *aftar, *after\nOld English: æfter\nMiddle English: æfter, efter, after\nScots: efter\nEnglish: after\nOld Frisian: efter, after\nNorth Frisian: efter\nSaterland Frisian: ätter\nWest Frisian: efter; after, achter\nOld Saxon: aftar, after\nMiddle Low German: after, achter\nLow German: achter, aster\nGerman Low German: achter; ächter (Münsterländisch & Paderbornisch)\nOld Dutch: after, aftir\nMiddle Dutch: after, affter, achter, echter\nDutch: achter; after (dialectal)\nOld High German: after, aftar; ahter (northern)\nMiddle High German: after; *ahter, *achter\nGerman: after; After\nLuxembourgish: uechter (“throughout”)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": "ᚨᚠᛏᛖᚱ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚠᛏᛖᚱ (after)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: ᚨᚠᛏᛖᚱ (after)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "eptir"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: eptir, ęptir, eftir, ept; ᛁᚠᛏᛁᛦ (iftiʀ), ᛁᚠᛏᛁᚱ (iftir), ᛁᛒᛏᛁᛦ (ibtiʀ), ᛅᚠᛏᛁᛦ (aftiʀ), ᚬᚠᛏᛁᛦ (ąftiʀ), ᛅᛒᛏᛁᛦ (abtiʀ)\nIcelandic: eftir\nFaroese: eftir\nNorn: efter\nMiddle Norwegian: ettir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: etter\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: etter\nOld Jamtish: efti\nJamtish: ette\nElfdalian: etter\nOld Swedish: æptir, æftir, ættir\nSwedish: efter\nOld Danish: æftær, æftir\nDanish: efter\nNorwegian Bokmål: efter (unofficial, riksmål)\nScanian: ætte\nOld Gutnish: eptir, aktr, ebtir, efter, eftir, epter\nGutnish: etta, ettar, yttur (fårö)",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: eptir, ęptir, eftir, ept; ᛁᚠᛏᛁᛦ (iftiʀ), ᛁᚠᛏᛁᚱ (iftir), ᛁᛒᛏᛁᛦ (ibtiʀ), ᛅᚠᛏᛁᛦ (aftiʀ), ᚬᚠᛏᛁᛦ (ąftiʀ), ᛅᛒᛏᛁᛦ (abtiʀ)\nIcelandic: eftir\nFaroese: eftir\nNorn: efter\nMiddle Norwegian: ettir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: etter\n→ Norwegian Bokmål: etter\nOld Jamtish: efti\nJamtish: ette\nElfdalian: etter\nOld Swedish: æptir, æftir, ættir\nSwedish: efter\nOld Danish: æftær, æftir\nDanish: efter\nNorwegian Bokmål: efter (unofficial, riksmål)\nScanian: ætte\nOld Gutnish: eptir, aktr, ebtir, efter, eftir, epter\nGutnish: etta, ettar, yttur (fårö)"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "",
        "3": "*h₂ep(o)teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*h₂ep(o)teros",
      "name": "m"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "ine-pro",
        "3": "*h₂epó",
        "t": "away, off, from"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”)",
      "name": "inh"
    },
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*-teros"
      },
      "expansion": "*-teros",
      "name": "m"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From the locative form of Pre-Germanic *h₂ep(o)teros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (“away, off, from”) + *-teros.",
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/after",
  "pos": "prep",
  "related": [
    {
      "word": "afteraz"
    },
    {
      "word": "afti"
    },
    {
      "word": "aftiri"
    },
    {
      "word": "aftrą"
    },
    {
      "word": "aftai"
    }
  ],
  "senses": [
    {
      "glosses": [
        "after, behind [+dative]",
        "after, behind"
      ],
      "raw_glosses": [
        "after, behind [+dative]"
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/ˈɑɸ.ter/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "after"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-01-28 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-01-20 using wiktextract (unknown and unknown). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.