"þai" meaning in Proto-Germanic

See þai in All languages combined, or Wiktionary

Determiner

IPA: /θɑi̯/
Etymology: From demonstrative root *þa- with plural suffix *-i. Compare *twai (“two”), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ with same suffix. Etymology templates: {{ncog|ine-pro|*dwóh₁}} Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ Head templates: {{head|gem-pro|determiner form}} *þai
  1. they; those; nominative plural masculine of *sa Tags: reconstruction
    Sense id: en-þai-gem-pro-det-3ChO-YLb Categories (other): Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header

Download JSON data for þai meaning in Proto-Germanic (5.3kB)

{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*þai"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *þai",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *þai"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "þā"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: þā",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: þā"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "enm",
            "2": "tha",
            "3": "tho"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle English: tha, tho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle English: tha, tho; thas, thos"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sco",
            "2": "tha",
            "3": "thai"
          },
          "expansion": "Scots: tha, thai",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scots: tha, thai; thais"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "tho"
          },
          "expansion": "English: tho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "English: tho; those"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "thā"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: thā",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: thā"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "do"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: do",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: do"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "dy"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: dy",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: dy"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "thē"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: thē",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: thē"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "dê"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: dê",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: dê"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds-de",
            "2": "de"
          },
          "expansion": "German Low German: de",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German Low German: de"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "thie"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: thie",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: thie"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dum",
            "2": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Dutch: die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Dutch: die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nl",
            "2": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Dutch: die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Dutch: die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "dē",
            "3": "dea",
            "4": "dia",
            "5": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: dē, dea, dia, die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: dē, dea, dia, die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmh",
            "2": "dē",
            "3": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle High German: dē, die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle High German: dē, die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "de",
            "2": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "German: die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German: die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": "*ᚦᚨᛁᛉ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: *ᚦᚨᛁᛉ (*þaiʀ)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: *ᚦᚨᛁᛉ (*þaiʀ)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "þeir"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: þeir, ᚦᛅᛁᛦ (þaiʀ); ᚦᛅᛁᚱ (þair), ᚦᛂᛁᚱ (þeir); ᚦᛂᚱ (þer), ᚦᛂᛦ (þeʀ), ᚦᛁᚱ (þir), ᚦᛁᛦ (þiʀ); ᚦᛅ (þa); ᚦᛅᛁᛘ (þaim); ᚦᛂᛁᛘ (þeim); ᚦᛂᛘ (þem), ᚦᛁᛘ (þim); ᚦᛅᛁᚱᛅ (þaira), ᚦᛅᛁᛦᛅ (þaiʀa), ᚦᛂᛁᚱᛅ (þeira), ᚦᛂᛁᛦᛅ (þeiʀa), ᚦᛂᚱᛅ (þera), ᚦᛂᛦᛅ (þeʀa), ᚦᛁᚱᛅ (þira), ᚦᛁᛦᛅ (þiʀa)\nIcelandic: þeir\nFaroese: teir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: dei\nJamtish: di\nElfdalian: dier\nOld Swedish: þēr, the, þir, thi\nSwedish: de, (archaic) the, dhe (dialectal) di, da\nDanish: de\nNorwegian Bokmål: de\nOld Gutnish: þar\nGutnish: dair, di\n→ Middle English: thei, they\nScots: they\nEnglish: they",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: þeir, ᚦᛅᛁᛦ (þaiʀ); ᚦᛅᛁᚱ (þair), ᚦᛂᛁᚱ (þeir); ᚦᛂᚱ (þer), ᚦᛂᛦ (þeʀ), ᚦᛁᚱ (þir), ᚦᛁᛦ (þiʀ); ᚦᛅ (þa); ᚦᛅᛁᛘ (þaim); ᚦᛂᛁᛘ (þeim); ᚦᛂᛘ (þem), ᚦᛁᛘ (þim); ᚦᛅᛁᚱᛅ (þaira), ᚦᛅᛁᛦᛅ (þaiʀa), ᚦᛂᛁᚱᛅ (þeira), ᚦᛂᛁᛦᛅ (þeiʀa), ᚦᛂᚱᛅ (þera), ᚦᛂᛦᛅ (þeʀa), ᚦᛁᚱᛅ (þira), ᚦᛁᛦᛅ (þiʀa)\nIcelandic: þeir\nFaroese: teir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: dei\nJamtish: di\nElfdalian: dier\nOld Swedish: þēr, the, þir, thi\nSwedish: de, (archaic) the, dhe (dialectal) di, da\nDanish: de\nNorwegian Bokmål: de\nOld Gutnish: þar\nGutnish: dair, di\n→ Middle English: thei, they\nScots: they\nEnglish: they"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*dwóh₁"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁",
      "name": "ncog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From demonstrative root *þa- with plural suffix *-i. Compare *twai (“two”), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ with same suffix.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "determiner form"
      },
      "expansion": "*þai",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/þai",
  "pos": "det",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        {
          "kind": "other",
          "name": "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
          "parents": [
            "Entries with incorrect language header",
            "Entry maintenance"
          ],
          "source": "w"
        }
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "they; those; nominative plural masculine of *sa"
      ],
      "id": "en-þai-gem-pro-det-3ChO-YLb",
      "links": [
        [
          "they",
          "they"
        ],
        [
          "those",
          "those"
        ],
        [
          "*sa",
          "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/sa"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/θɑi̯/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "þai"
}
{
  "descendants": [
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmw-pro",
            "2": "*þai"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-West Germanic: *þai",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-West Germanic: *þai"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ang",
            "2": "þā"
          },
          "expansion": "Old English: þā",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old English: þā"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "enm",
            "2": "tha",
            "3": "tho"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle English: tha, tho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle English: tha, tho; thas, thos"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "sco",
            "2": "tha",
            "3": "thai"
          },
          "expansion": "Scots: tha, thai",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Scots: tha, thai; thais"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "en",
            "2": "tho"
          },
          "expansion": "English: tho",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "English: tho; those"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "ofs",
            "2": "thā"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Frisian: thā",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Frisian: thā"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "stq",
            "2": "do"
          },
          "expansion": "Saterland Frisian: do",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Saterland Frisian: do"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "fy",
            "2": "dy"
          },
          "expansion": "West Frisian: dy",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "West Frisian: dy"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "osx",
            "2": "thē"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Saxon: thē",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Saxon: thē"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gml",
            "2": "dê"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Low German: dê",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Low German: dê"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nds-de",
            "2": "de"
          },
          "expansion": "German Low German: de",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German Low German: de"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "odt",
            "2": "thie"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Dutch: thie",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Dutch: thie"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "dum",
            "2": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle Dutch: die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle Dutch: die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "nl",
            "2": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Dutch: die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Dutch: die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "goh",
            "2": "dē",
            "3": "dea",
            "4": "dia",
            "5": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Old High German: dē, dea, dia, die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old High German: dē, dea, dia, die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 3,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmh",
            "2": "dē",
            "3": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "Middle High German: dē, die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Middle High German: dē, die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 4,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "de",
            "2": "die"
          },
          "expansion": "German: die",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "German: die"
    },
    {
      "depth": 1,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "gmq-pro",
            "2": "*ᚦᚨᛁᛉ"
          },
          "expansion": "Proto-Norse: *ᚦᚨᛁᛉ (*þaiʀ)",
          "name": "desc"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Proto-Norse: *ᚦᚨᛁᛉ (*þaiʀ)"
    },
    {
      "depth": 2,
      "templates": [
        {
          "args": {
            "1": "non",
            "2": "þeir"
          },
          "expansion": "Old Norse: þeir, ᚦᛅᛁᛦ (þaiʀ); ᚦᛅᛁᚱ (þair), ᚦᛂᛁᚱ (þeir); ᚦᛂᚱ (þer), ᚦᛂᛦ (þeʀ), ᚦᛁᚱ (þir), ᚦᛁᛦ (þiʀ); ᚦᛅ (þa); ᚦᛅᛁᛘ (þaim); ᚦᛂᛁᛘ (þeim); ᚦᛂᛘ (þem), ᚦᛁᛘ (þim); ᚦᛅᛁᚱᛅ (þaira), ᚦᛅᛁᛦᛅ (þaiʀa), ᚦᛂᛁᚱᛅ (þeira), ᚦᛂᛁᛦᛅ (þeiʀa), ᚦᛂᚱᛅ (þera), ᚦᛂᛦᛅ (þeʀa), ᚦᛁᚱᛅ (þira), ᚦᛁᛦᛅ (þiʀa)\nIcelandic: þeir\nFaroese: teir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: dei\nJamtish: di\nElfdalian: dier\nOld Swedish: þēr, the, þir, thi\nSwedish: de, (archaic) the, dhe (dialectal) di, da\nDanish: de\nNorwegian Bokmål: de\nOld Gutnish: þar\nGutnish: dair, di\n→ Middle English: thei, they\nScots: they\nEnglish: they",
          "name": "desctree"
        }
      ],
      "text": "Old Norse: þeir, ᚦᛅᛁᛦ (þaiʀ); ᚦᛅᛁᚱ (þair), ᚦᛂᛁᚱ (þeir); ᚦᛂᚱ (þer), ᚦᛂᛦ (þeʀ), ᚦᛁᚱ (þir), ᚦᛁᛦ (þiʀ); ᚦᛅ (þa); ᚦᛅᛁᛘ (þaim); ᚦᛂᛁᛘ (þeim); ᚦᛂᛘ (þem), ᚦᛁᛘ (þim); ᚦᛅᛁᚱᛅ (þaira), ᚦᛅᛁᛦᛅ (þaiʀa), ᚦᛂᛁᚱᛅ (þeira), ᚦᛂᛁᛦᛅ (þeiʀa), ᚦᛂᚱᛅ (þera), ᚦᛂᛦᛅ (þeʀa), ᚦᛁᚱᛅ (þira), ᚦᛁᛦᛅ (þiʀa)\nIcelandic: þeir\nFaroese: teir\nNorwegian Nynorsk: dei\nJamtish: di\nElfdalian: dier\nOld Swedish: þēr, the, þir, thi\nSwedish: de, (archaic) the, dhe (dialectal) di, da\nDanish: de\nNorwegian Bokmål: de\nOld Gutnish: þar\nGutnish: dair, di\n→ Middle English: thei, they\nScots: they\nEnglish: they"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "ine-pro",
        "2": "*dwóh₁"
      },
      "expansion": "Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁",
      "name": "ncog"
    }
  ],
  "etymology_text": "From demonstrative root *þa- with plural suffix *-i. Compare *twai (“two”), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ with same suffix.",
  "head_templates": [
    {
      "args": {
        "1": "gem-pro",
        "2": "determiner form"
      },
      "expansion": "*þai",
      "name": "head"
    }
  ],
  "lang": "Proto-Germanic",
  "lang_code": "gem-pro",
  "original_title": "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/þai",
  "pos": "det",
  "senses": [
    {
      "categories": [
        "Proto-Germanic determiner forms",
        "Proto-Germanic entries with incorrect language header",
        "Proto-Germanic non-lemma forms",
        "Proto-Germanic terms with IPA pronunciation"
      ],
      "glosses": [
        "they; those; nominative plural masculine of *sa"
      ],
      "links": [
        [
          "they",
          "they"
        ],
        [
          "those",
          "those"
        ],
        [
          "*sa",
          "Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/sa"
        ]
      ],
      "tags": [
        "reconstruction"
      ]
    }
  ],
  "sounds": [
    {
      "ipa": "/θɑi̯/"
    }
  ],
  "word": "þai"
}

This page is a part of the kaikki.org machine-readable Proto-Germanic dictionary. This dictionary is based on structured data extracted on 2024-05-24 from the enwiktionary dump dated 2024-05-02 using wiktextract (46b31b8 and c7ea76d). The data shown on this site has been post-processed and various details (e.g., extra categories) removed, some information disambiguated, and additional data merged from other sources. See the raw data download page for the unprocessed wiktextract data.

If you use this data in academic research, please cite Tatu Ylonen: Wiktextract: Wiktionary as Machine-Readable Structured Data, Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pp. 1317-1325, Marseille, 20-25 June 2022. Linking to the relevant page(s) under https://kaikki.org would also be greatly appreciated.